SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Geometry Influence in Cavity Pressure Curves Registration
M. Candal, R. Morales, Y. Rondón, May 2005

The geometric factors influence of injected pieces on the cavity pressure curves behavior during the injection process was studied. Mold cavity sensors were placing in the most critical areas in the pieces. The geometries were evaluated using an injection process simulator program. Substantial changes in the cavity pressure curves in pieces with different thickness were obtained. The shape factor is an important geometric factor that showed smaller variation in the cavity pressure registrations in pieces of small length.

Investigation of Molecular Entities Present in Maleated Polypropylene Using LSM
Susnata Samanta, Jeff Toke, John Muzzy, Charles L. Liotta, May 2005

Maleated polypropylene (mPP) is often used as an adhesion promoter in polypropylene composites. Poly (maleic anhydride) (PMA) or oligomers of maleic anhydride are often present in maleated polypropylene, but they do not contribute to the adhesion of polypropylene to glass fiber reinforcements. PMA can be detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Failure Analysis of a PEX Piping Crimp System
Dale B. Edwards, Thomas P. Jeka, May 2005

Premature failures have occurred in some PEX piping systems that utilized a stainless steel crimp ring to attach the PEX pipe to copper or brass fittings. Leaks in these systems were traced to a non-uniform crimping of the PEX tubing around the circumference of the fittings. Some leaks were also due to cracking of the crimp rings as a result of the crimping process and corrosion of the rings.

Flow Field Simulation of the Modular VCR in Continuous Mixer
Luo Bing, Sun Shiqiang, Ma xiuqing, May 2005

VCR (Various clearance rotor) is a new type of continuous mixer’s modular rotor. The flow field of different configurations flow field of VCR has been simulated in this paper. According to the simulation result, the pressure, velocity and viscosity field are obtained. The average shear stress, shear rate and shear degree in deferent configurations are calculated by post-process program. Meanwhile, the mixing ability of different configurations flow field is compared.

The Effect of Process Conditions on Part Quality in Microinjection Molding
Robert Aufiero, May 2005

Micromolded parts produced using a range of injection velocities, mold temperatures, melt temperatures, and hold conditions were examined for part quality. Part dimensions were measured using an optical comparator and residual stresses were evaluated under polarized light. Results are discussed in terms of the material properties and processing conditions.

Statistical Approach to Evaluate Composite Damage (Design of Experiment and Evaluation)
Jaehyung Ju, Roger J. Morgan, Terry C. Creasy, Steven Hafernik, E. Eugene Shin, May 2005

The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for combined mechanical and thermal synergistic test for M40J/PMR-II-50 [90/0]s, a uni-tape composite material; and its analysis by using a statistical approach. Four different controlled factors (mechanical strain, temperature range of thermal cycling, number of thermal cycles, and heating rate), which degrade the composite, are evaluated in terms of both primary effects and interaction effects quantitatively.

A Study of Micro Injection Molding Optical Fiber Ferrules
Zheng-Guan. Lin, Shi-Chang Tseng, Allen Peng, C.T. Huang, May 2005

This study focused on plastic micro injection molding optical fiber ferrules. Each ferrule has a through hole in the center. The inner diameter is 125±1?m. How to keep the micro core pin at the center becomes a critical issue. A guiding mechanism is introduced to reduce the chance of pin’s mis-alignment and increase life time. The design concept of presented guiding mechanism is also suitable for molding micro tubes, especially for high aspect ratio cases.

Properties of Injection Molded Amorphous Polymer for Punching
Takayuki Inuzuka, Akihiro Fujita, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2005

Deformation and crack-formation of holes during punching were investigated for injection molded polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC). Amount of deformation for both polymers increased with increasing punching temperature and with decreasing punching speed. The extent of deformation for both polymers were especially large when punching was conducted at temperatures above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymers. For PS, two types of cracks appeared. However, only one type of crack appeared for PC.

Improvement of Mold Design: A New Method Based on Contradictions
Thomas ELTZER, Denis CAVALLUCCI, Emmanuel CAILLAUD, May 2005

Designing injection molds is of a critical issue in injection processing. In order to improve its design, we propose to focus on technical problems. We built and tested a design procedure based on technical problems mold design has to cope with. Using this procedure, design process duration is reduced; the mold cost and part quality might be improved.

Molecular Reinforced Nano-Silicate Composites
Kevin J. Calzia, Anne Forcum, Alan J. Lesser, May 2005

It is well established that physical interactions at the polymer/reinforcement interface have a significant influence on the bulk response in nanocomposites. This paper presents results from studies where both the physical and chemical interactions at the interface are altered and related to the bulk mechanical properties of the nanocomposite. The results show that for optimum performance, both types of interactions must be considered.

Process Monitoring and Quality Prediction: A Task for the Entire Process Chain
Hans-Peter Heim, May 2005

Rising quality requirements and complexity mean that e.g. an injection molding machine can no longer be observed in isolation. It is becoming increasingly important to view the process chain in its entirety, starting with the material properties and proceeding via plastification, mold filling and cooling, right through to the downstream processes such as refinement and coating, or joining techniques. From this viewpoint for online process control, techniques are necessary that take into account every step of the production line.

The Effect of Blending LLDPE Comonomers with Conventional LDPE on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Packaging Films
J. Heaney, M. Billham, A.H. Clarke, G.M. McNally, W.R. Murphy, May 2005

The selection of the correct blend of LLDPE with conventional LDPE is critical when a specific performance property, such as heat seal strength, is required for a thin film application. Extruded blown films using different blends of LLDPE and conventional LDPE were produced. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were influenced by the type and percentage of LLDPE used.

Monitoring Surface Quality of Recycled UPVC Extrudate
A.L. Kelly, R. Spares, P.D. Coates, May 2005

Surface quality of profile extruded from recycled uPVC has been examined using a novel on-line visualization system and surface interferometry. A calibrated strip profile was extruded from various grades of recycled uPVC window frame. Surface defects were monitored using a high-frequency line-scan camera and categorised in terms of size, shape and position. Surface roughness was measured using a white light interferometer. PVC recovery method, batch variation and processing conditions were found to affect surface quality of the extrudate.

Rheometric Properties Based Model for an Improved Solid Contents CIM Feedstock
Hélio R. Jorge, António M. Correia, António M. Cunha, May 2005

A new formulation for Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM), based on a high-grade alumina powder bound with a water debinding system, composed by a mixture of a low molecular weight polyethylene and a polyethylene glycol, has been developed.The present paper reports the determination of the critical powder concentration of the developed feedstock by rheological model fitting. Semiempirical models were discriminated in order to establish the optimum ceramic powder concentration window.

Injection Molding Variants: A Designer’S Review
Rolf Koster, Judith Ogink, May 2005

The possibilities of plastics processing techniques based on injection molding are continuously expanding. For design engineers it is interesting but time consuming to stay up to date. A systematic approach is presented to classify existing and emerging technologies with respect to product requirements, to take the best advantage of new design opportunities.

Insights into Thermoset Behavior: John Gillham in Retrospect
Gregory B. McKenna, May 2005

John Gillham’s work in thermosetting polymers provided a paradigm for the time-temperature transformation characterization of these materials that is now the lens through which we look at their processing. I provide a retrospective and prospective for the insights provided by Gillham into thermoset behavior.

Volume Recovery and the Tau-Effective Paradox
Srinivas Kolla, Sindee L. Simon, May 2005

Volume recovery experiments on polystyrene and on an epoxy glass have been made. The experiments on the polystyrene involved novel temperature perturbations which allowed us to obtain the relaxation time as a function of volume during aging. The experiments on the epoxy were performed to investigate the ?-effective paradox. Both sets of experiments indicate that the relaxation time does not depend on the instantaneous volume as assumed in models of structural recovery.

A New Pressurizable Dilatometer for Measuring Bulk Modulus of Thermosets
Yan Meng, Paul O’Connell, Gregory B. McKenna, Sindee L. Simon, May 2005

A new pressurizable dilatometer has been developed to measure the time-dependent bulk modulus of thermosets during cure. The bulk modulus is important because its magnitude is directly related to isotropic residual stress development in curing thermoset-reinforced composites. The instrument is described and initial calibration runs are shown.

Future Plastics Education
Rolf Koster, May 2005

A vision is presented on both future education in plastics and education in future plastics, for the Bachelor’s and Master’s curricula of Industrial Design Engineering. The contributions of recent curriculum adjustments and miscellaneous e-learning activities to the students’ enhanced expertise in designing with plastics are evaluated.

The Use of Beta Nucleation to Produce Microvoided Oriented Polypropylene Films
Philip Jacoby, Robert E. Lee, May 2005

A unique masterbatch containing a beta nucleating agent was used to produce extruded polypropylene sheet containing high levels of beta phase crystallinity. When these sheets were stretched they became white/opaque in appearance, and had reduced density due to the development of microvoids during the stretching process. Films made from an ethylene-propylene impact copolymer (ICP) exhibited a greater density reduction and had higher opacity than that of comparable films made from polypropylene homopolymer.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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