The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Mix & Match: New Developments Offer New Applications
Injection molding process imparts a complex thermal deformation history to polymer melts. The complexity rises with multiphase blend systems. How about development in areas of new materials? Can we not get new resins that would give faster cycle times, high ultimate strength and elongation values combined with a wide spectrum of shore A and shore D hardness grades?
It Seals, Feels, Flexes, and is Called Thermoplastic Elastomer
Slowly but surely, new developments in thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) are providing alternatives to traditional rubbers. They can provide cost-effective, high performance replacements to EPDM, neoprenes and polyurethanes. Parts or items can be designed ergonomically with TPEs. Who can refuse a plastic part that offers good feel, comfort and easy control? TPEs' popularity is understandable since they are processed like thermoplastics, yet perform like rubbers. That's no surprise. TPEs are two-phase blends system: a hard thermoplastic phase combined with a soft rubber phase. As Advanced Elastomer Systems (AES) puts it, "with TPEs like Santoprene, you can flex your imagination". No exaggeration indeed! Whether the soft-grip handle of MACH3 razor or the velvety, tactile feel of colourful Contura staplers - TPEs are taking the centre stage.
Trends in Bio-renewable Thermoplastics Elastomers
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) have been traditionally compounded and manufactured from raw materials based on fossil fuels. Current trends in marketplace abounds sustainability programs. TPEs are no exception to this trend. In a recent editorial, the authors stated “Through research and application, sustainability can evolve from a catchphrase to a societal one”. More than two decades ago the Brundtland Commission (formerly the World Commission on Environment and Development, WCED), deliberated sustainable development issue and gave a definition of sustainability: “Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Ageing Effects On Two-Component Injection Molded Thermoplastic Elastomers On Polyamide-12
The effect of ageing on the adhesion between thermoplastic elastomer materials and glass fiber reinforced polyamide-12 materials was evaluated. Test specimens were made by two-component injection molding, and the melt temperatures and the glass fiber fraction were varied. Adhesion before and after ageing was assessed via peel tests. Ageing (11 weeks at 70 °C with 62% relative humidity) severely reduced the adhesion strength. This could be explained by broken covalent bonds and/or disentanglement in the interphase. The individual materials were not severely affected by the ageing.
Extension of the Rivlin Polynominal for the simulation of the non-linear material behaviour of TPE
The non-linear material behaviour of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) show a considerably higher stiffness compared to pure elastomers due to the presence of the thermoplastic phase. The approximation of non-linear material behaviour via generally known hyperelastic material models illustrate some deficits regarding the initial stiffness and the course at higher deformation. In order to ensure a precise dimensioning of TPE parts via the finite element analysis (FEA), current hyperelastic material models have to be extended by user-defined formulations. For this purpose, the existing Rivlin polynomial is extended by an additional material parameter as exponent. This extension leads to a more accurate prediction of the non-linear material behaviour. Even the simple extended Neo-Hooke material model shows a good accuracy regarding the determined material behaviour and the initial stiffness of the used practical part.
Overmolding of Thermoplastic Elastomers Onto Hard Substrate Materials
Historically, soft thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) materials have been applied onto the hard substrate materials via an overmolding process in order to enhance the performance of the molded articles. In this process, it is important that the soft TPE adheres well enough to the substrate materials to maintain the desired performance. Depending on the characteristics of the substrate material, a TPE must be formulated to facilitate the adhesion of a TPE onto the substrate during an overmolding process. KRAIBURG TPE has engineered and marketed TPEs that can bond to a variety of hard substrates including metals. The adhesion characteristics of these TPEs are presented in this paper.
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