SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Thermoplastic Elastomers
Adhesion of Overmolded TPE to FR-PC/ABS: Effect of TPE Properties and Substrate Color Recipe
Pierre Moulinié | Godwin Suen, May 2021
Various grades of Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) were overmolded onto a FR-PC/ABS blend prepared with several different color recipes and tested for adhesion. All combinations prepared exhibited adhesive failure with a standardized peel test, yet showed relatively high average peak peel forces that ranged from 3.74-4.07 N/mm, which agreed well with literature values. Different color recipes for the substrate had no discernable effect on peel forces. Two-step overmolding of TPE using pre-molded (and therefore conditioned) substrates gave no significant difference to those prepared with direct 2-shot overmolding.
Effect of Rubber Surface Treatment on the Properties of Rotomolded Thermoplastic Elastomers
Roberto C. Vázquez-Fletes and Denis Rodrigue | Gustavo Gallardo-Paniagua | Erick O. Cisneros-López | Pedro Ortega-Gudiño | Rubén González-Núñez, May 2021
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) are a combination of a rubber and a thermoplastic to create a recyclable blend combining the properties of both resins. The objective of this work is to produce and characterize rotomolded parts based on polyamide 6 (PA6) as the matrix and recycled ground tire rubber (GTR) as the dispersed phase. In order to improve the adhesion between PA6 and GTR, and consequently the mechanical properties of the resulting TPE, a treatment with formic acid was used on the GTR surface. All the samples were initially mixed via dry-blending using 5 and 10% wt. of GTR and then rotomolded. For these concentrations, successful rotomolded parts were produced to report on their morphological and mechanical properties. The results show that increasing the GTR content led to lower tensile modulus and tensile strength, but higher elongation at break and impact strength compared to the neat matrix.
Polypropylene/Ground Tire Rubber (PP/GTR) Composites Produced Via Rotational Molding
Y. Dou | D. Rodrigue, May 2021
In this work, polypropylene (PP) was dry-blended with ground tire rubber (GTR) to produce composites by rotational molding. In particular, the effect of GTR content was investigated to modify the mechanical properties of the PP matrix. Each compound was characterized via morphology, density and mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact). As expected, the results showed that all the mechanical properties decreased with increasing GTR concentration due to its low modulus and strength. Also, the crosslinked structure of the GTR particles is believed to limit the interfacial PP-GTR interaction, thus also limiting mechanical stress transfer.
A Hansen Compatibility Approach in Understanding Solvent Bonding Between Acrylic Copolymers
Pooja Bajaj | Kay Bernhard | Dirk Heyl | Maurice Biagini, April 2021
Flexible PVC is the tubing of choice used in infusion therapy applications as well as other medical devices applications. But the health risk awareness for the plasticizer (Diethylhexylphthalate) DEHP in flexible PVC is gearing the industry to seek alternative tubing materials. Solvent bonding between two materials is a common joining technique that relies on compatibility between the substrate polymers to the tubing material for fabricating medical assemblies. Solvent is the integral component to swell the joining components and allow intermingling, diffusing and sealing the joint. In this study, we present solvent bonding as a versatile fabrication technique for joining various plastic materials to medical tubing. Acrylic copolymers, (specifically CYROLITE® GS-90 manufactured by Roehm America LLC) are tested for bond strength against four different tubing materials, namely non-DEHP-PVC, TPU, Polybutene, and Silicone, using solvent bonding. A variety of industrially accepted solvents such as Acetone, Methylethylketone (MEK) and Cyclohexanone/MEK were tested. These solvents demonstrated strong lap shear pull force strength, replacing the carcinogenic Dichloromethane (DCM), DCM/Glacial acetic acid 90/10 or the more aggressive stress-crack inducing 100% Cyclohexanone solvents. The article also describes Hansen solubility parameter as an engineering mechanism in determining miscibility and understanding the bonding performance of acrylic copolymers, and other medical plastics such as medical grade polycarbonate (PC), and Methyl methacrylate Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (MABS) to various tubing materials.
Melting and Crystallization Behaviors of Polyphenylene Sulfide Blended With Thermoplastics: A Review
Guowei Chen | Mary Hedrick | Manjusri Misra | Amar K. Mohanty, April 2021
Recent research about the melting and crystallization behaviors of Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) blended with thermoplastics are reviewed in this paper. Thermoplastics discussed herein are mainly polyamide (PA) and Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCPs). Other thermoplastics including high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyetherketone (PEK), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polysulfone (PSF), polystyrene (PS), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), etc. are also discussed. The recent literature shows that by blending with certain content of thermoplastic polymer, the crystallization rate and crystallinity of PPS can be improved.
Ageing Effects On Two-Component Injection Molded Thermoplastic Elastomers On Polyamide-12
Anna-Maria Persson, May 2020
The effect of ageing on the adhesion between thermoplastic elastomer materials and glass fiber reinforced polyamide-12 materials was evaluated. Test specimens were made by two-component injection molding, and the melt temperatures and the glass fiber fraction were varied. Adhesion before and after ageing was assessed via peel tests. Ageing (11 weeks at 70 °C with 62% relative humidity) severely reduced the adhesion strength. This could be explained by broken covalent bonds and/or disentanglement in the interphase. The individual materials were not severely affected by the ageing.
Extension of the Rivlin Polynominal for the simulation of the non-linear material behaviour of TPE
Christoph Zimmermann, May 2020
The non-linear material behaviour of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) show a considerably higher stiffness compared to pure elastomers due to the presence of the thermoplastic phase. The approximation of non-linear material behaviour via generally known hyperelastic material models illustrate some deficits regarding the initial stiffness and the course at higher deformation. In order to ensure a precise dimensioning of TPE parts via the finite element analysis (FEA), current hyperelastic material models have to be extended by user-defined formulations. For this purpose, the existing Rivlin polynomial is extended by an additional material parameter as exponent. This extension leads to a more accurate prediction of the non-linear material behaviour. Even the simple extended Neo-Hooke material model shows a good accuracy regarding the determined material behaviour and the initial stiffness of the used practical part.
Overmolding of Thermoplastic Elastomers Onto Hard Substrate Materials
Ernest Kumeh, May 2020
Historically, soft thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) materials have been applied onto the hard substrate materials via an overmolding process in order to enhance the performance of the molded articles. In this process, it is important that the soft TPE adheres well enough to the substrate materials to maintain the desired performance. Depending on the characteristics of the substrate material, a TPE must be formulated to facilitate the adhesion of a TPE onto the substrate during an overmolding process. KRAIBURG TPE has engineered and marketed TPEs that can bond to a variety of hard substrates including metals. The adhesion characteristics of these TPEs are presented in this paper.
Trends in Bio-renewable Thermoplastics Elastomers
Krishna Venkataswamy, October 2010
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) have been traditionally compounded and manufactured from raw materials based on fossil fuels. Current trends in marketplace abounds sustainability programs. TPEs are no exception to this trend. In a recent editorial, the authors stated “Through research and application, sustainability can evolve from a catchphrase to a societal one”. More than two decades ago the Brundtland Commission (formerly the World Commission on Environment and Development, WCED), deliberated sustainable development issue and gave a definition of sustainability: “Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
It Seals, Feels, Flexes, and is Called Thermoplastic Elastomer
Prithu Mukhopadhyay, May 2000
Slowly but surely, new developments in thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) are providing alternatives to traditional rubbers. They can provide cost-effective, high performance replacements to EPDM, neoprenes and polyurethanes. Parts or items can be designed ergonomically with TPEs. Who can refuse a plastic part that offers good feel, comfort and easy control? TPEs' popularity is understandable since they are processed like thermoplastics, yet perform like rubbers. That's no surprise. TPEs are two-phase blends system: a hard thermoplastic phase combined with a soft rubber phase. As Advanced Elastomer Systems (AES) puts it, "with TPEs like Santoprene, you can flex your imagination". No exaggeration indeed! Whether the soft-grip handle of MACH3 razor or the velvety, tactile feel of colourful Contura staplers - TPEs are taking the centre stage.
Mix & Match: New Developments Offer New Applications
Prithu Mukhopadhyay, November 1998
Injection molding process imparts a complex thermal deformation history to polymer melts. The complexity rises with multiphase blend systems. How about development in areas of new materials? Can we not get new resins that would give faster cycle times, high ultimate strength and elongation values combined with a wide spectrum of shore A and shore D hardness grades?

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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