The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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A Comparison of the Residence Time in Micro-Extruders and its Effect on Molecular Weight for Low Output Applications
This study investigates the residence time in micro extruders for low output applications. The micro extruders that were analyzed included extruder diameters between 12mm and 25.4mm. This study will show the effect of extruder screw speed on the residence time and compare that to theoretical calculations. Additionally, the study also demonstrates the change in molecular weight for a fixed output rate on the different extruder diameters.
The Role of Pigmentation in the Reduction of Heat Buildup in Polymeric Materials
The accumulation of thermal energy in polymeric materials can pose a serious threat to service life as well as appearance of a finished product. The types and levels of pigments used in the fabrication of polymeric goods can have a profound effect on the impacts of thermal energy accumulation. In this paper we will provide a primer on the physics behind the effects of the terrestrial components of solar radiation and the ways in which different materials behave under typical terrestrial conditions.
Light Cure Adhesive Best Practices/Technical Overview
While light curing technology provides many benefits to manufacturers, careful product selection and planning are needed to assure a smooth change over from existing, slower curing processes. Manufacturers must carefully weigh a variety of process variables to assure a smooth transition from older adhesive technologies when setting up a new light curing process like choosing the light source, understanding the substrates, opacity of materials, implementing process monitoring, adhesive selection and numerous other factors.
Effects of Biodiesel Fuels on the Permeation and Mechanical Properties of Coated Fabrics Used in Collapsible Fuel Storage Tanks
The purpose of this work was to perform a comparative analysis of various candidate nitrile coated fabric materials supplied by potential vendors to be used as fuel storage tanks and compare the results to the currently fielded polyurethane storage tanks. Our results demonstrate that the nitrile coated fabrics performed well in our evaluation. Their breaking strengths are about equal to the currently fielded urethanes and they performed much better as barrier materials after ageing.
The Sole Effect of Lateral Stress on Solids Conveying
The lateral stress ratio of the solid feed resin has been shown to be a key factor in solids conveying. The lateral stress ratio has also been measured to be a function of primary stress, and it can vary significantly. Modeling of solids conveying is done to illustrate the effect of different stress ratio functions of polyethylene on solids conveying. Experimental results are used to validate the model and the fact that normal variations in lateral stresses are significant in solids conveying performance.
Cyclic Olefine Copolymer (COC) Nanocomposites and Nanocomposite Foams: Preparation, Morphology and Properties
Cyclic olefin copolymers (COC)/ multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites of different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) concentration were prepared by melt blending. The dispersion of the CNTs in the polymer matrix was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rheological property and the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites were studied. In addition, the nanocomposites were foamed by carbon dioxide, and the effects of the CNTs on the foam cell morphology were investigated.
Dynamic Heating of Injection Molds Using an External High Power Diode Laser Scanner
By using dynamic mold temperature control in injection molding, parts with special features such as functional micro structures or high gloss surfaces can be produced in a one-step process. Due to limitations of available mold heating techniques, an innovative system using an externally robot-guided laser scanner was developed and implemented at the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University. High heating rates, a focused, discrete heating of specific cavity areas and the flexible, mold independent set-up are key aspects of the technology.
Self-Optimizing in Injection Molding and the Problem at Compensating Viscosity Fluctuations
A self-optimizing injection process can compensate temperature fluctuations. But viscosity fluctuations are not considered in this concept, yet. Modifying the injection flow rate can balance the shrinkage potential but results although in varying residual stresses.
Innovative Plasticizing Method for Micro Injection Molding
The process reproducibility during injection molding of micro components is often bought on an unnecessarily large dosing volume. To enable an economical production of micro components, a reduction of the material consumption is crucial. Therefore new production strategies need to be developed to reduce the required plasticized mass to a minimum while maintaining part quality at the same time. In the context of this paper, an innovative plasticizing method for micro injection molding is introduced, tested on its feasibility and analyzed in detail on its conveying and homogenizing characteristics.
Development of Low Gloss Polyacetal
Nowadays low gloss Polyacetal (POM) materials are required for automotive interior parts. In this study, new low gloss POM was developed. Original organic particles having effective interaction with POM, was developed as the matting agent. Consequently, excellent low gloss appearance with a good balance of mechanical properties is obtained. In addition, weather resistant and low VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emission technology could be applied to this low gloss POM.
Steady State and Response Time Temperature Validation for a Multivariate Injection Molding Sensor
An infrared temperature sensor is detailed using a thermopile with an incorporated thermistor into a standard Dynisco snout. A testing apparatus was built to measure the temperature of a heated polymer at steady state. The apparatus was also used to validate the response time of the multivariate senor. Results show the multivariate sensor can accurately measure temperature with a response time of approximately 200 milliseconds.
A Two-Dimensional Iterative Learning Model Predictive Control Method for Injection Molding Based on Mixed Integer Quadratic Programming
Batch processes like injection molding are inherently a two-dimensional process with multi-phase dynamics. The transient period from one phase to the next is always difficult to control due to the significant change of process dynamics. In this paper, a new two dimensional method based on mixed integer programming is proposed to improve the performance during the transient period. Switch condition is formulated as constraints of an optimization problem. Simulation results are listed to show the efficiency of the algorithm.
Virtual Prototyping Applied to Flat Extrusion Die
This paper discusses the use of virtual prototyping for industrial extrusion die. We used numerical simulation to analyze the flow behavior in a PVC extrusion die. First, 3D isothermal simulation is used to investigate the flow uniformity at the outlet section of an extrusion die for 3 different internal geometries. Then, 3D non isothermal simulation will be used to see the impact of specific temperature profile at the entrance of the die on the flow uniformity. The shape of a flow channel was evaluated and the reason of a flow problem in practice was found by using this software.
The Development of a CAD/CAE Integrated Wizard Design System for Injection Mold
For injection molding simulation, the model reconstruction is an obstacle in the application, because the computer-aided design (CAD) systems and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems are realized as isolated modules. In order to improve the quality and efficiency of simulation, a CAD/CAE integrated wizard design system is developed, which is based on the commercial CAD and CAE systems. In this system, the mold design task can be efficiently completed and the CAE data can be automatically obtained with the support of some certain procedures and the powerful tools.
Novel Plasticizer Alternative for Polyamide Polymers
Flexil™ is a novel modified organosilicon based additive developed and marketed by Polymer Dynamix, LLC in South Plainfield, NJ. Flexil™ provides properties of flexibility to polyamides over a wide range of temperatures from less than -50°C to greater than 300°C. The results demonstrate that Flexil™ can replace various traditional plasticizers in polyamide compositions.
Reaction Extrusion of Polyurethane Based on Renewable Sources
This manuscript studies the reaction extrusion of polyurethanes based on both polytetramethylene ether glycol (C4) and polytrimethylene ether glycol (C3) polyols using a twin screw extruder. Polyurethanes (TPU) with hardness of 70A, 85A and 50D were fabricated. The two polyols showed comparable reaction kinetics with methylene diphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI). C3 polyol polyurethanes showed slightly lower tensile stress at the same hardness level. But they showed comparable tear strength. C3 polyol TPUs needed slightly higher hard block to obtain the same hardness.
3D Characterization of Compression Molded HDPE/Wood Fiber Composites
The fiber orientation distribution in a material sample was analyzed. A micro tomography reconstruction of the sample was used to derive the components of a fabric tensor from an evaluation of the global anisotropy parameter. This parameter proved to be an efficient tool for the analysis of the structure of fiber reinforced composites. The local variations of the degree of anisotropy (ratio of the maximum and minimum eigen values of the fabric tensor) from the shell to the core layers of the sample can be captured and information about the local average fiber orientation angle can be obtained.
Production of Bio-Based Polyethylene from Sugar Beets
A 22% solution of sucrose derived purely from sugar beets was dissolved in water and hydrolyzed with an invertase enzyme to produce glucose. This glucose was fed to champagne yeast and fermented to produce ethanol in yields of approximately 15 %. The ethanol was catalytically dehydrated to ethylene with a HZSM-5 catalyst in a small batch reactor. The ethylene was converted to poly(ethylene) using a Ziegler-Natta type catalyst. This poly(ethylene) should be suitable for use in plastic products like plastic bottles, containers, and grocery bags.
Modification of Melt Strength of Polypropylene via UV Radiation
Melt strength (MS) of polypropylene (PP) has been modified by utilizing benzophenone (BPH) as photoinitiator along with UV radiation. Processing conditions were manipulated to promote long chain branching (LCB). Formation of long chain branches and/or crosslinks was confirmed using linear viscoelastic (LVE) measurements, extensional rheometry, gel content, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Results clearly indicate that MS of PP has been successfully modified without significant gel formation.
Tunable Synergistic Property Enhancements in Green Polypropylene Composites with Waste Paper and Cardboard via Solid-State Shear Pulverization: Size Reduction and Dispersion
Synergistic green composites of polypropylene (PP) with cardboard and waste paper are produced via solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) without any compatibilizers or surface modification. The property enhancements are comparable to those from more expensive forms of cellulose. Additionally, optimization of SSSP processing, commercial viability and melt processability of the composites are evaluated.
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