SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Material Optimization of PA12 Laser Sintering Powder to Improve Surface Quality
Ernst Schmachtenberg, Michael Schoenfeld, Thomas Seul, May 2006
Laser Sintering can be an alternative for small lot production. However, the surface roughness does not always meet the specifications without finishing. An encapsulation of Laser Sintering particles with surfactants can significantly improve the quality of Laser Sintering parts by improving the separation between melt and powder during the process.
Battery Container Failures
P.R. Lewis, May 2006
Many industrial and consumer products rely on battery power, with product failure inevitable if the battery container cracks. Electrolyte damage to surrounding equipment can be severe owing to the corrosive properties of most electrolytes. Failure of the container can be caused by internal or external problems, such as explosions of excess hydrogen gas or by external impacts. However, many problems are exacerbated by poor design of the container, including moulding under inappropriate conditions or by the presence of severe stress concentrations. Several case studies are described in which one or more of these factors caused product loss or personal injury.
Effect of the Model Properties Over the Injected Part Dimensions
M.V. Candal, R. Morales, May 2006
The influence of the elements number of a finite element mesh in the simulation results (weight and linear shrinkage along the length and width of a specimen) was studied. Besides, simulation results were compared with a mesh obtained from solids modelator software (CAD) and from simulator software (CAE). The convergence simulation results showed similar tendencies with the experimental ones. The modelator mesh gives a faster convergence than the simulator one.
Thermoforming Process Optimization by using the Experiment Design Technique
R. Morales, M.V. Candal, May 2006
The influence of process parameters in the final properties of a thermoformed part was studied. An Experiment Design (DOE) of fractional factorial 24-1 type was employed. Process variables studied were: sheet temperature, vacuum pressure, and cycle and delay time. The experimental results showed the delay time as the most important parameter to obtain good quality parts.
Employing Microwave Energy to Mold Thermoplastic Material
Yogesh Vakharia, Shrujal Vakharia, May 2006
The objective of these experiments is to test the effect of microwave energy on different kinds of tools like metal and composite, and explore the use of the tool that can be heated up in the microwave oven. Following the test result, we shall select the correct combination of tool, microwave power level and time period to mold the plastic. This process of molding thermoplastic material can be economical, quicker, neater, cleaner and more efficient as compared to conventional methods of heating like oven or gas fired heating.
Applicability of Polymer Process Models for the Simulation of Starch Processes
H. Potente, A. Thümen, N. Böhm, May 2006
In the plastics industry it is common to use simulation software tools for designing processes. In contrast there are even no software tools which are 100% suitable for performing these tasks in case of starch processes. In case of simulating starch processes these one-dimensional process models mainly meet one problem: the different material behaviour of starch. In the study at hand the applicability of the available process models was investigated.
Electron-Beam Cured Resin Systems for Wood Composites
W.L. Griffith, G.F. Dorsey, D.P. Harper, W.W. Moschler, Jr., T.G. Rials, Ting Song, P.M. Winistorfer, Song Cheng, May 2006
In wood composites, low-temperature electron-beam curable resin systems offer tremendous energy savings and unique opportunities to develop novel products. Mechanical properties (strength and stiffness) and compositional properties (such as durability of resin-towood bonds) were investigated.
Load-Dependent Thermo-Mechanical Application Limits
C. Dallner, G.W. Ehrenstein, May 2006
The common approach to determine thermomechanical application limits as the beginning of the decrease of the temperature-dependent modulus from DMA-measurements results in optimistic thermo-mechanical application limits. The reason for it is analyzed and allowable estimations are suggested. Also the time-, stress- and temperature-dependent deformation behaviour at static loading is investigated to derive time- and stress-dependent thermal application limits.
The Use of Electron Beam Irradiation to Control the Degradation of a Medical Device by Altering the Through Thickness Molecular Weight Profile
Louise Pick, Fraser Buchanan, Dermot Leonard, David Farrar, May 2006
This paper investigates the effect of electron beam radiation on the through thickness molecular weight profile of a bioresorbable polymer. Stacks of thin layers of two bioresorbable polymers were irradiated and the molecular weight of each layer determined. Experiments were carried out to determine the reduction in mass of each layer over time. It was found that there was a clear decrease in molecular weight in the layers nearest the beam, resulting in faster degradation.
Mixed Field Irradiation - Induced Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes
Aba Mortley, H.W. Bonin, V.T Bui, May 2006
Thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethanes is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, they were subjected to intermediate doses from a mixed ionizing radiation field. Limitations of thermal curing and increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking were confirmed by changing 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra.
Optimisation of PET Beverage Bottle Design Using Pro/Mechanica FEM
S.H. Masood, Carli Tjioe, May 2006
Achieving the best product to production and into the market quickly and efficiently requires an integrated approach to product design. Manual trial and error methods in design optimization and development will be time consuming and costly. This paper presents the design optimization process for designing and analysing a 600ml PET bottle using the Pro/Mechanica Structure finite element method (FEM), investigating the optimization of its shape, size, and features for reduced material usage without affecting its capacity, functionality, and strength.
Quality Increase and Fine Fluff Avoidance in Vibration Welding
Helmut Potente, Hans-Peter Heim, Joachim Schnieders, Maik Büssing, May 2006
Fine fluff and impurities in the vibration welding process frequently cause optical impairments and technical defects. In order to prevent the appearance of fine fluff in the future, two different methods were examined, based on geometrical variation on the one hand and on the preheating of the workpiece on the other hand.
Modern Flexible Coating Lines, Optimized for the Demanding Coatings of Today and Tomorrow
John Lowens, May 2006
Traditional coating lines are designed for a specific process, and usually require extensive modification to successfully handle a new process. Traditional coating lines are designed using a quasi-flowchart method.Just as software programmers discovered that changing their basic design philosophy from flowcharting to object orientated state analysis brought many advantages, particularly in inherent flexibility, so many of these advantages can be endowed into a coating line by adopting this methodology into the initial design stages.
Containerized Mobile /Modular Compounding Plants: Flexible, Efficient and Cost Effective
Allan Boye Hansen, Frank Lechner, Michael Hampf, Alfred Kurz, Paul Andersen, May 2006
Interest in transportable modular production plants is on the rise. These containerized solutions combine flexibility with minimal installation and start up expense. This presentation will highlight the issues surrounding a successful implementation of this concept for an insulated pipe construction used for offshore crude oil transport.
Using Extreme Barrel Diameters to Verify the Numerical Simulation of Single-Screw Extruders
Mark A. Spalding, Greg A. Campbell, Fredrick Carlson, Kambiz Nazrisdoust, May 2006
Numerous models exist for the prediction of pressure profiles in the metering section of single-screw extruders. For the most part, these models were verified using experimental data from small diameter extruders. Verification using data from large diameter machines, however, has not been fully explored due to the lack of experimental data. The analysis here will show the effect of barrel diameter on the ability of a model to predict pressure profiles in the metering channel.
Characterization of Beam Profile for High-Power Diode Lasers with Application to Laser Welding of Polymers
L.S. Mayboudi, M. Chen, G. Zak, A.M. Birk, P.J. Bates, May 2006
This paper presents and compares the results of knife-edge and pinhole approaches for laser beam power profiling. A high-power diode laser, which is typically used for laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics, is characterized. Benefits of the knife-edge method are speed and simplicity. Its major drawback is that it does not provide details about the internal features of the three-dimensional (3-D) beam intensity distribution that is examined in depth by the pinhole method.
Unexpected and Unusual Failures of Polymeric Materials
Myer Ezrin, Gary Lavigne, May 2006
Some failures are predictable, such as due to exposure to environmental conditions. In this paper the focus is on failures that there was no reason to expect. While they may become obvious, they are unpredictable. Some are unusual, involving a cause and effect on the plastic that are not obvious. Examples are cracking of nitrile rubber, contamination of GPC samples by a filter syringe, and PVC plasticizer used for many years being declared unsafe.
Fighting the Flow - How Predicting the Way Plastic Moves Saved Us Money
Timothy B. Austin, May 2006
Over the past seven years Symbol Technologies, Inc. has been using a tool that helps to make plastic housings faster, better and cheaper: FEA analysis of the molding process. This paper details a number of examples where Symbol has used this technology to save money.
WEEE and RoHS - Environmental Design Strategies
Timothy B. Austin, May 2006
Tough new environmental laws are rapidly spreading around the world that directly impact product design. Failure to heed them will result in lost revenue and increase the cost of doing business. This paper explains what they are and details essential strategies for dealing with them.
Selecting Equipment to Minimize Production Costs and Maximize Profitability
Dan Smith, Mark A. Spalding, Russell J. Gould, May 2006
Specifying and installing the proper equipment for a process is key to minimizing the long-term cost of producing products. But often the objective to purchasing equipment is to minimize the initial capital cost. Minimizing this initial purchase cost, however, may require the purchaser to add costly modifications to the line after installation, creating higher operating costs, length troubleshooting, and a delay to market entry. Principals and strategies are presented here that show how to avoid this mistake, and case studies are provided as learning tools.


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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
Available: www.4spe.org.

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