The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Factors Affecting the Performance of Carbon Black Master Batches in Wire and Cable Applications
Cable jackets containing carbon black (CB) are one of the most important components in communication and power cable constructions. This jacketing provides protection for the underlying layers from physical abuse, chemical attack, and UV degradation. There are two ways of manufacturing these types of cable jackets: either by fully compounding the product or by blending a combination of a resin and a black master batch (MB). In the latter approach, a main requirement is to have excellent CB dispersion in the MB. Poor dispersion in the MB results in unacceptable mechanical properties and poor UV-resistance in the finished jacket product.This paper describes a series of single screw extrusion experiments which were carried out with let-down resins of different structures, and master batches (MB) to investigate the effects of the resin structure, MB, and extrusion conditions on acceptability of the extrudates for jacketing applications. The MBs employed for this investigation are commercial products of which dispersion is acceptable based on the manufacturing QC testing. Under certain extrusion conditions with these MBs, extrudates had unacceptable surface quality and UV absorption coefficient (termed as ABS, < 400nm ) for a given range of CB content in the finished product (2.5 to 2.7 wt%). The unacceptable properties resulted from poor melt homogenization of the MB with the letdown resin at the extrusion conditions used. Good homogenization was obtained by conducting the extrusion/compounding at higher shear stress. The high shear operation can be accomplished by several methods: selection of lower MI let-down resin (within resin spec); narrow the molecular weight distribution (MWD); lower temperature profile; and higher screw speed. The employment of tighter screen packs also showed some improvement in homogenization. A possible mechanism for the good homogenization (CB dispersion) of the MB will be given.
Recycleability of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites: Part 1 - The Influence of Multiple-Extrusions on Structure and Mechanical Properties
The effects of multiple-extrusions, up to eleven cycles, on the structure and properties of virgin and nanoclay-filled nylon-12 were investigated. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the degree of clay exfoliation improves with each successive extrusion sequence up to the seventh cycle. The impact strength of the nanocomposites were enhanced while that of the virgin nylon-12 deteriorated. Regrinding of the nanocomposite resin prior to subsequent extrusion was shown to further improve the clay exfoliation and mechanical performance.
Recycleability of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites: Part 2 - The Influence of Multiple-Extrusions on Thermal and Rheological Properties
Nylon-12 and nylon-12/clay nanocomposite were recycled by up to eleven times using the melt-extrusion process. Changes in thermal and rheological properties were investigated using DMTA, DSC, TGA, and capillary rheometry techniques. Both materials showed a gradual decrease in phase transition temperatures and storage modulus following repeated extrusions. In addition, the materials melt viscosity increased in response to successive reprocessing. Relative to the nylon-12, the melt viscosity of nanocomposites was reduced by more than 20% and their glass transition temperature was elevated by about 2.0 to 6.5degC depending on the number of extrusion cycles.
Representation of Polymer Melt Rheology Data
Polymer melt Rheology data is often represented as a power law function or as a 6 constant polynomial when used in various flow or extrusion simulation packages. Both representations are inaccurate at various shear rates due to the functionality of the representation. With the introduction of more polymers showing broad Newtonian regions, the need for better constitutive representation is needed to accurately estimate viscosity as a function of shear rate and temperature in simulation packages. This paper will compare the fit of various equations and constitutive relations to capillary rheometer data for polymer melts to determine an efficient representation of the Newtonian and power law regions
Scale-Up Consideration for Polymerization in a Twin-Screw Extruder using 3-D Numerical Simulation
Scaling up a polymerization process in the fully filled screw elements of co-rotating twin-screw extruders was investigated with a 3-D Finite Volume Method. The simulation results show that, with identical mean residence time in the screw elements, the polymerization progression is accelerated when the screw diameter is increased. Moreover, the difference in conversion based on 1-D and 3-D models becomes more significant with increasing screw dimension, indicating that 1-D model can not predict the polymerization progression correctly in large extruders. The polymerization requires short screw length (L/D) to complete when the screw diameter is increased. This may be due to the fact that the heat loss through the barrel surface is more difficult to occur, and the non-uniformity in temperatures at the cross section of screw elements becomes more pronounced after scaling up.
Effect of Pre-made Compatibilizer and Reactive Polymers on Polymer Drop Breakup
The deformation and breakup of a single polymer drop with and without compatibilizer (pre-made or insitu) inside a polymer matrix at high temperatures under simple shear was visualized in a specially designed transparent Couette mixer. The uncompatibilized polymer systems studied were polyethylene matrix/polystyrene drop (PE/PS) and polyethylene matrix/polystyrene oxazoline drop (PE/PSOX). The compatibilized systems were PE/PS with polyethylene-block-polystyrene copolymer (P(E-b-S)) and PSOX with polyethylene maleic anhydride (PEMA).Two main kinds of breakup are observed: (a) with or without compatibilizer, the drop elongates in the vorticity direction and then breaks up in the same direction, and (b) in the presence of compatibilizer, a thin cylinder stretches and ruptures from the elongated mother drop in the vorticity direction.
Eliminating Interfacial Instability at PE/Tie Interface Using a Multi-Layer Stacked Coextrusion Die
In multi-layer coextrusion, interfacial instability is a commonly encountered issue, which can limit the process operating windows. There are many factors that affect interfacial instability including material properties and die geometry. A Brampton Engineering 7-layer Stacked Coextrusion Die, called Streamlined Coextrusion Die (SCD), with three different die geometries was used to study the onset of interfacial instability. Several commonly used PE/tie combinations were investigated. The PE materials used included LDPE, HDPE and LLDPE of different viscosities. Elongational viscosity was found to be important in detecting the onset of interfacial instability. An attempt was also made to correlate the experimental results to computer simulations.
Coextrusion of LDPEs in the Cast Film Process
This work shows results of experiments on a coextrusion cast film line and is focused mainly on studying conditions for the onset of zig-zag interfacial instabilities. The measurements were performed for a wide range of LDPEs polymerized by different polymerization methods. It is shown that for a group the materials prepared by a similar polymerization method there exists a critical shear stress value at the interface that determines the onset of the instability. The values determined for different material groups are different and it seems that there is a correlation between the molecular weight distribution width and the critical shear stress value. The broader is the MWD the lower is the critical shear stress value.
Investigation of Interfacial Instabilities in Nanolayer Extrusion
Multilayer structures have been prepared by coextrusion technology using a feedblock with layer multiplying elements (LME) to split the melt stream and then layer the two streams together. Polycarbonate (PC), polypropylene (PP), and a cyclic olefin polymer were extruded to form alternating structures by repeated layer multiplications using the layer multiplying elements. The materials were characterized by microscopy to study the effect of polymer properties and process conditions on layer instabilities. Instabilities were found at the layer interfaces, predominantly in the center of the samples, resulting from high interfacial shear stresses. This could be reduced by increasing the temperature of the LMEs and decreasing the total flow rate of both materials.
The Effect of Using Preheated Pellets in Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders
Experiments with a co-rotating twin-screw extruder show that a considerable throughput increase can be achieved by feeding the extruder with preheated pellets. The use of preheated pellets is also advantageous in that, for a given throughput, the extrusion of preheated pellets requires a lower torque. Thus, when shifting from cold to preheated pellets, the screw speed can be lowered until the original torque is again reached. As a result, the temperature of the exiting melt is lower too. The use of preheated pellets thus gives an extra degree of freedom in terms of the maximum throughput of a given extruder, and control of degradation-sensitive polymers.
Realtime Process and Quality Control in Polymer Extrusion - Detection and Sizing of Particulate Inhomogeneities in Flowing Polymer Melts
By application of different unique microphotometric sensors it is possible to detect and quantify disturbing particles (gels, unmolten resins, black spots, additive agglomerates, bubbles) within a flowing polymer melt in realtime during extrusion processing. These particles result in disadvantageous optical and mechanical properties of a final polymer product. Sensors can be adapted inline and online to different extruders at various positions. This seems to give technical and economic benefit to quality control and process optimisation in polymer processing.
Residence Time Distribution in Twin-Screw Extruder Measured by Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Device
In this study, we performed RTD measurement at the die exit of co-rotating twin screw extruder using a non-destructive ultrasonic device. The ultrasonic device was composed of a steel buffer rod and 10 MHz longitudinal piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. Steel buffer rod is a safety implement for the protection transducer against hot operating temperature. This in-line method is based on the ultrasonic response of a filled polymer, where the solid particles act as a tracer. To determine RTD, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was used as a tracer. The RTD measurements involved the use of ultrasonic tracer and the measurement of the variation of ultrasonic signal strength with time caused by the tracer concentration change. The ultrasonic tracer, pellet types of compounded CaCO3 in polymer were used in this study. The effects of CaCO3 concentration on RTD and flow patterns were studied in the extrusion of a thermoplastic resin. Experiments on the residence functions of different screw speed, feeding rate and screw configurations were also carried out.
Study of Processing Behavior of Extrudate PTFE Paste
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a remarkable material having high melting temperature, high chemical resistance, low frictional and dielectric coefficients, etc. Due to its high melting point, PTFE cannot be processed using the conventional methods such as the injection molding, extrusion and blow molding, etc. In this research, PTFE is processed by a number of techniques including paste extrusion, rolling and calendering. It is necessary to preform the PTFE powder-lubricant mixture before extrusion to ensure paste densification. The processing behavior of extruded PTFE pastes was first studied. The length of extension zone was changed to investigate the variation of extrusion pressure profile. Two-colored preform paste packed sequentially was used to observe the flow behavior in extrusion process. It was found that the extrusion pressure increases in the reduction zone and decreases after the paste passed the extension zone. Increasing the packing time in the performing will result in a more steady extrusion pressure. Higher extension length would raise the required pressure for paste extrusion. Furthermore, it was also found that an increase in the lubricant content increases the extent of density uniformity. The paste flow exhibits laminar behavior of viscous fluid. However, highly non-Newtonian characteristics and slip boundary also occur.
Comparison of the Flow in Co-Rotating and Counter-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders
Polymeric flow in intermeshing co-rotating and counter-rotating twin-screw extruders is simulated. Effect of the elongational viscosity of the polymer on the flow in the two extruders is included by using independent Carreau models for the shear and elongational viscosities of the polymer. It is found that for similar screw cross-sections and rotational speed, axial velocity as well as degree of mixing is higher in the co-rotating extruder, whereas pressure build up is higher in the counter-rotating extruder. In contrast to the flow in the co-rotating extruder, where the velocity was always maximum at the screw tips, in the counter rotating extruder the velocity was higher in the intermeshing zone.
Extrusion of HDPE-Wood Blends
In previous studies1-3, both rheological and extrusion characteristics of a 50% wood-HDPE composite as well as its virgin HDPE resin were investigated. In this paper, the extrusion characteristics of the blends made up of these two materials were studied. It was found that for a screw which has the higher compression ratio, for all the blends, the pressures increased with increasing RPM with the exception of 50% HDPE-wood composite at 50RPM; whereas for a screw with lower compression ratio, for the 36% and 50% wood-HDPE blend, there was no pressure generation at any RPM even though the output increased in a nearly linear fashion. The effect of temperature on pressure generation was also looked at and will be presented here. Similar to the previous studies, the experimental results were compared to those simulated using a commercially available computer program, Flow 2000™.
Evaluation of Pulsed Cooling in Injection Mould Tools
Pulse cooling technology, intermittent flow of the cooling medium in the mould tool and accurate control of the tool temperature during injection moulding has been shown to reduce cycle time and energy consumption. Several papers in previous ANTEC meetings have reported on this technology and since those meetings further experimental work and modelling has been carried out to compare direct cooling (conventional cooling) with pulsed cooling. Results will be presented for polycarbonate and polypropylene filled with additives, talc and LNP Engineering’s Konduit on injection moulding cycle time.Also to be discussed will be initial results from computational fluid dynamics study to model the functions of pulsed cooling and direct cooling during injection moulding.
Simulation and Verification on the Drop Test of Mobile Phone Housing
Drop test performance has become one of the most crucial evaluations for Computer, Communication, and Consumer (3C) products. Both simulation tool and practical platform for drop test must be established for detailed study. A patented drop test platform is designed for the purpose of impact angle repeatability and instantaneous drop image capture at impact instance. These parameters are two crucial computer-aid-engineering (CAE) inputs used for drop impact simulations. Post data processing procedures such as sampling rate, and signal filtering specifications was also studied and found to be important for the accurate interpretation of drop simulations as well. It was found from simulations that a small angle variation (±5°) may result in up to 36% difference in predicted internal stress. Accurate identification on the impact angle, therefore, is recommended as an important parameter on internal component stress calculation. Good consistency between measured acceleration data and simulated results verifies the practicality of the developed data processing procedure and numerical methodology.
Isolating and Quantifying the Development of Shear vs. Pressure Generated Heat in the Plastic Melt during Injection Molding
Whether pressure or shearing of a material has a larger effect on its temperature rise through a typical injection molding cycle is a debated subject. Both of these factors may have a theoretical effect, but they have not been quantified. This experiment utilizes temperature and pressure sensing equipment with conventional injection molding to respond to this issue. From the data collected, both shear and pressure heating affects on the melt can be quantified and will be contrasted to that predicted by injection molding simulations.
Comparison of Drive Concepts on Injection Molding Machines under Production Conditions
The aim of our studies was to figure out the differences concerning energy consumption of several drive concepts for injection molding machines. During the comparison of the collectively 10 machines at 5 manufactures we focused on the energy needs of the drives as well as on the energy consumed by the complete production cell, including ancillary units. A correct evaluation is warranted by parallel accumulation of process- and product-parameters to characterize reproducibility.Respectively to the drives, our results show energy saving potential using electro mechanical concepts.
Integrated Numerical Simulation of Injection Molding Using True 3D Approach
The application of true 3D simulation in the injection molding is becoming popular in the recent years. However, a unified CAE analysis based on solid model for the predictions of molding and warpage of the injection-molded part is seldom reported in the literature due to the numerical and hardware limitations. In this paper, an integrated true 3D approach is developed to simulate the filling, packing and cooling stages in injection molding, as well as the part warpage after ejection. All the simulations can be carried out on the same solid model, in which both cavity and mold base are meshed with solid elements of different topologies. Thanks to the highly efficiency of the proposed methodology, a typical integrated 3D analysis of part with hundred thousand elements can usually be finished on a regular PC within one day. Several numerical examples are reported to indicate the success of the present model
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