SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
High Performance Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPVs) for Long Term High Temperature Application
Jushik Yun, Raman Patel, Darnell C. Worley II, May 2004
New thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) based on Hydrogenated Styrene Block Copolymer (HSBC) have been developed for long term high temperature applications. A comparative study using these new TPVs and conventional TPVs (Polypropylene(PP)/EPDM rubber) was performed. Standard factorial designs were used to evaluate material performance. The material characteristics under investigation were rheological properties, dynamic mechanical properties, tensile properties and morphology. These new TPV compounds showed increased solvent resistance and elastic recovery of approximately 20%, respectively relative to conventional TPVs.
A New TPV Technology Bringing Unique Features to the Market
Alberto Dozeman, Tom Pitzi, Ron Niemark, Marianna Sarkissova, May 2004
A new TPV (EPDM/PP) product line has been commercialized by DSM Thermoplastic Elastomers. The new product line is based on a patented combination of a vulcanization system and compounding technology (WO 03068859) and is available in the Shore A 30 to 80 hardness ranges. It combines easy processing with excellent aesthetic appearance and a dry rubbery feel of the final products. The product line eliminates the gap between TPVs and SEBS compounds with respect to colorability and viscosity .Already, applications have been commercialized in the consumer market and in the automotive interior market in the EurAsia region.
Dynamically Vulcanized PP/EPDM Blends: Effects of Multifunctional Peroxides as Crosslinking Agents
Kinsuk Naskar, Jacques W.M. Noordermeer, May 2004
Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) or dynamic vulcanizates are a special class of thermoplastic elastomers, produced by mixing and crosslinking of a rubber and a thermoplastic polymer simultaneously. In a previous study it was demonstrated that the use of dicumyl peroxide in combination with triallyl cyanurate as crosslinking agents provide a good overall balance of physical properties of PP/EPDM TPVs. Commonly used peroxides like dicumyl peroxide generally produce volatile decomposition products, which sometimes provide a typical smell or show a blooming effect. In this paper multifunctional peroxides are described, which reduce the above-mentioned problems. They consist of a peroxide and co-agent-functionality combined in a single molecule. The multifunctional peroxides provide properties of TPVs, which are comparable with commonly employed co-agent assisted peroxides. The solubility and kinetic aspects of the various peroxides are highlighted, as well as the decomposition products of the multifunctional peroxides with respect to the avoidance of smelly by-products. Particularly 2,4-diallyoxy-6-tertbutylperoxy- 1,3,5-triazine turns out for be a very good alternative to the dicumyl peroxide/triallyl cyanurate combination.
Novel Propylene-Based Specialty Elastomers - Structure and Properties
Srivatsan Srinivas, Sudhin Datta, George A. Racine, May 2004
ExxonMobil Chemical has introduced a family of Specialty Polyolefin Elastomers, a novel type of polyolefin with isotactic propylene crystallinity, under the trade name Vistamaxx™. These polymers contain a predominant amount of propylene (>80%) with isotactic crystallinity, the balance being ethylene and other ?- olefins. These elastomers are highly elastic, with excellent recovery from deformation even without vulcanization. These elastomers, unlike the related EPR polymers, share the processability of conventional plastics such as polyethylene and isotactic polypropylene and can, thus, be easily formed into articles such as films, fibers and nonwoven fabrics, which are highly elastic, using conventional plastic processing processes. In this paper, we discuss the details of the structure-property relationships in these polymers and emphasize the factors leading to the elastic character of these elastomers.
Novel Specialty Polyolefin Elastomers - Structure, Defects and Miscibility
Sudhin Datta, Weiguo Hu, May 2004
ExxonMobil Chemical has introduced a family of Specialty Polyolefin Elastomers, a novel type of polyolefin with isotactic propylene crystallinity. These polymers contain a predominant amount of propylene (>80%) with isotactic crystallinity, the balance being ethylene and other ?-olefins. Unlike the closely related EPR polymers, these polymers share the processibility of isotactic polypropylene and can thus be formed into fabricated articles using conventional processing equipment. In this paper we show SP elastomers combine an unusual and unexpected degree of elongation and elastic recovery without the need for crosslinking. These properties mimic those of crosslinked elastomers. We also show that the properties arise from the uniform introduction of small levels of crystallinity meso propylene residues.
TPV Laser Print Materials
Louis Freitas, Yundong Wang, Ryszard Brzoskowski, May 2004
Laser marking technology provides an alternative and effective route for printing on TPVs (Thermoplastic Vulcanizates). Natural color TPV materials containing laser sensitive additives can be easily laser marked using common Nd:YAG laser systems through a process and effect known as Color Change. Current black TPVs, however, have proven to be very difficult to laser mark, even with laser marking additives. Manufacturers have no choice other than to use pad printing techniques or some form of adhesive stickers to label their products. Recently introduced laser printable black grade offers all the benefits of current TPVs. This new grade can provide a high print definition and good contrast (yellow/tan on black) mark that is highly durable under a variety of environments.
Elastomeric Property Characterization of Thermoplastic Elastomers
Kevin G. Cai, Charles G. Reid, Satchit Srinivasan, Norbert Vennemann, May 2004
The elastomeric properties of polyolefin thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) have been characterized by compression set, recoverable strain after hysteresis, and thermal scanning stress relaxation (TSSR) analysis. Unlike a thermoset rubber, a TPV is a two-phase system with highly crosslinked fine rubber particles dispersed in a thermoplastic matrix. Compression set, which was originally designed to characterize the elastomeric properties of a thermoset rubber, does not truly characterize the unique elastomeric properties for a TPV. Compression set for a TPV is not only highly dependent on the crosslinking density and structure, but also very sensitive to the orientation of the two phases in the TPV. For the same TPV with a fully crosslinked rubber phase, the compression set value can vary substantially depending on sample preparation and thermal history. Elastomeric properties can be better characterized by the recoverable strain after hysteresis and TSSR stress-temperature curve. The thermal-mechanical properties or stress relaxation behaviors provides more useful information for designing and producing all-thermoplastic parts, such as automotive seals, from TPV.
Characterization of a Poly(Ether-Block-Amide) Copolymer and its Significance for Polymer Processing Operations
Xiaoping Guo, May 2004
Thermal and rheological properties of a poly(etherblock- amide) copolymer were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic rheological approaches. Based on the calorimetric and rheometric data, the microphase separation transition (MST) was studied, showing that upon heating the copolymer solid could be transformed into three different states: restructured solid, structured melt, and homogeneous melt. The driving force for the conversion among the three states is primarily due to crystal re-organization, crystallization, and melting. It is also found that different crystal structures in the solid state could be introduced by changing the conditions of cooling from a homogeneous molten state. The existence of a wide MST range and the conversion of the states imply a variety of proper process windows for various polymer processing operations. This knowledge is essential for understanding the processes and further assisting in rational process development.
"Hidden" Innovations in the Development and Commercialization of LLDPE
William A. Fraser, May 2004
Technology revolutions sometimes span such a long timeline of business realization that critical innovations along the way can become lost or hidden in commonplace commercial acceptance. An essential understanding or supporting technical advance developed at just the right time and which contributed important value to business success can go under-appreciated or even unrecognized.The development and commercialization of LLDPE created new catalyst, process, and product technologies and seeded the emergence of new, world scale competitors in the polyolefins industry. It was a revolutionary development.This paper describes market facing technology innovations that were instrumental to LLDPE business success. These developments have helped set the stage for another burst of innovation in the ongoing development and commercialization of metallocene and other single-site catalyzed polyolefins.The polymer molecular design capabilities of the new single-site catalysis have created whole new families of polyolefins and has launched a new technology revolution for our industry. This product revolution builds upon and extends some of the innovations from Z/N LLDPE commercialization.
Relationship between Mould Temperature and Properties of Injection-Moulded Pure and Beta Nucleated Polypropylenes
Roman Cermák, Martin Obadal, Martina Polášková, Karel Stoklasa, May 2004
An influence of the mould temperature (MT) on structure and properties of the samples injection-moulded from pure and ? nucleated isotactic polypropylene (?-iPP) was investigated. Pure and 0,03 wt. % of nucleating agent NJ Star NU-100 doped iPP was isothermally solidified in the range of mould temperature 40-120 °C. Polymorphic composition studied by means of wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show significant sensitivity to MT. On the contrary, moulding temperature notably influenced mechanical behaviour of both pure and ?-iPP samples.
The All Composite One Piece Bumper
Brian Knouff, September 2003
PowerPoint Presentation
Composites Use In Heavy Truck
Ed Zenk, September 2003
PowerPoint Presentation
Real Time Cost Impact Assessment of Composite & Metallic Design Alternatives
Christopher Rush, Joe Falque, Karen McRitchie, September 2003
This paper discusses how a process-based parametric cost model SEER-DFM is used to facilitate the real time cost impact assessment of composite and metallic design alternatives. The main purpose is to introduce the underlying cost model methodology and demonstrate its flexibility for developing trade studies. Readers are introduced to the model its premise and how engineers use it to obtain substantial cost savings through ‘real world’ examples.
Conformal Cooling with Solid Freeform Fabrication Technology: Issues & Opportunities
Rick Dove, September 2003
Solid freeform rapid tooling technologies of various sorts have promised new conformal cooling advantages for plastic tooling. In principle these technologies offer geometric design freedoms unavailable by machined or EDMed approaches. In practice all solid freeform approaches are not equal. This paper will discuss opportunities and limitations on design freedoms and important issues associated with material properties; and will show that raster-scanned 3D Printing technology has matured to a point of delivering on the promise.
Composite Design Procedures for Racing Cars
Mario Saccone, September 2003
PowerPoint Presentation
New Application Technologies in Phenolic Moldable Composites
Willem Lossy, Phil Beasley, September 2003
Presentation at ACCE 2003.
Carbon Fiber Composite Applications for Auto Industries
Tetsu Kyono, Yukitane Kimoto, Yasuyuki Kawanomoto, September 2003
Carbon fiber composite drive shaft having crush worthiness which had been developed for rear drive passenger cars will be described. Crash load generated during head collision can be absorbed by newly developed joining technology with no adhesive between carbon fiber composite tube and steel adapter. This technology can add safety value to passenger cars in addition to conventional advantages of composite drive shaft such as weight and noise reductions. Its materials design concept performance data of the composite drive shaft system will be discussed in the paper.
Renewable Source Materials Phase II
Peter W. Vaccarella, September 2003
In phase I soy-based polyesters were introduced in the form of sheet molding compound (SMC) to be used in farm equipment such as combines. In phase II soy-based polyester will be evaluated in the spray- up infusion and resin transfer molding (RTM) processes for similar types of application. Each system was evaluated at room temperature and 120 ° F for surface quality cure and molding ability. This paper will discuss shrink control for room temperature cured parts and surface quality as compared to automotive standards. Physical property data will also be compared to standard polyesters and SMC used in these fields.
Tough Sheet Molding Compound
Lora Mason, September 2003
One of the biggest challenges facing molders of automotive exterior body panels is the reduction of paint pops. Minimizing or eliminating paint pops would greatly reduce manufacturing costs by minimizing rework painting and scrap material. A new SMC formulation has been developed that is more resilient and durable than standard Class A SMC. The material is more resistant to micro cracking the primary source of paint pops while maintaining the physical properties and surface quality required for Class A exterior body panels.
Decorative Laminates For Thermoforming and Insert Molding Processes
Dennis Northrop, September 2003
Decorative films laminated to plastic substrates have been used for many years but the recent wave of technological advances and increased competition offer more variety in design colors materials and performance properties than previously available. This offers part designers and plastic processors the option to use decorative laminate technology for more applications while reducing costs eliminating environmental concerns conversion from non-plastic materials and improving product performance.

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