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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Morphological Effects on the J-Integral Mode I Tear Resistance of HDPE Films
J. Buc Slay, Jim Lu, H.J. Sue, May 2001
Mode I Tear resistance in high density polyethylene (HDPE) blown film has been characterized using a single specimen J-Integral approach. This method measures the load on the sample, crack initiation, and crack growth in a double-edge notch tensile specimen pulled at a constant extension rate. Tensile tests were performed to determine basic mechanical properties of the HDPE film. A systematic characterization of film morphology has also been performed. This work focuses on the use of a thorough morphological investigation to describe the fundamental aspects of deformation and tearing as they relate to different processing conditions.
Morphology-Property Relationship in Blown Films of LDPE, LLDPE and Their Blend
Jianjun Lu, Hung-Jue Sue, May 2001
The morphologies of films blown from an LDPE, an LLDPE and their blend were characterized and compared using transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, infrared dichroism, and thermal shrinkage techniques. Under similar processing conditions, the LLDPE film has a relatively random crystal orientation. The film made from the LDPE/LLDPE blend possesses the highest degree of crystal orientation. Nevertheless, the LDPE film has the greatest amorphous phase orientation. The physics that is responsible for the high degree of crystal orientation in LDPE/LLDPE blend film is proposed. The structure-property relationships of the films are also discussed.
Non Woven Textiles from Melt Spun Recycled PET
Mark Kegel, Igor Sbarski, Edward Kosior, May 2001
This study examines the effect of nucleating agents on the physical properties of melt drawn fibres made from post consumer Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (RPET). Clear and coloured RPET derived from carbonated soft drink bottles have been used in this study. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black (CB) have been added at varied addition rates in a linear low density (LLDPE) and PET carrier. The effect these additives have on the physical properties of the finished textile were evaluated. Evaluations show that reprocessed bottle grade PET is suitable for fibre applications if the intrinsic viscosity and the final fibre properties are carefully controlled. LLDPE masterbatch containing TiO2 and CB at addition rates in the order of one percent were able to improve processing, physical properties and the rate of crystallisation.
Recycling of Multilayer and Barrier Coated PET Containers
Mark Kegel, Edward Kosior, May 2001
This paper describes the process for removing barrier layers and coatings (oxygen and carbon dioxide) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates through a conventional mechanical bottle recycling system. Varied wash chemistry and barrier medium have been examined and the effect on residual multilayer material or coating has been evaluated. Wash chemistry was found to be the controlling factor in improving the external coating removal efficiency. Delamination through mechanical working was found to be the controlling mechanism for separating multilayer materials. The conclusion drawn from our experiments is that the PPG Bairocade coatings were removed most efficiently. Internal deposition techniques may contribute fewer residues to the RPET, however substantiating this is difficult.
Three-Dimensional Non-Isothermal Numerical Analysis of Multi-Layer Coextrusion
Rong-Yeu Chang, Chao-Sheng Ke, Wen-Hsien Yang, Wen-Li Yang, David C. Hsu, May 2001
This paper presents a three-dimensional finite volume algorithm together with the Lagragian mesh technique for simulating the non-isothermal non-Newtonian stratified flow of two or more polymers in a square channel. From the benchmark calculations, the simulated interface shape shows good agreements with numerical results of previous researchers. Moreover, the effects of temperature, viscosity, flow rate ratios and the contact angle on the encapsulation phenomena are also examined. Flow system up to five-layer is also reported in this study. The efficiency of the proposed approach makes it possible to simulate even more complex system on a regular PC.
Injection Molding Unfilled and Filled Polymers with Titanates and Zirconates - 2001
Salvatore J. Monte, May 2001
In addition to pigment/reinforcement/filler to polymer coupling, two parts of thermally stable neopositioned quaternary carbon based neoalkoxy [neopentyl(diallyl)oxy] type titanates and zirconates per thousand parts of polymer provide for in situ metallocene-like Repolymerization" catalysis of the filled or unfilled polymer during the plastication phase resulting in: faster injection molding production cycles at lower process temperatures; maintenance or increase in mechanical properties; the in situ regeneration of regrind polymer to virgin properties; the lowering of polymer recrystallization time; and the copolymerization of dissimilar polymers. For example using a neoalkoxy tridodecyl-benzene sulfonyl titanate both 40% CaCO3 filled and unfilled "Repolymerized" PP compounds experienced respective reductions of 35.5% and 42% in injection mold cycle time and 22% and 11% in process temperature; and a 39.7% reduction in the recrystallization time of PPS. Two parts of a neoalkoxy tridioctyl phosphato titanate regenerated and copolymerized one thousand parts of a PET regrind/PC regrind providing a nine-fold increase in the elongation of the alloy. The effect is shown to be permanent and recyclable."
Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of the Single Screw Plasticating Extrusion Process
Rong-Yeu Chang, Che-Wei Hsu, Wen-Hsien Yang, Wen-Li Yang, David C. Hsu, May 2001
This paper presents a 3D numerical model to investigate the plasticating phenomena in the single screw extruder. The FVM is adopted to solve the governing equations to obtain the velocity and pressure profiles. The enthalpy formulation for the energy equation and the liquid fraction method are introduced to model the melting mechanism between the melts and the solid bed. The 3D simulation can predict both the melting length in the down channel and the local solid fraction in the cross channel. The predicted pressure drop, temperature distribution and melting behavior are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results.
Thermal Analysis of Blends of Recycled HDPE and Virgin Polyolefins
Paul Miller, Edward Kosior, Igor Sbarski, Syed Masood, Pio Iovenitti, May 2001
This paper investigates the melting point and crystallinity behaviour of blends of recycled milk bottle HDPE with injection moulding and film blowing grade high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) as part of a larger investigation into blends of recycled HDPE and virgin polyolefins. The variation in melting points and crystallinity levels for blends of recycled HDPE with either HDPE or LLDPE were linear with composition, and displayed only one melting point, while recycled HDPE with LDPE displayed separate melting points for each compositional component.
The Effect of Inertia on Fill Pattern in Injection Molding
Franco S. Costa, Shishir Ray, Chris Friedl, Peter S. Cook, Shoudong Xu, May 2001
By numerical simulation of the full three dimensional Navier-Stokes flow equations, it is possible to observe the influence of inertia effects on the filling pattern of an injection molded part. Traditional shell-based Hele-Shaw flow simulations have assumed that the momentum (inertia) contribution to the fluid flow is negligible. However, thick walled parts and complex parts are poorly represented by shell models. Under certain processing conditions for these thick geometries, inertia effects will influence the flow pattern. Simulation studies are presented in this paper which compare flow solutions with and without inertia effects.
New Cost-Efficient Process for the Production of Large-Volume High-Voltage-Insulators Made of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR)
E. Henze, E. Haberstroh, May 2001
The unique combination of chemical and physical properties predestines LSR for applications in the field of electrical insulation. Due to high investment for mold and machine technology an economical production can be reached for medium or large series only. In this thesis a new technology is developed for casting large volume parts at a low level of cavity pressure. Separate heating of the material components to a temperature level just below mold temperature leads to a controlled decrease in cavity pressure. Simultaneously, a considerable reduction in cycle time is reached due to a faster curing process. Since the new technology developed enables the use of simple mold designs without clamping units, a significant reduction in investment is achieved.
Recycling of Crosslinked Multi-Layer Thermoplastic Films - Miscibility Studies
Marcel G. Sittel-Faraj, Ferenc Cser, Margaret Jollands, Sati Bhattacharya, May 2001
This study was part of a program of work undertaken to develop recycling technology for multi-layer films which are not currently recycled. These multi-layer films comprise barrier layers with surface layers for mechanical strength, and tie layers between. Crosslinking is used to enhance various mechanical properties. The crosslinked layers have a high viscosity which creates processing problems, eg. if the film is recycled, high processing pressures are required. Furthermore, material blend component incompatibilty can result in inferior mechanical properties. Monolayer films of the virgin materials were produced. Multi-layer film with crosslinked EVA/LLDPE and a barrier layer was produced on a blown film line. This multi-layer film was agglomerated" then reprocessed in a twin screw extruder with virgin LDPE and LLDPE and blown into film. The blend miscibility was then determined using a TA Instruments TMDSC. It was found that LDPE blends were initially miscible with the containing scrap whereas LLDPE blends were immiscible. The LDPE miscibility was partly reversible as the blend components phase separated after the second heat treatment during testing in the TMDSC instrument. The initial miscibility was attributed to being induced by high shear during processing."
Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Silane-Grafted Moisture-Crosslinked Polyethylene
Jenn-Fong Kuan, Liang-Chi Tu, Kuo-Hsiung Wang, Jaine-Ming Huang, May 2001
The vinyl trimethoxysilane VTMS" was grafted onto various polyethylenes ( HDPE LLDPE and LDPE) using DCP as an initiator in a twin screw extruder. The grafted polyethylenes were able to cross-link utilizing water as the crosslinking agent. The effects of varied crosslinking time on the mechanical properties of the crosslinked polyethylenes were studied. It was found that the HDPE and LLDPE were apt to cross-link during the grafting process and thus decreased the grafting ratio. Multiple melting behavior was observed for cross-linked LDPE and LLDPE. The mechanical and thermal properties of the crosslinked PE are better than uncrosslinked PE." LLDPE and LDPE) using DCP as an initiator in a twin screw extruder. The grafted polyethylenes were able to cross-link utilizing water as the crosslinking agent. The effects of varied crosslinking time on the mechanical properties of the crosslinked polyethylenes were studied. It was found that the HDPE and LLDPE were apt to cross-link during the grafting process and thus decreased the grafting ratio. Multiple melting behavior was observed for cross-linked LDPE and LLDPE. The mechanical and thermal properties of the crosslinked PE are better than uncrosslinked PE."
Application of Liquid Gas-Assisted Injection Molding to the X-Arm of a Chair
Dong-Hak KIM, Kwansik OH, May 2001
Application of gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM) has been expanded within last 15 years because of many advantages such as design flexibility, dimensional stability, reduction of machine tonnages, and so on. But, for thick parts, it is observed the surface defects including hesitation mark and gloss difference. Difficulties in lay-out of the gas channel and processing condition are another disadvantages[1]. Liquid gas-assisted injection molding (LGAIM) is a good alternative of conventional gas-assisted injection molding especially in manufacturing simple and very thick parts. The heat-activated liquid vaporizes and pushes the melt downstream and creates hollow channels within parts[2,3]. We developed the total system that includes control unit (control of volume, pressure, and time of the liquid), liquid-injection nozzle, recipe of liquid system, and part/mold design (CAE analysis). As an applicable part, X-arm of a chair was selected. From experiments, it was observed stable hollow formation without hesitation mark and sink mark. And we was able to reduce the cycle time and weight
PVC/Clay Nanocomposites
J. Trlica, A. Kalendova, Z. Malac, J. Simonik, L. Pospisil, May 2001
Polymer/clay nanocomposites prepared from intercalated montmorillonite and PVC were compounded in KO-kneader with dioctylphtalate (DOP) as a plasticizer. An influence of the type of used organoclay on thermal stability was observed. Problems with the composition thermal stability during compounding can be eliminated by pretreatment of the organoclay with plasticizer which creates a barrier between polymer and quaternary amine. Simultaneously co intercalation of plasticizer facilitates exfoliation and dimension clay platelets in the polymer matrix. A positive influence of nanoclay on dimensional stability and permeability was observed.
Influence of Temperature and Initiator Type on the Functionalization of High Density and Lineal Low Density Polyethylenes
B. Rojas de G, D. Guerra, J. López, J.L. Prin, May 2001
The obtaining of compatibilizers for blends by functionalization has led the study of this modification in the polyethylene. Three initiators were used in the grafting of High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) with diethylmaleate. Also was investigated the dependence of the functionalization degree on the temperature of Linear-Low Density polyethylene (LLDPE). The compared initiators were 2,2'- Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), benzoyl peroxide (BP) and 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(t-butylperoxy)hexane (DBPH). It was found that under the same experimental conditions the grafting degree in the HDPE decrease follows the order of the initiators: DBPH > BP > AIBN.
Morphology and Mechanical Behavior of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate)/Functionalized Ethylene Copolymers Blends
Alexey M. Giornes, Marcos L. Dias, Luis C. Mendes, May 2001
The possibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) mechanical properties improvement through reactive blending with ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymers either in the acid form (I-H) or partially neutralized with Zn (I-Zn) and Na (I-Na) was investigated. Blends of P(3HB) and I-H, I-Zn and I-Na were prepared in an internal mixer and in a double screw extruder. The blend with I-H showed the best results for mechanical properties. All the blends showed a significant reduction in the Young modulus, which was smaller for P(3HB)/I-Zn blends. Blends containing 30% of I-Zn presented the higher impact resistance and morphology containing the dispersed phase as cylindrical domains.
Strain Hardening Behavior in Elongational Viscosity for Blends of Linear Polymer and Crosslinked Polymer
Masayuki Yamaguchi, May 2001
Rheological properties for the binary blends of a linear polymer, such as isotactic polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS), and gel fraction of a crosslinked terpolymer composed of ethylene, 1-hexene, and ethylidene norbornene (gEHDM) have been studied. Blending of the gEHDM, which is characterized as the gel just beyond the sol-gel transition point, much enhances the strain hardening behavior in the elongational viscosity of PP, even though the amount of the gEHDM is only 1 wt%. On the other hand, the PS/gEHDM (97/3) blend shows no strain hardening in the elongational viscosity. The entanglement couplings between the gEHDM and the PP will be responsible for the strain hardening behavior.
Influence of the Dispersed Phase Composition on the Mechanical Properties of Toughened PP Ternary Blends
Paula Pieroni, Daniel Ercoli, Graciela Goizueta, Numa Capiati, May 2001
Polymer blends offer nowadays a quick and economic way of improving properties at competitive costs. Such blends have already reached a massive application in the case of thermoplastics. This work presents results obtained for blends of polypropylene (PP), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR or EPDM). Different dispersed phase particle sizes are obtained varying the content of LLDPE and the viscosity of elastomers. The morphological features of such blends prepared in a twin screw extruder have been studied by TEM. Notched Charpy impact resistance of injection-molded samples was determined at different temperatures. Fracture surfaces were observed by SEM and elastic modulus were measured and correlated with dispersed phase composition.
Mechanical Mixing in Pin Screw Extruders: Experimental and Numerical Analysis
Th. Avalosse, Y. Rubin, L. Epinat, E. Slachmuylders, May 2001
Pin extruders are frequently used in rubber processing. They are designed to exhibit good mixing capabilities and deliver an important mechanical work to facilitate the processing and mixing of elastomers. The design of such single screw extruders (SSE) is based on empirical know-how and trial-and-error. In this study, we compare three extruder configurations: a simple, continuously flighted single screw, a single screw with interrupted flight and finally a pin barrel screw. The calculation of the flow rate vs. pressure drop confirms that the interrupted flight reduces the pumping efficiency and the addition of the pins does not increase this effect any further. Statistical analysis of the trajectories obtained from the transient velocity field allows us to evaluate directly indices linked to the mixing quality. We obtain a good qualitative agreement between the calculated and measured RTD and confirm that there is an increasing mixing capability in the grooved screw and even more so in the pin barrel extruder.
Studies on the Rotomolding of Liquid Crystalline Polymers
P. Rangarajan, E. Scribben, J. Huang, M. Rapp, D. Baird, May 2001
This work investigates the rotational molding (RM) of liquid crystalline polymers (LCP) for making storage tank liners for storing cryogenic and corrosive fluids. We had previously reported work done on sintering of LCPs in order to determine the right candidate for rotomolding (1). This paper reports the studies conducted on the rotational molding of a standard polyethylene and the LCP chosen as a result of sintering studies. The various parameters examined include the rotational molding times, oven temperature, and rotor speed on final mechanical and morphological characteristics of the part formed. Low shear rate viscosity is a very important aspect determining the feasibility of rotomolding of LCPs. This has been examined in case of two LCPs, Vectra A and Vectra B230.

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