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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Applied Rheology

SPE Library content related to rheology
Rheological investigation of the elasticity of polymeric systems
Esmaeil Narimissa, Rahul Gupta, November 2013

Shear rheological analysis has led to a new insight into the relationship between the first normal stress difference, the dispersion of filler material, and the applied shear stress on polymer nanocomposites.

Rheology and crystallization of polyethylene/organoclay nanocomposite films
Ali Asghar Katbab, Hossein Nazockdast, Behzad Nazari, November 2013

Elongational flow in polyethylene/organoclay nanocomposites breaks their 3D network and aligns clay platelets, subsequently affecting the composite's non-isothermal crystallization and melt behavior.

Graft polymers for separation of heavy metals
Harun Ciftci, October 2013

Polystyrene-graft-ethyl methacrylate copolymer can be used to remove zinc, copper, and cobalt ions from samples.

Biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and hydrotalcite
Luigi Botta, Roberto Scaffaro, October 2013

The benefit of adding a filler may be outweighed by matrix degradation.

Rheological characterization of wollastonite and glass fiber-reinforced polymers
Monica Naccache, September 2013

A comparison of the shear and extensional properties of glass and wollastonite fibers in composite materials shows that they increase the fluid elasticity, relaxation time, and storage modulus of composites.

PART B: Thermal and Rheological Design of Thermoset Molds
Andreas Kürten, September 2013

Modeling the behavior of short-fiber reinforced thermosets during the molding process remains one of the most difficult challenges for successful thermoset part design. This presentation covers examples of thermoset molding best practices and explains how advanced simulation techniques can help predict flow behavior and overcome issues frequently encountered with short-fiber thermoset molding. Factors considered include part geometry thermodynamics molding pressures and fiber orientation.

Graphene Based Impact Modified Polypropylene Nanocomposites for Automotive Applications
Alper Kiziltas, September 2013

Graphene-based nanocomposites demonstrate superior electrical mechanical physical and thermal properties. Because of this they have moved swiftly from the research laboratory into the marketplace in applications in aerospace automotive coatings electronics energy storage and paints. Based on the huge interest enhanced properties as well as ease of production and handling the European Union is funding a 10 year $1.73 billion coordination action on graphene; South Korea is spending $350 million on commercialization initiatives; and the United Kingdom is investing $76 million in a commercialization hu because many current and potential applications for carbon nanotubes may be replaced by graphene at much lower cost. The main objective of this study was to characterize the influence of exfoliated grapheme nanoplatelets (xGnP) particle diameter filler loading and the addition of coupling agents on the mechanical rheological and thermal properties of xGnP-filled impact-modified polypropylene (IMPP) composites.

New Powder In-Mould Coating for SMC in Automotive Applications
Hugo Renkema, Bart Hofstede, Menno Claase, Marcel Schutte, Paul Vercoulen, September 2013

This paper describes the powder in mould coating process (PIMC) in combination with sheet moulding compound (SMC). A powder coating is applied to a preheated mould to pre-gel. SMC is placed into the mould and pressed as one with the PIMC to cure together inside the mould. When the SMC is removed from the mould it comes out coated with a highly durable super smooth powder coating layer which has a strong adhesion to the SMC. The coating has good barrier properties hardness flexibility and abrasion resistance. With the unique controlled chemistry based on durable unsaturated polyester and vinylether urethane the coating properties and curing behavior can be fine tuned to automotive requirements. Rheological curing studies were conducted to investigate the curing behavior.

Improvement in Orientation Measurement for Short and Long Fiber Injection Molded Composites
Gregorio Vélez-García, September 2013

Short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics are a feasible alternative to develop lightweight materials for semi-structural applications. These materials present a layered structure showing a complex fiber orientation distribution along the molding. The details of fiber orientation in a center-gated disk with diameters of 1.38 and 2.05 mm were obtained in several regions including the gate and advancing front. Several modifications were introduced in the method of ellipses to obtain unambiguous orientation measured over small sampling area. Two fiber suspensions (30 % short glass-fiber PBT and PP) with different rheological characteristics were used in these experiments. The results showed an asymmetric distribution of fiber orientation that gradually washs out as the flow progress. In addition the initial orientation measured at the gate presented a fiber distribution different from the random orientation that is assumed in literature for a center-gated disk.

Highly processable poly(vinyl chloride) by internal plasticization
Miquel Boix, Anton Santamaria, Eugenia Munoz, Itxaso Calafel , Ignacio Conde, Belen Pascual, September 2013

Triblock copolymers of poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(n-butyl acrylate) have better processing properties than poly(vinyl chloride) without the health problems associated with phthalate plasticizers.

Effect of compatibilization on polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blends
Abdulrasoul Oromiehie, Ismail Ghasemi , Saeed Mortazavi, August 2013

Reactive mixing of low-density polyethylene and thermoplastic starch increases the viscosity of the resulting material owing to formation of a network of dispersed phase droplets.

Cellulose nanocrystals from garlic stalks as reinforcing filler for bioplastics
Fumihiko Hirose, Bashir Ahmmad, Joel R. Salazar, Enna Richel De Leon, Jerico Buenaobra, Melissa B. Agustin, August 2013

Starch-based biocomposite films incorporating spherical cellulose nanocrystals from garlic stalks offer a novel application of an underused natural fiber.

Rheology of polyamide 6 composites reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose
Douglas Bousfield, Douglas Gardner, Behzad Nazari, Alper Kiziltas, August 2013

Reinforcing a polyamide 6 matrix resulted in higher complex viscosities, storage modulus, and shear viscosities.

Economical and environmentally friendly synthesis of porous cation-exchange resins
Syed Wasim Ali, Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Arif Malik, July 2013

A method to synthesize strongly acidic cation-exchange resins from porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers can quickly monitor porosity and significantly reduce cost, health risks, and pollution.

Enhancing the rheological and electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites
Mujtahid Kaavessina, Saeed Al-Zahrani , Achmad Chafidz, July 2013

Incorporating carbon nanotubes into polymer nanocomposites increases their melt flow and decreases their electrical resistivity.

Improved blown film extrusion of biopolymers
Khalid Lamnawar , Abderrahim Maazouz, June 2013

Poly(lactic acid) optimized with chain extenders, plasticizers, and nucleating agents forms stable and defect-free films with improved mechanical properties.

Side chain crystallinity enhances polymeric lubricant additives
Elvira Vidovic, Tomislav Karazija, Ante Jukic, June 2013

Increasing the proportion of long-chain alkyl methacrylates in a copolymer from 4 to 7 mol% lowers the pour point of its mineral oil solutions from −9°C to below −30°C.

Epoxy/clay nanocomposites: preparation and performance improvement
Suong Van Hoa, Tan Minh Ton-That, Tri-Dung Ngo, May 2013

High-shear, high-temperature pre-mixing followed by controlled curing at elevated temperature better disperses and intercalates organoclays in epoxy nanocomposites, improving their mechanical performance.

Cross Metathesis of Olefin Terminated Polypropylene and Polydimethysiloxane iin the Melt Phase
Neil McManus, Costas Tzoganakis, Yan R. Wu, May 2013

Vinyl terminated polypropylene (PP) and mono-vinyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been reacted in the melt phase with Grubbs second generation catalyst to, synthesize PDMS modified PP copolymers. Some chemical, physical and rheological properties of produced materials are determined and the results indicated the feasibility of cross metathesis (CM) reaction in melt phase.

Melt Rheological Characterization of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)
Tzu-chia (Erica) Tseng, Jay Hanan, May 2013

Dynamic melt rheology was used to characterize poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) supplied from manufactures across the globe. The zero shear viscosity and the molecular weight of the polymers were determined. This rheology method is more sensitive than traditional intrinsic viscosity measurements provided by the resin suppliers

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