The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Review on Micr-/Nano-Layer Enhanced Barrier Technology
Recent developments having a potential to produce purely polymer based, transparent barrier packaging films are reviewed. The focus of this review paper is on micro-/nano-layer enhanced barrier improvment technology. This technology allows a significant barrier property improvment by controlling crystal lamellae alignment in various barrier polymers. The critical parameters affecting crystal lamalle orientation are briefly described as well.
Co-Extrusion of Continuous Fiber Composites with High Mechanical Properties
Continuous fibrous composite tapes of PA6/PEO were produced using a novel co-extrusion and two-dimensional multiplication technique. The process is highly versatile in that the number and composition of PA6 fibers and the geometry of the tape can be easily adjusted for various applications. The PA6 fibrous tapes were post-oriented to achieve ultrahigh mechanical properties. In comparison with commercial fibrous composite tapes, the PA6/PEO tapes made using the co-extrusion technology have improved tensile modulus, tunable tensile strength and strain at break.
Changeable Thermal Management for LED-Lighting
Thermal management of LED lights can be arranged by deliberately influencing lighting components conduction capabilities and reducing the thermal contact resistance for various joining processes. The research details the possibilities thereof and shows the thermal contact resistance of plastic and aluminum joining for different connection processes.
Failure Analysis of a Glass Filled Phenolic Resin Power Steering Pump Pulley
A root cause failure analysis was performed on a glass filled phenolic resin power steering pump pulley that was implicated in an automobile accident. A thorough investigation including vehicle inspection, macroscopic and microscopic examination, stress analysis, and exemplar testing was performed to test two competing hypotheses postulated to explain the failure. This paper details these various steps and identifies the ultimate root cause.
Packaging and Food Interactions Modeling: Validation for Compliance with Specific Migration Regulations
A validation model for compliance with specific migration regulations based on the EU standard 10/2011 about plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food will be presented. This article describes the implementation of the numerical model used for the migration calculation, which is validated by comparing it to other models available in the state of art. A case study is presented to show the benefits of this model.
Part Designers? Best Ally ? An Automated Design Checker
For a plastic part or assembly to perform as expected, proper consideration has to be given to material selection, part design, tooling, and processing. A deficiency in any one of these requirements will nullify the other three attributes, even if they are highly optimized. This paper reviews all four requirements, giving special attention to the design aspect. The paper also introduces a quick and easy to use design checking tool that will be of tremendous advantage to designers, both new and experienced.
Polypropylene Impact Copolymers for Improved Tiger-Marking Resistance in Large Part Injection Molding
This work will focus on Polypropylene Impact Copolymers (ICPs) aimed at reducing the surface aesthetic defect known as tiger-marking which is formed during large part injection molding of compounded thermoplastic olefins. Emphasis will be placed on rheological predictive testing and how this translates to the final part aesthetic performance.
Qualifying a Recycled Material with Stringent Engineering Properties Requirements Using Six Sigma
Recycling commodity plastics with non-stringent mechanical requirements present few technical changes other than justifying the cost of recycling. When considering recycled engineering plastics for high end products with very tough mechanical, cosmetic (including custom color), processing, cost and reliable availability requirements with minimal lot to lot variation, it becomes a much bigger challenge. This paper deals with a successful case study in overcoming these challenges.
Numerical and Experimental Studies on Bubble Nucleation and Growth during Microcellualr Injection Molding
This paper presents a study on bubble nucleation and growth during the microcellular injection molding process. A three-dimensional flow simulation program for prediction of bubble nucleation and growth in microcellular injection molding has been developed. Several models for bubble nucleation in microcellular injection molding have been evaluated using the simulation program. Some experiments were conducted to measure the bubble density and size in a molded part and the simulation results were compared to the experimental results.
Plastics Recovered from Shredded End-Of-Life Vehicles
Our industry leading separation technology enables us to recover polyolefin and styrenic plastics from complex mixed streams such as shredded end-of-life vehicles. Plastic flakes recovered using our process are compounded and sold as pellets suitable for use in injection molding and extrusion applications. This paper looks at the challenges and benefits of recovering plastics and modifying their properties for use in various injection molding and extrusion applications in the horticultural, construction, packaging and automotive industries.
Determination of the Zero Shear Viscosity of Polyethylene
The zero shear viscosity (ZSV) of 10 commercial polyethylene resins has been determined with a creep test and the traditional oscillatory frequency sweep test. Identical results were obtained from the two different test methods. The obtained ZSV by either method can be used to evaluate the long chain branching content of polyethylene resins.
Fast Thermal Tomography for Non-Destructive Testing of Plastic Components
In the field of non-destructive testing (NDT) active
thermography is state of the art. However, in recent years
further developments have been limited to the system
miniaturization, cost reduction and increase of the thermal
and geometric resolution. The detection of defects in
deeper layers results in an enormous amount of data and
long test durations. Here, thermal tomography offers a
promising approach as circumvent these obstacles.
Composites for Shielding Electromagnetic Radiation
More and more electronic housings are made of polymers instead of metals. Ensuring failure-free operation of electronic equipment and preventing a negative influence on electronic components in the environment shielding actions have to be implemented. The objective of this paper is to present an approach, which allows producing large and highly stressable electronic enclosures such as battery boxes for electric vehicles and to examine systematically weak points in future junctions of components.
Surface Modification of Nano Silca for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid UV Curable Acrylate Hard Coating
The effect of acrylate surface modified nano silica on ultraviolet (UV) curing characteristics of acrylate hard coating material was studied. Our photo DSC results show that acrylate surface modification on nano silica improved the UV curing of acrylate. It was found that acrylate modified nano silica caused the enhancement of hardness of acrylate hard coating with maintaining of reasonably good optical properties for the hard coated optical film application.
Molding Strategies for Bridging Production Volumes
Fixed and marginal costs are analyzed for plastic part production with class 101 injection molds, aluminum tooling, prototype molds made by additive manufacturing with photopolymers, and products directly manufactured by 3D printing via fused deposition modeling of thermoplastics. The analysis indicates that the production costs can vary by orders of magnitude, and that different processes are preferred with varying production quantities.
Combined X-Ray and Optical Pellet Inspection for Smallest Impurity Detection during Plastic Pellet Production and Processing
Impurities in plastic pellets have to be detected and sorted out effectively, even when they are melted down into the pellet. This is achieved by a purity inspection system, which includes a combination of X-ray technology and an optical system. The X-ray technology looks inside the pellets, independent of non- transparency and color. With this new technical approach, even 50æm contamination can be detected and therefore a 100% inspection for smallest contamination is possible.
Discussing the Feasibility of Implementing Rotational Foam Molding Operations Based on Physical Blowing Agents
This paper focuses on evaluating the suitability of technologically-distinctive novel processing concepts for successfully transforming engineering resins into rotationally molded cellular polymeric composite articles of controllable densities in terms of using physical blowing agents while achieving simultaneous retention of fine-celled foam morphologies while maintaining a uniform thickness of the solid skin and while reducing the processing cycle times and energy consumption.
Validation of a New Material Model for Thermoforming and Blow Molding Simulation
A new material model is proposed for the simulation of thermoforming and blow molding processes. The material model is based on simple traction experiemnets where the elongation viscosity is given as a funtion of strain. To validate the material models, thermoforming experiments are carried out on typical punnet geometrey. Experimental measurements of thickness distribution at the end of the formoing process are compared to the numerical data obtained using the new material model. Material distribution comaprison show excellent agreement.
Characterization of Carbonized Electrospun Lignin Fibers
Non-woven carbon fiber mat was produced by thermal treatment of the electrospun lignin fibers. Aqueous solution blends of organosolv hardwood lignin and 5 percentage of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) were electrospun. Average diameter of lignin fibres had a 25% reduction after carbonization. Results of Raman spectroscopy, surface area analysis, and thermal conductivity are comparable to carbonized fibers obtained from electrospun PAN.
Impact Puncture Resistance of Multilayer Flexible Food Packages
The development of a laboratory test method to rank the relative impact puncture resistance of flexible packages is presented. Details about the laboratory test, and the method used to rank the structures are given. Test results for selected multilayer structures are shown, and a ranking based on the test results is presented. In turn, this ranking is compared against results obtained using a drop test developed for the purpose of simulating the food filling portion of the packaging process.
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