The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Microstructure and Properties of Polyamide 12 Processed by Selective Laser Sintering
Selective laser sintering (SLS) of polymer powder is readily used for the additive manufacturing of plastic parts. During SLS processing a laser is used to fuse powders together to form whole parts. The build direction, which corresponds to the axis on which the longest dimension of the part is oriented, can greatly influence the morphology and material performance of the final product. In this study we evaluate the microstructure and mechanical behavior of SLS processed polyamide 12 (PA-12) as a function of build direction.
Benefits of Surface Treatments & Mixed Filler Formulations for Thermally Conductive Plastics
Thermally conductive plastics are gaining attention as an alternate material solution to metals to solve thermal management problems in a wide range of applications and industries. BN materials are known to enable high Thermal Conductivity(TC) in thermoplastic formulations. However, balancing this requirement for high conductivity with the need for acceptable physical properties can be challenging. This paper explores the use of BN-based mixed filler formulations to address these challenges.
Sustainability and Corporate Best Practices: Second Triennial Survey of Plastics Industry
The 2014 Sustainability Survey was the second survey that SPE Marketing and Management Special Interest Group conducted on sustainability in the plastics industry. The first survey was conducted in 2011. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the 2014 survey, and establish some baseline case studies of best sustainability practices in the industry.
Fabrication of Interconnected Porous PLA by Mixing with NaCl and PEO in Two-Rotor Continuous Mixer
Interconnected porous PLA materials were prepared by mixing PLA with Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and polyoxyethylene (PEO) in a two-rotor continuous mixer. SEM, DSC and XRD were used to study the effect of PEO contents and mixing parameters on interconnected porous structure, porosity and crystallization properties. The results showed that increasing PEO content and rotor speed improved pore connectivity. Rotor speed also enhanced PLA crystallization.
Fabrication of Biocompatible Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) PBAT Coating for Biomedical Applications
The objective of the present study is to investigate the mechanical strength and thermal properties (melting, crystallization and glass transition) of petroleum based biocompatible poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) as well as its synergistic blend with a nanofiller LDH (Layered double hydroxide). In the present study a bionanocomposite with a higher percentage of nanofillers was prepared and deformation response examined.
Laser Imageable Polymeric Film
It has been found that polymeric film formulated with a photochromatic pigment offers a substantial advantage over prior art methods of laser imaging film. Polymeric film formulated with a photochromatic pigment which undergoes a white to black color change upon exposed to laser irradiation are durable and abrasion-resistant since the photochromatic pigment is within the body of the plastic film.
Toughening Hollow Glass Microsphere Filled Low Density Nylon Compounds
No Abstract Available.
Formulation Strategy to Achieve Highly Colorable and Weatherable ASA
ASA polymers (Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate) represent one family of weatherable polymers often used in outdoor applications requiring long term color and physical properties retention. However, highly chromatic colors are difficult to achieve in opaque weatherable polymers such as ASA. This paper will identify and discuss several factors that influence polymer opacity and discuss examples where highly chromatic weatherable colors are achieved through the manipulation of polymer refractive index, material and color formulation strategy.
Undergraduate Modules for Biobased Plastics
Educational modules focused on bio-based polymers were successfully developed and implemented for undergraduate curricula. These modules included experiments for (1) synthesis of a biodegradable polymer, (2) characterizing the properties of this polymer and comparing these properties with those of a commonly-used petroleum-based polymer, and (3) melt processing a bio-based, biodegradable polymer. All modules were well-received by and produced significant learning by the undergraduate students.
Content Bridge Value Creation - How In-Mold Labeling and Smart Phone Connectivity Can Add Value to Plastic Products
This paper explores the value proposition of combining the recognized advantages of in-mold labeling with relevant web content to create a permanent link to a molded the part. The result is a content bridge that can be retrieved by smart phone users to create a new level of utility and consumer engagement.
A Practical Example of Film Extrusion Process Troubleshooting and Fine Tuning
This case study is a practical example showing the importance of process and material characterization when designing high performance extrusion dies. In this study, we show the approach to troubleshoot a film extrusion process as the initial extrusion performance is not meeting the theoretical behavior.
Warpage Control of Thin-Walled Parts Using Local Mold Temperature Setting in Injection Molding
Computer, communication, and consumer electronics products are currently required to be lightweight, portable, and convenient. Injection molding is among the most used techniques for mass production in plastic processing industries; however, producing thinner parts that do not warp is challenging. Causes of warpage in thin-walled molding are numerous such as material properties, product geometry, mold design, and processing conditions. For example, inconsistent thickness in component geometry, poor sprue-runner-gate or cooling design in the injection mold, and improper molding condition settings may cause plastic parts to warp excessively. Warpage causes unpredictable component shapes, which may cause poor assembly quality. Although mold cooling achieved by adjusting mold temperatures improves warpage, the conventional single mold temperature setting for each male or female mold plate limits the cooling capability. Consequently, this study employs an asymmetric cover for handheld communication devices as a research carrier, and proposes a local mold temperature setting to adjust the deformation of injection molded parts. Particularly, a neutral axis theory for analyzing the temperature distribution at the cross section of the thickness and then predicting the trend of warpage is used. Through CAE simulation and experiment, the feasibility of employing an ideal cooling design featured with local mold temperature setting to reduce warpage has been verified.
Evaluation of Shelf Life of Resin
Resin samples were aged under accelerated conditions and post aging Material characterization was performed using analytical techniques such as Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Oxidation Induction Time (OIT) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC).
Each technique provided specific polymer evaluation. GPC was used to provide molecular weight information. Molecular weight of polymer is one of the key characteristics since it is related to mechanical properties such as stiffness, tensile strength and flexibility of the material. Molecular weight of polymer is directly related to overall performance of material.
DSC was used to provide thermal properties such as melting and glass transition temperature of polymer. These thermal properties are mainly used in establishing processing conditions (molding and extrusion) of polymers. Any drastic change in the melting point affects process settings and can be related to material degradation via change in the melt viscosity.
The primary source of degradation during shelf life exposure is thermal oxidation. Resistance to oxidation is manifested by a higher OIT. As a result, Samples are placed into DSC testing equipment with continuous exposure to oxygen for set amount of time and temperature. Output is recorded as time (minutes) it takes to observe oxidative exotherm.
In summary, key material properties such as molecular weight , oxidation resistance and thermal property (melting point) were unchanged when exposed to accelerated aging conditions simulating ten years (in case of ABS, Nylon, PEBAX, TPU and PVOH resin will be five years) of shelf life.
Novel Saturated Slip Additive with Superior Oxidative Stability
Since the 1950?s primary fatty acid amides have been used as additives in polyolefins and other polymers to reduce the coefficient of friction of films, enable easy mould release, enable easy assembly of moulded components and reduce tendency of polymer articles to scratch. Unsaturated amides such as oleamide and erucamide have been recognised the best performing additives in this area giving low friction by rapid migration to the polymer surface to form a coherent lubricating layer or layers. It is also well known that the elimination of the double from oleamide or erucamide offers considerable advantages in oxidative stability over the unsaturates but at the expense of slip performance.
This work illustrates that by manipulation of the alkyl chain it is possible to produce a fully saturated slip additive with excellent stability whilst retaining good friction reducing performance comparable with unsaturated slip agents. Comparison of this new slip additive with conventional slip agents in LDPE film, PP film, PP and bottle closures is reported showing the additive to be largely equivalent to erucamide.
Colour and retention of slip properties after exposure to an oxidising environment is also demonstrated along with good anti-scratch and low visible bloom in a black PP automotive formulation.
High Strain Rate Testing of Glass Fiber Reinforced PEEK
Fiber reinforced polymers are used in a wide range of applications involving impact, including automobile and aerospace components, consumer products, and industrial products. These materials, however, are difficult to characterize under high strain rate conditions, particularly at strain rates exceeding 1000 1/second. This difficulty occurs due to numerous factors, including specimen design and size factors, absence of appropriate test equipment for high strain rate characterization, and interpretation of measurement data. This presentation presents high strain rate testing experience on short fiber injection molded thermoplastics. We present stress/strain behavior at different strain rates, and discuss the effect of specimen design and different methods to evaluate high strain rate response and failure
Benefits of Conformal Cooling in improving Blow Molded Container Performance
Mold cooling efficiency often affects container performance in many ways. The change in dimensions after molding and the gradual relaxation stresses can cause performance issues. For example, carbonated soft drink containers can exhibit a lower level of stress crack performance or excessive gate area relaxation can cause containers to rocker and tip over. The higher production speeds associated with newest machinery, result in lower blow mold residence time. This is justification to take a fresh look at how to improve the package performance via more effective mold cooling. This study looks at improving mold cooling methodologies via virtual modeling. This is done by analyzing different preform and mold temperatures to determine optimum cooling channel design. Several case studies for petaloid and champagne style-base for carbonated soft drink containers are presented in this paper.
Using ZeMac? Copolymers To Reduce Costs in Nylon Compounds While Meeting Exacting Customer Performance Specifications
Nylon is widely used in many applications. At the 2013 ANTEC in Cincinnati, our paper covered the results obtained with compounding primarily recycled nylon with the addition of small quantities of alternating ethylene and maleic anhydride ZeMac? copolymers and specific property improvements for applications in injection molded compounds. The resulting compounds have performance that can match or exceed prime virgin nylon at 30-50% cost savings. At the 2014 ANTEC in Las Vegas, our paper covered the performance enhancements to provide several advantages for upgrading virgin nylon such as increasing relative viscosity for improved melt strength and the unique improvements obtained in impact-modified nylon-6 and nylon-6,6 by reducing the negative impact of traditional impact modifiers by offering synergistic set of properties. This current paper will cover how using the unique chemistry of these copolymer products can reduce costs in nylon compounds and still meet performance specifications.
PET/Organoclay Nanocomposites Synthesized by Solvent Blending with Sonication
Preparation and analysis of PET nanocomposites with 5wt% organoclay via solution blending using sonication technique. Degree of dispersion of organoclay in PET nanocomposites was observed by using SEM technique. SEM images of plasma treatment etching to show degree of clay distribution in the composite and distance between clay particles was studied and reported. SEM results exhibit the significance of sonication on the separation and distribution of clay particles and layers in the PET nanocomposites. Thermal analysis results using DSC technique revealed that the existence of solvent residue in the cast virgin PET samples and cast PET/clay nanocomposites samples resulted in a decrease of the glass transition temperature and cooling-crystallization temperature but an increase in the rate of crystallization, the heating-crystallization temperature, and crystallinity content.
Analysis of the Rheological Behavior of EPDM Rubber with Blowing Agent
An experimental investigation is made to study the rheological behavior of an Ethylene Propylene Diene Terpolymer rubber (EPDM) compound for extrusion containing blowing agent. The variation of the viscosity with time has been determined using a plate-plate rheometer at constant frequency. The obtained data is modeled using the Castro-Macosko model and the methodology to develop it uses a nonlinear least-squares regression method following the protocol proposed by Hernandez-Ortiz and Osswald. A good agreement between the data and the theoretical values is found and the values of constant viscosity are superposed in the TTT diagram to determine the operational window for the compound. The effect of the vulcanization and the temperature of processing on the rheological properties have also been studied.
Novel Integration Concepts for Automotive Sensors in Composite Structures
An approach to compensate additional costs by using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) structures for automotive lightweight components is functionalized lightweight design. The latter is addressed by the publicly funded project ARENA2036-LeiFu, ?Lightweight Design by Functional Integration? at the University of Stuttgart (Germany). As one of the participants the Robert Bosch Company is focusing on the integration of state of the art automotive sensors in CFRP structural parts. The research approach is based on the functional characterization of integrated automotive sensors and their behavior being surrounded by the new carrier material is analyzed. This paper provides an initial functional assessment of the sensor?s characteristics as it is integrated in the new carrier structure. Also a novel preparation towards the integration of the sensor's subsystem inside the laminate is demonstrated.
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