SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Aerogel from Food Waste
Zhang Xiwen, August 2019
What is Aerogel? Lightest but strong solid material with extreme low densities of 3 to 40 mg/cm3. Highly porous materials (> 99% of air) with large surface area. Objectives of the using coffee for aerogel: Repurpose food wastes into something useful while keeping environmental impacts to a minimum; Design a FULLY BIODEGRADABLE aerogel for various applications; Sustainable processing development for designed coffee aerogels; Functionalize the aerogels towards certain applications.
INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF THE FEEDSTOCK SHAPE ON ULTRASONIC MICROINJECTION MOULDING
M Gulcur | B. R. Whiteside | P. D. Coates, March 2019
Ultrasonic microinjection moulding technology uses ultrasound energy for melting the standard pellet-shaped polymer feedstock used in the plastics industry to facilitate melting of the material prior to the flow into the mould cavity. During the melting phase, the pellets are compressed against the sonotrode surface by using appropriate forces applied by an injection plunger. The pellets act as conductors of the acoustic energy and the contact points between the pellets act as initiators of the melting due to an interfacial friction heating mechanism. Both the pellet geometries and contact areas vary from shot to shot (due to variations in the pellet manufacturing process and the random distribution of pellets as they fall into the melting chamber) which causes process variation and a lack of repeatability of final product quality.  In order to overcome these issues, a more regular feedstock geometry was adopted. Identical disc shaped preforms were used in an ultrasonic micromolding process and compared with the process using standard pellets. The temperature distribution within the material was monitored for each feedstock geometry using a high-speed infrared camera. Characteristic features of the temperature profiles were analyzed and compared together with the final part quality. Results suggest that the initial contact interfaces of the polymer feedstock play a significant role in ultrasonic micromolding for micro-feature replication. 
Numerical Optimization Of Advanced Mixing Elements On Single Screw Extruders
Marius Wittke, March 2019
In this paper, the simulation of multiple variations of mixing elements and their results are presented. It is intended to create reliable information on how rather unconventional mixing elements in comparison to standard mixing elements can help to improve melt homogeneity. Therefore, a post processing method is developed to indicate the mixing efficiency of each simulated geometry. Finally, a conclusion is given recommending certain geometry parameters to optimize individual mixing elements.
Requirements For Medical Plastics - Launch Of New Guideline
Stefan Roth, March 2019
Safety for patient and user is an essential requirement for medical products. Subsequently, plastics grades used in medical have to fulfil particular requirements, i.e. constant properties, formulation lock or biocompatibility. Surprisingly, no standard has existed to define the requirements for medical grades so far. This gap has been filled recently by the new guideline VDI 2017 developed and launched by a work group of the German Engineer’s Society (VDI). This article addresses the development of the new guideline and presents the essential requirements to be covered by a medical grade.
High Density Polyethylene Blends For Additive Manufacturing
Craig Gorin, March 2019
High density polyethylene is challenging to use in standard additive manufacturing methods today, but would provide desirable properties such as chemical resistance, lightweighting, and durability to enable applications beyond prototyping. In this work, we describe high density polyethylene blends with highly branched polyethylene or polyethylene copolymers that improve adhesion and reduce warpage, significantly improving printability in standard filament extrusion 3D-printing methods.
High Shear Capillary Rheometry Of Cellulose Nanomaterials For Industry Relevant Processing
Bradley Sutliff, March 2019
The effects of high-shear flow on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are studied to demonstrate potential impacts of industrial processing. A microcapillary rheometer was used to characterize the shear thinning characteristics of CNCs at diverse concentrations. Shear thinning characteristics follow the Sisko model which allows reduction of the data onto time-concentration superposition master curves. Shift factors follow a Williams-Landel-Ferry-like (WLF) relationship.
Crosshatch Tape-Adhesion Test For Multi-Layer Films Using Scratch Machine
Kwanghae Noh, March 2019
Each model film is made in machine direction orientation and consists of two types of polyolefin; For some model films, a different compatibilizer was used; Each model film has a structure of ‘ABCBA’. Here, B is a tie layer; The thickness of the model films is from 2 mil to 2.5 mil, and the thickness of the skin layer is from 5 to 10%.
Effect Of Polypropylene Chain Branching On Melt Blown Process Stability
Martin Zatloukal, March 2019
In this work, linear polypropylene (L-PP) and longchain branched polypropylene miscible blend (LCB-PP), both having comparable weight average molecular weight, zero-shear viscosity and polydispersity index, were used to produce nonwovens via melt blown technology in order to understand role of long chain branching on the fiber diameter distribution.
The Benefits Of Farrel Continuous Mixing (Fcm(Tm)) Technology In Processing Polylactide (Pla) Compounds
Lori Sheehan, March 2019
Continuous mixing technology was first developed in the early 1960’s in an effort to create continuous rubber processing traditionally done in batch form. Due to the method of melting and mixing in a highly efficient manner, it has found a niche in highly filled or shear sensitive mixing/compounding applications. Polylactide resins are shear and temperature sensitive polymers that can benefit from continuous mixing technology in both neat and compounded processing applications.
Extremely Low Emission Polyoxymethylene For Automotive Interior Parts
SungHye Kim, March 2019
This paper presents the results of new extremely low emission (XLE) POM and low emission and improved odor PP long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFRT). The results highlight emissions that meet the current VOC requirements. Additionally, the products have significant improvement in odor and meet global demands.
Direct Joining Of Polytetrafluoroethylene And Polyamide To Steel Via Use Of Surface Treatment
Miranda Marcus, March 2019
The need to be able to directly join polymers to metals is growing. For example, in the drive to make batteries smaller, more energy efficient, longer lasting, and less expensive to manufacture, direct joining of polymers to metals offers many benefits. In this work, the use of a unique, commercially available, surface treatment method has been investigated as a potential method of making direct joining feasible.
Disinfectant Resistant Materials For Medical Devices
Manish Nandi, March 2019
Against a background of increasingly aggressive disinfection protocols being used in the medical sector, there is a compelling need for improved chemically resistant thermoplastics for medical device housings. We describe the development of exciting new materials, leveraging SABIC’s LNP™ copolymer technology to step beyond the performance of existing materials, such as polycarbonate and polybutylene terephthalate, showing compatibility with the most aggressive disinfectants currently in the market.
Flexil – A Novel Soft Touch Thermoplastic Elastomer
YOUHAO YANG, March 2019
Flexil®, a polymeric modifier can be used to uniquely tune and modify various types of elastomers and polymers. The versatility of Flexil creates a new platform for engineers to slightly tune their matrix polymer without sacrificing the inherent performances for a variety of end applications.
A Computational Study Of Necking And Drawing Of Plastic-Rubber Laminates
Rahul Gopalan Ramachandran, March 2019
Semi-crystalline polymers undergo necking followed by stable drawing under tensile forces. Whereas, a rubber extends many times its original length uniformly under tension. The necking and drawing behavior of the semicrystalline material can be modified by the addition of a rubber layer. Finite element simulation of plastic-rubberplastic tri-layers suggest that the applied stretch at which the neck develops, and the natural draw ratio can be controlled by varying the thickness of the rubber.
A New Versatile Masterbatch Additive For Polypropylene Compounds
Daniel Calimente, March 2019
In this paper we discuss the composition and performance characteristics of a new polypropylene masterbatch which incorporates an ultrahigh molecular weight (uhmw) silicone gum in a PP carrier. In general, surface effects can be obtained when employing different amides, or even fatty acids, however an ultra-high molecular weight silicone gum does not migrate or bloom to the surface, while providing very good scratch and mar resistance in polypropylene-based compounds. The material is supplied in pellet form, as well as microgranules, to better fit the end applications.
On-Line Processability Characterization Of Thermoplastic Formulations During Injection Molding
Christopher Thurber, March 2019
Processability is a critical performance parameter when developing thermoplastic formulations for injection molding applications. This paper describes various on-line methods for quantifying processability and compares the results with off-line rheological methods.
Developing Scratch-Resistant Clear Coating For Automotive By Using Molecular Necklace Cross-Linker
Moon sung wook, March 2019
Surfaces of the automobile are damaged in various forms due to external forces. The most common damage is scratch. It is not only a physical damage but also a fatal failure in an aesthetic point of view. Scratch damages are often observed on the clearcoat, which is the top layer of the automotive paint. In this study, scratch tests were conducted to evaluate the scratch resistances of various types of clearcoat layers. ASTM D7027 standard was modified to observe scratch damage more clearly.
Chromatic Effects For Sensitive Plastics Applications
Aaron Hollman, March 2019
This paper highlights the use of organic pigments, pearlescent effects and metallic pigments in the design of decorative materials for sensitive plastics applications. Examples of sensitive applications include food packaging and toys, as well as, cosmetic packaging, pharmaceutical applications and medical devices.
Plastic Design Pitfalls
Pavan Valavala | Paul Tres, March 2019
This paper will review a number of plastic part design pitfalls which came to a head when a little boy was badly burned after his digital watch caught fire and partially burned. The product was designed in the US and mass produced in China. The design of the product was improper, however the tool design and execution made it worse.
Melt Index And Extensional Rheology Combined
tim haake, March 2019
Using two established measurements, the combination thereof rolled into one instrument and one measurement, is herewith covered. A Melt Indexer and an Elongation Tester put together, greatly enhance the usefulness of each test result by itself, while saving much time compared to running tests individually. GOETTFERT has many years of experience with both individual tests and developed the D-MELT in close cooperation with a customer, who has many years of experience with a similar design mix. Introduction


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