SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Viscoelastic Measurement and Injection Molding Simulation of Amorphous Polymer: From Liquid to Solid
Chen-Chieh Wang, May 2020
The viscoelastic properties under wide temperature range (from viscous to glassy state) and various flow field are studied in this work for a commercial amorphous polymer. It is found that multi-mode EPTT model can describe all measured properties well including dynamic modulus, steady shear viscosity, first normal stress difference, and transient extensional viscosity. 3D flow VE simulation are conducted to validate the applicability of the fitted model and parameters by comparing with the injection pressure in filling and packing stages.
Viscosity Characterization and Transient Flow Simulation and Visualization of Ptfe Paste Extrusion
George Schmidt, May 2020
The shear viscosity of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) paste and its flow behavior during paste extrusion were investigated. Frequency sweeps using a parallel plate rheometer were performed on compression molded samples of PTFE paste made from fine powder PTFE mixed with ethanol as a lubricant. Various grits of sandpaper were used to reduce slip of PTFE paste on the walls. A viscosity model was generated and COMSOL Multiphysics was used to create a time-dependent flow simulation of PTFE through a paste extruder. The simulated results were compared to experimental data of actual paste extrusion. Due to simplifications used in the model, the simulated extrusion pressure over time differed in both magnitude and slope when compared to the experimental data. The simulated velocity profile was compared to flow visualization experiments, showing good agreement in wider regions of the extruder. Despite these drawbacks, the experiments and simulated model provided useful information about the flow within the paste extruder.
Viscosity Considerations In Multilayer Coextrusion
Deepak Langhe, May 2020
Due to complex viscoelastic nature of the polymers, it is challenging to process multicomponent structures with uniform layer thicknesses. Although multilayered structures have been processed in a broad array of polymer materials and formulated to service a wide range of applications, a clear understanding of the effects of viscosity matching on the uniformity of the layer periodicity is not well understood. Significant work on viscous encapsulation and secondary flow patterns in the die channels affecting the layer structures has been previously reported. However, further evaluation of these effects on wide range of materials in commercial coextrusion lines has been limited. In this paper, we look to extend the initial studies of rheology in multilayered materials via layer multiplication coextrusion approaches and demonstrate preliminary results on model systems that illustrate the effect of mismatched viscosity on coextrusion multilayered polymer materials systems.
Workflow for Enhanced Fiber Orientation Prediction of Short Fiber-reinforced Thermoplastics
Susanne Kugler, May 2020
In this paper a workflow is proposed for an enhanced fiber orientation prediction in injection molding of short fiber-reinforced thermoplastics. The workflow is easy-to-use, as the final fiber orientation prediction is integrated into the commercial software Moldflow®. For a given material with polymer matrix P and a volume fraction x of fibers, four steps have to be performed: 1) Generating a representative volume element (in the following, referred to as cell) with volume fraction x and mean fiber length, 2) Shearing of the cell using a mechanistic fiber simulation, 3) Calculating the transient fiber orientation tensor and fitting macroscopic parameters and 4) Performing the fiber orientation analysis with the optimized macroscopic parameters in Moldflow®. Based on experimental data, the pARD-RSC model was selected as macroscopic simulation model. It was implemented in Moldflow® via the Solver API feature. The enhanced workflow is validated at the example of two industrial applications with different polymer matrices and different fiber volume fractions. With the proposed workflow, we observe equal or higher accuracy of fiber orientation estimation in comparison to Moldflow® fiber orientation models RSC and MRD.
SASOL Polymers in the U.S.: The World is Flat
Louis Snyders, February 2020
In 2014, Sasol made the FID to build a world scale chemicals complex in Lake Charles, adjacent to our current facilities, that would target a global customer base. This presentation delves into Sasol as a company and the rationale behind the investments in the US, focusing specifically on Polyethylene. We will explore the strategy Sasol is executing to reach a global customer base while at the same time addressing how the current oversupply of Polyethylene is changing the global but also domestic supply and pricing dynamics. The world, in essence, is now flat! 
Commercializing Recyclable Plastic Packaging – A Journey of Discovery
Lawrence Effler, February 2020
Major brands and retailers have made various pledges to have recyclable plastic packaging by various targets dates. However, most recyclable solutions are not drop in replacements for existing packaging. Also, it’s not enough for the package to be reprocessable to be commercially recyclable other elements must also be in place. So, what does it take to have a commercially recyclable package and how do we get there?
Bag-in-Box Liquid Packaging Solutions (Paper)
Patrick Thomas, February 2020
Bag-in-Box Liquid Packaging Solutions Case Study: Using systematic troubleshooting methodology to identify and eliminate the root cause of liquid packaging leaker defects, a significant improvement in tear strength and flexcrack resistance was observed when coex split nylon film is manufactured with downward water quench film technology.
Bag-in-Box Liquid Packaging Solutions (Presentation)
Patrick Thomas, February 2020
Bag-in-Box Liquid Packaging Solutions Case Study: Using systematic troubleshooting methodology to identify and eliminate the root cause of liquid packaging leaker defects, a significant improvement in tear strength and flexcrack resistance was observed when coex split nylon film is manufactured with downward water quench film technology.
Create Sustainable Flexible Packaging Solutions, Together
Mosha Zhao, February 2020
It will be a presentation to discuss about flexible packaging (film) sustainable efforts and solutions based on polyethylene and polypropylene.
PP Sustainability Development - An Update
John Layman, February 2020
At P&G, environmental sustainability is embedded in how we do business. We have a responsibility to make the world better — through the products we create and the positive impact our brands and Company can have in communities worldwide. We’ve established ambitious goals to minimize our environmental footprint, to innovate with the best and safest ingredients from both science and nature, and to create products that make responsible consumption irresistible for people everywhere. This tutorial will provide an overview of P&G’s environmental sustainability programs including an in-depth discussion of P&G’s polyolefin recycling efforts.
ASTM Testing - An Overview
Paul O'Connell, February 2020
An overview of the ASTM will be presented. Topics covered will include a brief background on the ASTM and the needs for standards. The structure of ASTM committees will be discussed and their role in developing and approving new standards. The various types of standards (Methods, Guides, Specifications etc.) will be shown and a ‘walk-through’ of a typical standard highlighting the various sections and the critical parameters that the user needs to be aware of when developing tests to a specific standard. The Proficiency Testing Program (PTP) and training offerings from ASTM will be shown and lastly there will be a brief look at other national and international standards with emphasize on ISO.
Sorting Through Plastic Waste: Is Chemical Recycling a Solution?
Steven Slome, February 2020
Single use plastics remain under fire from the public, but do they deserve the hate? Single use plastics remain the most sustainable option in many cases. Improving the end-of-life options for single use plastics and polyolefins in particular, can do greatly to improve the sustainability of these plastics and perhaps lessen the ire of the public. Several options have emerged for chemically recycling polymers that until now have remained "unrecyclable". This presentation is a broad overview of chemical recycling options available to plastics, with a particular focus on sustainability and single use plastics. Technology options, economics, drivers, as well as issues for commercialization are discussed. The data presented is supported by recent reports available for subscription. 
Quantitative Determination of Interfacial Strength in Commercial Coatings and Laminates
Hung-jue Sue, February 2020
Delamination in coatings and multilayered polymeric sheets and films, which compromises the mechanical integrity and intended functionalities, are commonly found in commercial products. Known acceptable approaches, such as the double-cantilever-beam test, for quantifying adhesive strength in commercial coating and laminated products are difficult to implement. The practical ASTM D3359 and ISO 2409 crosshatch-cut and tape-pull standards are too crude and gives inconsistent results. In this presentation, two new test methodologies have been developed for quantitative determination of interfacial adhesion in coatings, semi-rigid sheets, and soft multi-layer polymeric films. These new test methods involve the utilization of a highly instrumented machine to perform the tests, followed by finite element methods modeling to obtain the associated stress magnitude for determining the interfacial strength in coatings, semi-rigid laminates, and soft multilayer films. Consequently, fundamental structure-property relationship can be established based on commercial products. Examples of success based on a few commercial coatings and polymeric laminates will be presented.
A 30 Year Retrospective of BASF Antioxidants for Polyolefins; 1990-2020
Rick King, February 2020
By the end of the 1980s, the combination of phenolic antioxidants and phosphite based melt processing stabilizers had been firmly established as the traditional cornerstones of a representative stabilization system for polyolefins. Even so, there was still room for improvement. Accordingly, over the next thirty years, an enormous amount of work was done to continue developing new stabilizer chemistries, and to further advance the frontiers of polymer stabilization. An overview of selected products will be provided, along with examples of how some of these products became unique solutions to help polyolefins continue advancing as the preferred material of choice in the plastics industry. Most recently, we have been exploring novel approaches to use our BASF Antioxidant technology platform to further enable the goals of “Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle."
Effects of Molecular Weight of Thermoplastic Fluorinated PPA on Various Melt Index LLDPE Polymers
David Seiler Sr., February 2020
The paper will study the performance for a series of fluorinated thermoplastic polymer process aids (PPA) in different LLDPE polymers with varying melt index from fractional melt to 3.6 dg/minute. The study compares results for fluorinated thermoplastic PPAs of different molecular structure in LLDPE and will help in the understanding of how the variation of LLDPE Melt Index (MI) can lead to selection of the preferred PPA for optimum processing. The study utilizes a flat-die extrusion testing method to evaluate key performance results such as speed of melt fracture elimination, speed and amount of pressure reduction, other observations, and how these performance enhancements vary depending on the MI of the LLDPE.
The Next Generation of Non-Alkylphenyl Polymeric Phosphites: Increased Phosphorus and Performance
Michael Jakupca, February 2020
Phosphites are widely used to improve the thermal stability of polymers during melt processing. The performance of a phosphite is related to the percent of phosphorus in the molecule, higher levels of phosphorus result in increased melt flow stability. Dover Chemical has previously introduced a polymeric phosphite that has many benefits, such as good process stability, excellent color retention during melt processing and aging, low migration, no compatibility or plate-out issues and unique melt fracture synergy with polymeric process aids. A new polymeric phosphite will be introduced in this paper, that has the same beneficial properties, but with a 50% higher phosphorus level. This presentation will examine the performance of this second generation high performance liquid polymeric phosphite.
Plastic Additives, Fit for Use in Sensitive Applications, Safe Pure Transparent
Tracey Malone, February 2020
Plastic Additives can be used in sensitive applications such as food contact and/or water pipes. Supplying these products into the global marketplace requires that standards and practices must be established that can assure the products are of a purity suitable for the intended use. Global regulations supply the requirements for assessing the safety of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). Since many plastic additives undergo chemical transformations as they perform their functions during plastic fabrication and use, identification and evaluation of these substances and Good Manufacturing Practice requirements for plastic additives during synthesis and blending have become more explicit. NIAS that originate from various sources must be assessed and controlled. We will share BASF’s programs to identify and mitigate risks in this area to ensure safe products and our commitment to responsible care.
Creating High-Value Added Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene via Polymer Additives Technology
Yota Tsuneizumi, February 2020
Utilization of plastics is expanding in the course of the development of compounding and additivation technologies for a light weight solution in automotive, insulative and advanced design in E&E application. Among plastics, polyolefin in particular, polypropylene is one of the key materials from the standpoint of well-balanced physical/mechanical properties and cost. Glass-reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) and Talc-filled PP are already being used in these application to replace engineering plastics and metals. These compounds are used in structural components that require high levels of stiffness, strength and heat resistance, predominantly within automotive, appliance and furniture applications. However, it is well known that polyolefins degrade rapidly by auto-oxidation reaction under extreme conditions. There are also disadvantages to polypropylene by filling glass fiber, such as increase of brittleness and decrease in flowability. In this paper, the contribution of the additives in GFPP is explained. Against the severe processing temperature of GFPP, a combination of antioxidants showed remarkable stability. Nucleating agents can improve the mechanical properties, resulting in weight reduction of the polypropylene composites and the reduction of cycle time. By the use of specific NA, data suggests that the amount glass fiber could be reduced while maintaining the compound’s mechanical properties, which will contribute to weight reduction. Additionally, the flame retardancy which could be achieved by an intumescent type flame retardant (FR) in GFPP will also be discussed.
Interactions Between Sorbitol Nucleator and Other Common Additives in Polypropylene
Olivier Nguon, February 2020
Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most produced thermoplastic polymers, offering excellent physical properties, good processability, and low cost. The performance of this material is contingent on its semicrystalline structure. One common method to enhance the crystallization rate is the addition of nucleating agents. Sorbitol compounds, in particular, have proved effective, at low concentrations, at improving both mechanical and optical properties while shortening processing times. Other additives have widespread use to facilitate processing and prevent polymer degradation. For instance, fatty acids and antioxidants are frequently compounded with PP. However, the interactions between the different additives are generally unknown, and may yield antagonistic interactions, nucleator deactivation, and inferior properties. We studied the synergistic and antagonistic interactions between 1,2,3-trideoxy-4,6:5,7-bis-O-[(4-propylphenyl)methylene]-nonitol (TBPMN) and four additives (processing aids and antioxidants). We showed improved crystallization temperature (Tc) in presence of the antioxidants, while calcium stearate was found to inhibit nucleator activity. The performance of TBPMN in presence of mono-glycerides was found to highly depend on the processing conditions. From 1H NMR, and FTIR analysis, we posit that hydrogen bonding and/or oxidation of the nucleator took place with these additives, and inhibited the network formation in the polymer matrix. The method of addition of nucleators and other additives to polypropylenes is an important parameter to achieving the best performance in the final product.
Beyond Antioxidants: Using Microcompounding to Evaluate Stabilizer-Systems in Polypropylene
Niall Marshall, February 2020
It has been shown that studying the processing stability of polypropylene using continuous micro-compounding provides comparable results with statistical repeatability to the traditional multiple extrusion approach but with the added advantage of being quicker and requiring less material. Using this approach we have further compared the performance of different stabilizer systems made up of primary- and secondary-antioxidants at different loadings to evaluate the efficacy of stabilizer systems rather than of the various antioxidants themselves.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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