The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING OF A POLY(ACRYLONITRILE:BUTADIENE:STYRENE) CUP HOLDER
Environmental stress cracking (ESC) resistance has become an essential industrial criterion for engineering thermoplastics, as ESC causes unexpected brittle fracture of ductile amorphous plastics. In the automotive industry, a variety of amorphous plastics are used, which need to be ESC resistant, as they come in contact with various fluids while subjected to mechanical stresses. PC-ABS materials offer a good compromise between processibility, cost and mechanical properties. However, this material is prone to ESC failure.
PRIMARY PARTICLE DELAMINATION AS THE IMPACT MECHANISM FOR PVC
Previously published data is interpreted by assuming that the impact energy absorbing mechanism in rigid PVC is delamination or separation of the primary particles. This means that PVC can not have optimum impact properties along with optimum other mechanical properties such as creep resistance, yield strength, etc that are fully developed with complete gelation. This finding could have particular significance in PVC pressure pipe.
SOLVENTLESS POLYMERIC PARTICLE COATING IN A FLUIDIZED BED VIA UV LED INITIATED POLYMERIZATION
A fluidized bed coater equipped with Light Emitting Diodes (LED) UV lamps was demonstrated for solventless polymeric coating of KCl particle. SEM images show that the polymeric coating is very uniform. TGA and ash test results confirm that most of injected chemicals were coated on KCl particles. IR analysis showed that the conversion of the polymerization could be up to 60% and 100% in air and nitrogen, respectively.
CHARACTERISTIC OPTIMIZATION OF ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE INJECTION-MOLDED PARTS USING THE EXAMPLE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE BIPOLAR PLATES
Topic of this article is the result of some investigations which are representing the foundations for quality optimization of highly filled injection-molded parts, represented by the electrical conductivity. In this context the influence of the process conditions on the electric conductivity of high temperature bipolar plates is subject of research. Especially the cavity pressure, the melt temperature and the time dependence of these values became essential.
INTEGRATED STORAGE ACTUATOR MODULE FOR CONTINUOUS POWER CONSUMPTION IN PERIODIC PROCESSES
The injection molding process is widely known as one of the most advanced processes for manufacturing of parts that range from simple commodities to accurate technical parts. Due to the cyclical process the power consumption is highly discontinuous causing distinct peak power. This article describes an alternative local drive concept, which is able to realize a continuous power consumption during the injection molding process. This concept is designed for tasks with a high power demand, for example clamping forces about 13.000 kN.
LIGHT SCATTERING ANALYSIS OF POLYETHYLENE BLOWN FILMS: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INTERNAL HAZE AND MORPHOLOGY
The morphological basis of improvements in film haze achieved by blending LDPE into LLDPE was explored with light scattering. Two-dimensional light scattering patterns were analyzed by a novel approach to define a “Morphology Index”. Besides its utility as a numeric descriptor of the superstructure in the continuum from spherulitic to fibrillar morphologies, the Morphology Index was also found to correlate well with the internal haze of films.
GLOBALIZED BUSINESS STRATEGIES – THE ANSWER TO WEAK DOMESTIC GROWTH?
US domestic businesses have been struggling since the onset of the Great Recession – four years now – with weak demand and limited available financing still prevalent. Business managers need to adapt to this “new normal,” or their companies may not be able to endure until sustained growth is finally here again. One answer is to seek customers where demand is still growing – overseas. Less developed countries can offer business opportunities that are currently lacking in the US and the EU.
RAPID PERMEATION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE GAS PERMEABILITY OF FILMS
Gas permeation measurements performed on films according to the standard take a long time. We present a method with helium for a quick measurement with measuring times of only a few minutes. This allows an accelerated iterative development of new formulations for films directly at the production line and the monitoring of the barrier properties for quality control. The investigations show a good correlation between the results of the accelerated and standardized tests.
SOME REASONS FOR THE FRACTURING OF GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC PIPES
Distinctions in heat conductivity and durability of the functional layers of GRP pipes can lead to the fracturing of a superficial layer at a heatstroke.
INCREASING DRUG RELEASE RATE THROUGH FOAMED STRUCTURES
The influence of foam morphology on the release rate of Indomethacin (INM) from a solid solution prepared by hot melt extrusion was investigated. Closed cell foams were produced through a batch process, employing CO2 as physical blowing agent. In all cases foamed disks showed faster INM’s release than un-foamed disks. The time required for completing INM’s release was reduced up to 75% mainly due to extensive and random breakage of the sample during dissolution test.
STATIC CHARGE CONTROL FOR PLASTIC WEBS IN ROLL-TO-ROLL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Excessive static causes dust attraction and sheet sticking. Sparks can injure operators, damage electronic devices and ignite fires. While installing a static dissipater just before winding prevents sparks in the winding roll, it is ineffective in preventing static problems when the roll is unwound in subsequent operations. A more effective strategy is to identify the sources of the charging and to install static dissipaters to neutralize static on the charged web surface.
ASSEMBLY INJECTION MOLDING AND TESTING OF POLYMER-METAL-HYBRIDS
On a basic concept of a reactive layer between metal and polymer, in this study a physico-chemical bonded polymer-metal combination was injection molded and amongst others characterized by peel test. The multilayer system contains an intermediate flexible TPU-layer that compensates thermal induced internal stresses. The scope of the paper is the injection molding process for a three and four layer part and first results of the characterization of the bond strength between the different components.
PRESTRESSED DOUBLE NETWORK GLASSES
Prestressed Double Network epoxy, a new type of sequential Interpenetrating Polymer Network, was developed by reacting an epoxide monomer with various molar ratios of two curatives. Postcure was conducted while the partially cured resins were at 50% compressive strain. The application of pre- stress did not change the glass transition temperature, or coefficient of thermal expansion. However, a marked increase in fracture toughness is observed, accompanied by strong birefringence and visible roughness on the fracture surface.
RECENT INSIGHTS ON THE USE OF BETA NUCLEATION TO IMPROVE THE THERMFORMING CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYPROPYLENE
Beta nucleation can be used to improve the thermoforming characteristics of polypropylene. The benefits of beta nucleation include a broader processing window, better material distribution, improved rigidity and crush strength, and higher productivity. In this paper we will show how the properties of the thermoformed part depend on the processing conditions used, and how new, high activity beta nucleating agents can lead to lighter weight, lower cost products with unique visual characteristics.
SIMULATING THE PARISON GEOMETRY IN EXTRUSION BLOW MOLDING WITH VISCOELASTIC MATERIAL MODELS
In this study the molding step in extrusion blow molding is simulated using different viscoelastic material models. The material parameters are determined and material, throughput, temperature as well as the die geometry are varied during simulations. The quality of the parison geometry prediction is evaluated by comparing the computed results of the parison geometry with experimental data. In addition, an evaluation of the suitability of the different viscoelastic material models is performed.
ANALYSIS OF THE FLUID ASSISTED INJECTION TECHNIQUE BY USING ULTRASONIC
The gas assisted and water assisted injection molding technique are well-established processes for the production of parts with (functional) hollow space. The quality of these parts highly depends on the internal part properties such as the residual wall thickness. Hence this paper deals with the online use of ultrasonic measurements to visualize the hollow space formation and to determine the residual wall thickness of the molded parts.
BATCH FOAMING BEHAVIOR OF TPU MATERIAL
This paper investigates the foaming behavior of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) in a customized foaming system using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a physical blowing agent. Foams with different cellular morphology have been obtained depending on different TPU material and foaming conditions. The influence of different TPU material and foaming conditions (pressure, temperature and time) on the expansion behavior and the foam structure are discussed.
ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS COMPOUNDS BASED ON SYNERGETIC FILLER COMBINATIONS
Electrical conductive plastics compounds based on one type of filler show limited electrical conductivities. By combining different fillers synergetic effects can be obtained regarding not only the electrical conductivity but also the mechanical properties or processability. In this paper the synergetic effect of carbon fibers combined with carbon black, carbon nanotubes and a low melting metal alloy in a polypropylene matrix is discussed
A FULLY THREE DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL APPROACH SIMULATING THE MELTING ZONE IN A SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDER
This paper presents a fully 3D numerical approach to simulate the melting process in a single screw extruder using the software Fluent distributed by ANSYS, Inc. The model predicts the melting length, pressure build?up and the velocity and temperature distribution within the channel. The screw geometry is modeled as a helical shaped channel and the principle of reversed kinematics is applied. The solid bed is modeled as a fluid with a very high viscosity.
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