SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES MEASUREMENTS AT THE NANOSCALE
Gunter Moeller, May 2010
Understanding the mechanical behavior of nanostructured polymers is of great academic and practical interest. We used Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation to measure mechanical properties of such materials. While AFM is generally acknowledged as a high-resolution imaging tool, accurate quantification of AFM nanoindentation results is a challenge.We report significant accuracy improvements for modulus measurements of polymeric materials when special large end-radius tips are used for indentation and viscoelastic contact models are applied for data analysis. Using these tips results in only minor loss of imaging resolution so that very small regions of interest can be identified and indented for mechanical analysis. We show AFM results for nine polymers and two polymer blends and a comparison with instrumented indenter results.
ENHANCING PROPERTIES OF PP-IMPACT COPOLYMERS BY CHEMICAL MODIFICATION
Peter Neuteboom, May 2010
Polypropylene impact copolymers are widely used in automotive applications. They are required to comply with many criteria. Customers demand high-performance materials which also exhibit good aesthetical properties. The challenge is to balance properties as high impact strength, good flow ability and absence of surface defects, like tiger stripes. It is known that peroxide modification whilst increasing the flow ability of polypropylene impact copolymers deteriorates the basic mechanical and aesthetical properties. Work was performed in which a PP-impact copolymer was subjected to peroxide aided chain-scission under simultaneous presence of the co-agent 1,4- butanedioldimethacrylate (1,4-BDDMA). Results show that samples made with 1,4- BDDMA exhibit superior cold impact resistance and tiger stripe performance compared to the materials made with only peroxide. In addition, morphology, molecular weight distribution, and rheological behaviour of the continuous and dispersed phases of the modified PP impact copolymer were studied.
ENHANCING PROPERTIES OF PP-IMPACT COPOLYMERS BY CHEMICAL MODIFICATION
Peter Neuteboom, May 2010
Polypropylene impact copolymers are widely used in automotive applications. They are required to comply with many criteria. Customers demand high-performance materials which also exhibit good aesthetical properties. The challenge is to balance properties as high impact strength, good flow ability and absence of surface defects, like tiger stripes. It is known that peroxide modification whilst increasing the flow ability of polypropylene impact copolymers deteriorates the basic mechanical and aesthetical properties. Work was performed in which a PP-impact copolymer was subjected to peroxide aided chain-scission under simultaneous presence of the co-agent 1,4-butanedioldimethacrylate (1,4-BDDMA). Results show that samples made with 1,4- BDDMA exhibit superior cold impact resistance and tiger stripe performance compared to the materials made with only peroxide. In addition, morphology, molecular weight distribution, and rheological behaviour of the continuous and dispersed phases of the modified PP impact copolymer were studied.
LOW SEAL INITIATION OF COMMODITY POLYPROPYLENE FILMS, USING NOVEL BLENDS OF TERPOLYMERS AND POLYBUTENES
Joseph Samaniuk, David Litchfield, Donald Baird, May 2010
Processors who process mono or multilayer films on blown or cast film plants need to optimize the performance in terms of Low Seal Initiation Temperature (SIT), Hot Tack Strength and Heat Seal Strength. Masterbatches of terpolymer & polybutene-1 were prepared and added to skin layers of three layer polypropylene cast film. The results indicate lower SIT and higher Heat Seal & Hot Tack Strength. Polypropylene based terpolymers along with Polybutene-1 offer wider choice to film manufacturers to tailor-made films with properties. This paper will provide path for processors on tailor-making the properties as desired by end users.
IMPROVING THE EXFOLIATION OF LAYERED SILICATE IN A POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) MATRIX USING SUPER CRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE
Joseph Samaniuk , David Litchfield , Donald Baird, May 2010
A novel technique for improving the exfoliation of organically modified layered silicate (OMLS) in a PET matrix using super critical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is compared to traditional direct melt blending. The process relies on the rapid expansion of a sc-CO2/OMLS mixture into the second stage of a single screw extruder where it is subsequently melt blended with the PET matrix. The simple environmentally benign process results in a more highly exfoliated system than direct melt compounding.X-ray diffraction analysis and mechanical testing are used to reveal improved clay exfoliation and the resulting mechanical properties.
A NOVEL JOINING PROCESS FOR HYBRID PLASTIC-METAL COMPONENTS
Alan D. Jaenecke, May 2010
For mass production of hybrid plastic/metal components to be fully realized, novel joining technologies without the use of bonding agents need to be developed. A hybrid-bonding technology based on conductive heating of the metal part is presented. Once the metal surface reaches a predetermined temperature, pressure is applied to the components to promote matching of the faying surfaces. Contact of metal and plastic components is achieved. Once the thermoplastic part melts the pressure induced flow promotes mechanical bonding between the two components with controlled cooling. The influence of welding parameters on the bond strength is examined. In addition an investigation of various materials and surface modifications was studied.
WEAR DAMAGE ON DECORATED PLASTICS - Techniques to Understand and Improve Your Testing -
Alan D. Jaenecke, May 2010
The objective of a laboratory test method is to define the approach that will permit an operator to obtain meaningful reliable data. As materials and decoration techniques evolve commonly used test methods to measure abrasion resistance of decorated plastics may no longer be sufficient. To ensure a robust product it is essential that you understand how to recreate and measure ƒ??real-worldƒ? damage. This paper presents a process to develop (or improve) test methods intended to quantify the resistance of surface wear on decorated plastics.Emphasis is placed on reducing common sources of test procedure variation and advanced techniques to interpret and quantify the results.
VARIOTHERMAL HEATING CONCEPTS FOR EXTRUSION EMBOSSING OF MICRO-STRUCTURED FILMS
Walter Michaeli , Micha Scharf, May 2010
Extrusion embossing is an economic and fast process for the production of large quantities of structured films. This one-step-process can be used for embossing of macroscopic and microscopic structures as well. The replication accuracy of microstructures can be increased significantly using variothermal heating concepts for the embossing rolls. Two variothermal heating concepts using additional inductive or laser-based heating devices are developed at the IKV. The achievable temperature curve on the roll surface is determined in dependence of the heating device and the time. Furthermore improvements in replication accuracy by variothermal heating are presented.
VARIOTHERMAL HEATING CONCEPTS FOR EXTRUSION EMBOSSING OF MICRO-STRUCTURED FILMS
Walter Michaeli , Micha Scharf, May 2010
Extrusion embossing is an economic and fast process for the production of large quantities of structured films. This one-step-process can be used for embossing of macroscopic and microscopic structures as well. The replication accuracy of microstructures can be increased significantly using variothermal heating concepts for the embossing rolls. Two variothermal heating concepts using additional inductive or laser-based heating devices are developed at the IKV. The achievable temperature curve on the roll surface is determined in dependence of the heating device and the time. Furthermore improvements in replication accuracy by variothermal heating are presented.
IN-MOLD SHRINKAGE MONITORING SENSOR FOR INJECTION MOLDING
Rahul R. Panchal , David O. Kazmer, May 2010
Dimensional consistency is a critical attribute of molded part quality but is frequently only estimated from cavity pressure or part weight measurements. An in-mold shrinkage sensor having a deflectable diaphragm under melt pressure instrumented with strain gages connected in a full bridge circuit is designed and validated. Molded part shrinkage is then measured as the polymer melt solidifies, shrinks, and retracts from the mold wall. The results of a DOE conducted to validate the performance of the sensor indicate the sensor outperforms both cavity pressure transducers and regression models, and is able to measure the shrinkage to an absolute accuracy of 0.01 mm for a 2.5 mm thick part.
HARD COATED TRANSPARENT COPOLYCARBONATE WINDOWS AND ARTICLES WITH EXCEPTIONAL FR AND LOW OSU HEAT RELEASE VALUES
Yashpal J. Bhandari, Gurulingamurthy Haralur, Peter Catsman, May 2010
New OSU compliant, hard coated polycarbonate copolymer articles were formed by extrusion and injection molding processes followed by hard coating. These samples were prepared using a variety of hard coatings and processes to afford scratch resistant, low color, high transmission and low haze articles. These highly transparent, low color articles are the first in their class to be fully compliant to the OEMs and FAA (FAR25.853) aerospace flammability standards. The combination of coating and specific resin is needed to produce the excellent balance of flame resistance, durability and optical properties.
A NEW PROCESS TO RECYLE PET BOTTLE FLAKES FOR FOOD CONTACT APPLICATIONS
Liqiang Yang, Kristina Setyowati, An Li, Shaoqin Gong, Jian Chen, May 2010
In the Bepex process ground and washed post-consumer polyester packaging (rPET) flakes are efficiently decontaminated and polymerized for food contact packaging applications. The hot processed flakes may be directly extruded into the bottles, sheets or films thereby eliminating several energy, capital and labor intensive steps resulting in a cost-effective simplified process. Volatile contaminants in the polymer are removed by diffusion into the gas phase thereby purifying the polymer in the solid state under atmospheric pressure. The presence of small amounts of selected vapors in the gas enhances diffusion of the volatile components providing efficient decontamination without excessive molecular weight build-up.
INFRARED ACTUATION OF CARBON NANOTUBE ƒ??LIQUID CRYSTALLINE ELASTOMER NANOCOMPOSITES
Liqiang Yang , Kristina Setyowati , An Li , Shaoqin Gong , Jian Chen, May 2010
This paper reports the infrared (IR) actuation performance of a new family of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-nematic liquid crystalline elastomer (LCE) nanocomposites. A strong and instantaneous response (~30% strain) to the IR stimulus was observed in the SWNT-LCE nanocomposites due to the photon absorption of the SWNTs resulting in an increase in the nanocomposite film's temperature and thereby triggering a nematic-isotropic phase transition. The IR strain response of the SWNT-LCE nanocomposites increased with the SWNT loading level and the degree of hot-drawing but decreased with the photo-curing time.
COMPOUNDING AND INJECTION MOLDING OF SOLVENT-BASED HEALING COMPOUNDING AND INJECTION MOLDING OF SOLVENT-BASED HEALING
Mohamed Esseghir, Anthony C. Neubauer, May 2010
The solvent-based self-healing approach used in thermosets has been extended to thermoplastic materials in which common organic solvents are used as compartmentalized liquid healing agents. Robust, solvent-filled poly(urea-formaldehyde) microcapsules are compounded into a thermoplastic poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix and then injection molded into compression test specimens. MicroCT (computed tomography) imaging is used to determine capsule survival rate after each processing step. Mechanical testing is performed on the double cleavage drilled compression3 specimens. Upon crack damage, solvent is released from the embedded microcapsules, which leads to polymer chain entanglement across the crack plane to restore the virgin fracture toughness to the material.
MECHANICAL PROPERTY RETENTION OF HIGH HEAT POLYCARBONATES UNDER LONG TERM AGING AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
Shyh-Shin Hwang, Peming P. Hsu, C.-W. Chiang, May 2010
Industrial lighting applications require plastics that can be used at elevated temperatures for long periods of time. To understand the suitability of a new class of high heat polycarbonates for such applications, their heat aging performance was investigated at temperatures ranging from 140oC to 180oC for up to 7500 hours. The rate of loss in mechanical properties (tensile strength and impact) has been used to predict the long-term performance of these materials. The new high heat polycarbonates showed better retention of mechanical properties compared to conventional and other high heat polycarbonate materials.
WEATHERING PERFORMANCE OF A SCRATCH RESISTANT WEATHERING PERFORMANCE OF A SCRATCH RESISTANT
T. M. Lewis, A. I. Isayev, J. Keum, May 2010
The weathering performance of a Lexan* copolycarbonate resin was studied against a benchmark PC resin. Known ISO, ASTM and SAE weathering protocols were used and observed differences explained. Lexan* copolycarbonate resin offers a scratch resistant polycarbonate solution that opens up new possibilities in terms of part performance. Key applications range from mobile phones to interior automotive trims and benefit from the elimination of secondary operations due to the increased hardness of the material. This can lead to costout opportunities and environmentally friendlier solutions where conventional protective hard coatings or painted surfaces are considered.
A CURE KINETICS MODEL FOR THE NON-ISOTHERMAL CURING OF POLYIMIDE
T. M. Lewis , A. I. Isayev , J. Keum, May 2010
A cure kinetics model for curing a phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI-330) was proposed including induction and curing stages. Model parameters for both stages were determined from non-isothermal DSC runs at various heating rates and corrected for the temperature difference between the sample and the furnace. These parameters were used to predict the state of cure measured in compression molded slabs obtained at fixed temperatures for various times and isothermal DSC runs including the curing that occurs during the transient temperature variation before reaching the set temperature.Experimental results are in good agreement with the predicted evolution of cure in the DSC and molded samples.
COMPLEX THERMAL HOT-RUNNER BALANCING – A METHOD TO OPTIMIZE FILLING PATTERN AND PRODUCT QUALITY
Florian Petzold , Marco Thornagel , Kaushik Manek, May 2010
Depending on the material and process parameters geometrically balanced runners can show rheological imbalances. In hot runner systems these imbalances are handled by controlling the nozzle tempering. However this balancing method leads to high polymer temperatures and causes a product quality that differs from part to part. This paper presents and discusses the preferential polymer flow paths inside hot-runner systems and their dependency on the plastic system as simulated and analyzed by SIGMASOFT. It will be shown that a complex thermal hot-runner tempering layout tweaked by simulation reduces the imbalances and improves the product quality at the same time.
COMPLEX THERMAL HOT-RUNNER BALANCING – A METHOD TO OPTIMIZE FILLING PATTERN AND PRODUCT QUALITY
Florian Petzold , Marco Thornagel, May 2010
Depending on the material and process parameters geometrically balanced runners can show rheological imbalances. In hot runner systems these imbalances are handled by controlling the nozzle tempering. However this balancing method leads to high polymer temperatures and causes a product quality that differs from part to part. This paper presents and discusses the preferential polymer flow paths inside hot-runner systems and their dependency on the plastic system, as simulated and analyzed by SIGMASOFT. It will be shown that a complex thermal hot-runner tempering layout tweaked by simulation reduces the imbalances and improves the product quality at the same time.
THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEDIUM MOLECULAR WEIGHT HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE FILMS: MAKING THE LINK BETWEEN ORIENTATION AND RHEOLOGY
T. Ishikawa, F. Nagano, T. Kajiwara, May 2010
This paper describes a study of the mechanical properties of films produced from five different medium molecular weight homopolymer high density polyethylene resins. The machine direction (MD) tear strength and dart impact strength of these films track together. This is due to the tendency of these films to fail during dart impact testing by tearing in the machine direction. The ratio of MD and transverse direction (TD) tear properties correlates with low frequency linear viscoelastic measurements. There is a straightforward relationship between melt index measurements and low frequency rheology for the resins in our study, which relates film properties directly to readily available resin properties and film processing conditions.


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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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