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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
AN APPROACH TO POLY(1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE) SYNTHESIS VIA RING-OPENING METATHESIS POLYMERIZATION (ROMP)
Xianlong Ge , William H. Starnes Jr., May 2010
The preparation of poly(1,2-dichloroethylene), an unknown material that is expected to be a superb engineering thermoplastic, was explored. The ROMP of cis-3,4-dichlorocyclobutene quantitatively yielded a white linear polymer with 'CHClCHClCH=CH' repeating units. However, its subsequent addition chlorination could not be made to occur to a detectable level. Steric hindrance and/or electronic deactivation due to the inductive effect of Cl apparently made the chlorination impossible. Furthermore, thermal degradation of a series of model compounds indicated that polymers containing (CHCl)n (n ' 3) structures would have low thermal stabilities.
DESIGN OF AN ADVANCED INJECTION MOLDING CONTROL SYSTEM
Clive P. Bosnyak, Alexander Chudnovsky, Shaofu Wu, Hoang T. Pham, May 2010
In injection molding, the control system plays a crucial role in quality consistency. Low-grade IMMs are manufactured in a large volume in Asia with low profit margin. Technology upgrade is the key to business success. An advanced control system has been designed in this paper to improve the performance of existing low-end IMMs with minimal modification. The control system architecture and advanced features are introduced. Experimental results show that with this controller, the performance of low-end machines can be comparable to that of the high cost and high performance machines, in term of repeatability and accuracy.
POLYETHERIMIDE-POLYESTERCARBONATE BLENDS WITH LOW HEAT RELEASE
Yashpal J. Bhandari , Robert R. Gallucci , Mark Sanner , Rajendra K. Singh, May 2010
Blends of polyetherimide (PEI) with polycarbonate (PC) form phase-separated mixtures. However replacement of polycarbonate bisphenol-A (BPA) derived linkages with resorcinol derived ester linkages to form isophthaloyl and terephthaloyl resorcinol polyestercarbonate (ITR-PC) exhibits surprising miscibility with PEI. Due to the flame retarding capability of ITR-PC versus PC the PEI + ITRPC blends also exhibit improved flame resistance in terms of lower heat release (HR) as measured by Ohio State Universityƒ??s (OSU) Heat Release test apparatus.Due to their lower heat release (< 65/65) these blends are compliant with US Federal Aviation Authority Regulation (FAR 25.853) and thus are acceptable for use in the fabrication of interior components for transportation industry. Due to their miscibility these PEI + ITR-PC blends can also be used in applications requiring transparency.
ADHESION OF BIODEGRADBLE PLASTICS WITH BONE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY USING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SCREW / PLATE SYSTEM AND BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MELT ADHESIVES
Anshuman Shrivastava , Jeffrey Weinzweig , Stephen McCarthy, May 2010
Biodegradable bone plates are commonly secured to bone surfaces using screws in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Using melt adhesives potentially replaces the need for existing screws and the associated complex techniques and equipment. Previously we have shown the advantages of using biodegradable melt adhesives over screw systems [1]. A time-based study comparing the effect of using melt adhesives and screws to secure bone implants to bone in a live goat model was performed. This paper demonstrates and compares the impact of using screws plates and melt adhesives on the healing of bone and operative time.
ADHESION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS WITH BONE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY USING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SCREW / PLATE SYSTEM AND BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MELT ADHESIVES
Anshuman Shrivastava , Jeffrey Weinzweig , Stephen McCarthy, May 2010
Biodegradable bone plates are commonly secured to bone surfaces using screws in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Using melt adhesives potentially replaces the need for existing screws and the associated complex techniques and equipment. Previously we have shown the advantages of using biodegradable melt adhesives over screw systems. A time-based study comparing the effect of using melt adhesives and screws to secure bone implants to bone in a live goat model was performed. This paper demonstrates and compares the impact of using screws, plates, and melt adhesives on the healing of bone and operative time.
CELL STRUCTURE OF INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN FOAMS
Amirhossein Maani , Marie-Claude Heuzey , Pierre J. Carreau , Omar Khennache, May 2010
A linear and a branched polypropylene were blended with an ethylene ?ñ-olefin copolymer as the toughening elastomeric compound. A significant strain hardening behaviour was observed for the branched polypropylene (B-PP) as well as the branched polypropylene based TPO (B-TPO). The foamabilities of the compounded TPOs were investigated in a low pressure injection foaming process at an industrial scale. While linear polypropylene based TPO (L-TPO) exhibited no strain hardening behaviour, the cell density of the LTPO was significantly higher than that of the B-TPO.The results of injection foaming of neat polypropylenes, however, showed that the cell density of B-PP foam is almost 2 folds larger than that of the L-PP foam! These observations along with the morphological investigation of the unfoamed blends suggest that the foaming behavior of these TPOs is controlled by the interfacial properties and the blend micro-structure.
ON-LINE IN-MOLD TRANSDUCER IN INJECTION MOLDING
Yiyan Peng, Haimei Li, Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
Pressure and temperature sensors installed in the injection molding molds have been applied in industry to measure quality related information. However, these sensors allow only the measurement of polymer melt status at the location where the sensors are installed, limiting the generality of information. This paper presents a new transducer technology developed based on the dielectric properties of polymers. The transducer can be installed in the mold with low cost and provide continuous measurement. Plenty of information during the production can be obtained by this transducer. Simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the transducer.
DEVELOPMENT OF DIELECTROSTRICTIVE SENSORS FOR ON-LINE SHEAR STRESS MEASUREMENT DURING THE INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
Yiyan Peng , Haimei Li , Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
This study presents the development of a novel sensor based on dielectrostriction principles. Dielectrostriction defined as a variation of dielectric properties of material under deformation detects evolution of molecular orientation during injection molding and enables on-line shear stress measurement. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach a planar capacitor sensor rosette has been developed and attached to the surface of an injection mold to obtain the dielectrostriction signals under various processing conditions. The calculated shear stresses of polymer melts based on the dielectrostriction signals were validated by simulation predictions.
DEVELOPMENT OF DIELECTROSTRICTIVE SENSORS FOR ON-LINE SHEAR STRESS MEASUREMENT DURING THE INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
Yiyan Peng , Haimei Li , Lih-Sheng Turng, May 2010
This study presents the development of a novel sensor based on dielectrostriction principles. Dielectrostriction, defined as a variation of dielectric properties of material under deformation, detects evolution of molecular orientation during injection molding and enables on-line shear stress measurement. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a planar capacitor sensor rosette has been developed and attached to the surface of an injection mold to obtain the dielectrostriction signals under various processing conditions. The calculated shear stresses of polymer melts based on the dielectrostriction signals were validated by simulation predictions.
EASTMAN TRITAN' COPOLYESTER FOR HOUSEWARES APPLICATIONS
David S. Porter, May 2010
Housewares applications have frequently made use of clear, tough polymeric materials to enhance visual appeal and functionality while providing durability and light weight versus glass or metal. Eastman Tritan' copolyester was recently introduced into this market and has experienced rapid adoption due to a combination of clarity, toughness and chemical resistance resulting from the unique chemistry of the polymer. Tritan' has improved heat resistance compared to many other copolyesters and can be used successfully at temperatures found in automatic dishwashers. Further, Tritan' provides excellent resistance to stress cracking in the dishwasher environment, and together with its clarity and outstanding toughness finds use in premium housewares applications.
SINK MARK PREDICTION AND OPTIMIZATION ƒ?? A REVIEW
Mathivanan D. , N.S.Parthasarathy, May 2010
Sink mark is an attribute defect on injection molded components. Study of such attribute defects gained importance due to increased awareness of cost of quality.In the recent past manufacturing community has been concentrating on finding out various techniques and methodologies to address issues related to design and manufacturing processes. Focused attention on these issues can be seen from proliferation of research activities.Recent researches are more technical in nature and objective based. Researches are oriented towards understanding identifying critical factors and possibly in minimizing the effect of sink marks. Researchers are using various approaches like mathematical models software based simulation models and experimental models. This paper presents a detailed review of those researches in the last ten year period (1998-2007) on sink marks. From indepth study three key control mechanisms: Material Product design and Processing variables have been identified. Impacts of the factors related to those three key control mechanisms are discussed. Scope for continued research is also indicated.
DIMENSIONLESS DUROMETRY AND ASTM D2240
Adam W. Mix , A. Jeffrey Giacomin, May 2010
Durometry is the measurement of material hardness, such as, plastics, metals, wood, and rubber. ASTM D2240-05 standardizes durometry with 12 hardness scales [1]. These scales employ either conical, round, or flat tipped indentors. Indentation into a solid is governed by linear elastic mechanics, and this paper relates the Young's modulus to ASTM D2240 standardized hardness scale reading. We adimensionalized these indentation mechanics, and uncovered a normalized Young's modulus, ! , and the dimensionless hardness, H . We then discovered a new dimensionless indentor stiffness which we call mechanical indentability, Mi , which can be used to classify the ASTM D2240 standardized hardness scales. The result of our analysis allows practitioners to determine the Young's modulus from measured hardness. Further, our results can be used to convert between any two ASTM D2240 hardness scales.
NEW TECHNOLOGY TO VARY THE RADIAL THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARISON IN EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING
Heinz G. Gross, May 2010
The optimum parison shows thickness changes over the length and over the circumference to mach the different draw ratios in the final blown part. The thickness variations in direction of the length can be easily achieved by moving the conical mandrel. Now a new technique is available to also dynamically profile the thickness of the parison over the circumference. It can be applied for all die diameters. In many cases the technique can even be easily retrofitted to existing dies to reduce material consumption.The details of the technology will be explained and results achieved as well on pilot machines as also on production machines will be presented.
CONTROL OF THE THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION OF BLOWN FILM BY CHANGING THE FLOW CHANNEL GAP OF THE DIE OVER THE CIRCUMFERENCE
Heinz G. Gross, May 2010
The thickness distribution of blown film is conventionally controlled by either changing the temperature or the velocity of the cooling air. This technique can not be used for the double bubble process where the film is cooled by water before being reheated and blown up in a second step. A new technique to alter the localized gap of the flow channel at the exit of the die has been developed. It can be used to control the thickness over the circumference of the blown film for both the conventional and double bubble process. The technology will be explained and initial test results achieved will be presented.
FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OF THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE PA12 POWDERS BY SELECTIVE MASK SINTERING
David J Jaekel, Francisco J Medel, Steven M Kurtz, May 2010
Selective mask sintering (SMS) is a new powder-based additive manufacturing technique. Here, the material is molten in laminar direction by broad band infrared radiation. By using this technique, there is a high potential to create three-dimensional thermally conductive parts, layer by layer. In this publication, commercially available PA12 powders are modified by adding thermally conductive fillers such as aluminum grit and copper spheres. Process relevant powder properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, rotational viscosimetry and thermal conductivity measurements. Subsequently, the morphologies, mechanical behaviors as well as thermal conductivities of manufactured specimens were investigated.
VALIDATION OF CRYSTALLINITY MEASUREMENTS OF MEDICAL GRADE PEEK USING SPECULAR REFLECTANCE FTIR-MICROSCOPY
David J Jaekel , Francisco J Medel , Steven M Kurtz, May 2010
Conventional pipe dies consist of a solid mandrel and a solid outer ring. With such dies the thickness distribution in pipes can only be influenced by centring the die. Two thick regions situated opposite each other can not be fought. This is possible when you retrofit a multiwalled flexring sleeve into the outer ring of a pipe die. Similar to the well proved flex lip technique in flat film production the flexring technology allows for a locally limited adjustment of the flow channel gap. Even the thickness distribution of single layers in coextruded pipes can be fine tuned. The new technology which overcomes by far existing limitations to the pipe production process will be explained and results obtained with the new generation of pipe dies will be presented.
VALIDATION OF CRYSTALLINITY MEASUREMENTS OF MEDICAL GRADE PEEK USING SPECULAR REFLECTANCE FTIR-MICROSCOPY
David J Jaekel , Francisco J Medel , Steven M Kurtz, May 2010
Characterizing the crystallinity in PEEK is critical, since it dictates the mechanical behavior of the polymer.Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) has been typically employed for this purpose; yet, it is impractical for the measurement of some composite materials. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has also been used but with limited accuracy. Specular Reflectance Fourier transform infrared (R-FTIR) microscopy has been identified as a suitable method to measure the crystallinity of industrial grade PEEK, but its usefulness with medical grade PEEK remains unknown. By comparing R-FTIR, WAXS and DSC for a range of medical PEEK grades, we demonstrate that FTIR can detect changes in crystallinity due to annealing treatments and incorporation of carbon fibers or radiopaque compounds.
ADVANCED INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE NEWLY DEVELOPED SPECIAL INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS: GITBLOW""
Siva Movva, Zhi-Qi Cai, Dante Guerra, Yunior Hioe, Jose M Castro, L. James Lee, May 2010
GITBlow is an innovative combination of the ƒ??Gas Injection Techniqueƒ? and ƒ??Blow Moldingƒ? processes. A hollow core within the part, which has been created through GIT, is inflated further, enhancing the inflation of GIT. Using this process it is possible to produce very large hollow areas with thin residual walls. In a first step the following paper will show the attainable gas bubble cross-sections and residual wall-thicknesses as well as achievable surface finishes for different types of the GITBlow process. In a second step the influencing factors in order to optimize the wall thickness homogeneity will be identified and analyzed.
EFFECT OF CARBON NANOFIBERS ON THE REACTION KINETICS OF WIND BLADE VINYL ESTER SYSTEM
Siva Movva , Zhi-Qi Cai , Dante Guerra , Yunior Hioe , Jose M Castro , L. James Lee, May 2010
Wind energy is one of the most promising environmentally friendly renewable sources of energy. Epoxy has been the preferred resin used to manufacture wind blades; however with the increased need to lower costs, vinyl ester resin is gaining importance as a alternative material. The curing of vinyl ester resin in the presence of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that the carbon nanofibers have a catalytic effect on the curing kinetics of vinyl ester. However there is a percolation threshold and increasing the amount of CNFs beyond this threshold hinders the reaction. A simple autocatalytic model is used to predict the conversion of the vinyl ester resin.
EVALUATION OF REPLICATION PROPERTIES ON MOLDED SURFACE BY ULTRASONIC INJECTION MOLDING SYSTEM
A. Sato , H. Sakaguchi , H. Ito , K. Koyama, May 2010
An ultrasonic injection molding (UIM) system, which applies ultrasonic waves to injection molding, as a precision injection molding technology was developed.The replication properties of microstructure of molded surface were evaluated by UIM system. In particular, the effects of oscillation conditions on replication ratio of molded surface were investigated. As a result, the replication ratio of molded surface was significantly improved in UIM compared with that in conventional molding. The replication ratio increased when the ultrasonic wave was applied immediately after the resin filled in a cavity. Results showed that, by applying ultrasonic waves, oscillatory flow was generated inside the cavity and consequently the surface replication was increased. The surface replication during the packing and holding stages was improved by the oscillatory flow provided by the ultrasonic vibration.


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