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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
MODIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF CELLULOSE MICROFIBRIL BY ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION FOR BIOCOMPOSITES
Shuzhao Li , Wilailak Chanklin , Miaomiao Xiao , Huining Xiao, May 2010
Hydrophobic-modified cellulose microfibril (CMF) grafted by poly(butyl acrylate) (CMF-g-PBA) was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of butyl acrylate. The CMF-g-PBA obtained was analyzed using FT-IR, TG, contact angle and SEM. The results from FT-IR and SEM indicated that PBA was indeed grafted onto the surface of CMF. TGA measurements further confirmed that the amount of grafted PBA on CMF was approximately 55% (wt). Contact angle measurement demonstrated that the hydrophobicity of CMF was increased substantially after the grafting. The findings imply that the compatibility between CMF-g-PBA and polypropylene (PP) would be improved, thus allowing CMF-g-PBA as an effective reinforcements for biocomposites.
ADHESIVES FOR ASSEMBLY
Edward A.Y. Fisher, May 2010
Industrial adhesives are fast becoming pivotal to the assembly of everything from white goods to automobiles. Adhesives perform well on glass, metal, ceramic and most plastic substrates, provide excellent chemical and solvent resistance, act as an electrical insulator, and may be used in high speed production environments. Due to these benefits and their ability to bond dissimilar materials quickly and efficiently adhesives have enabled the cost effective production of many components that would have been impossible using mechanical fastening methods. By choosing the correct adhesive manufacturers can espediate the manufacturing process, lower costs and even improve and enhance reliability and performance. By their very nature adhesives allow goods to be made stronger, faster, and more costeffectively living up to the most basic demands of the marketplace.
STRUCTURAL BONDING OF PLASTICS
Pao-Lin Su, Hsin-Shu Peng, May 2010
In mold decoration (IMD) has attracted attention for industrial applications in recent years. In this paper, PC films with thickness of 0.125 mm and 0.175 mm combined varied ink formulas were be utilized and the effects of processing conditions on Nylon6 nanocomposites and Nylon6 molding were investigated. Related processing conditions include melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure. Plastics have become an integral part of everyday life. It would be difficult to identify a manufacturing process which does not use plastics in one form or another. Even products which appear to be composed exclusively of metals are usually coated, sealed, or adhesively joined using polymeric materials which improve the performance, appearance, and longevity of metal products. Plastics have achieved widespread acceptance due to the virtually limitless combinations of plastic types, fillers, and additives which can be compounded at relatively low costs and processed by a wide verity of methods. When designing assemblies made from or including plastics, it is often critical to structurally hold assemblies together with a reliable mechanism. Plastics can be reliably fastened to a wide verity of substrates using an engineered adhesive solution.
EFFECTS OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON PART MOLDABILITY OF IN MOLD DECORATION NYLON6 NANOCOMPOSITES MOLDING
Pao-Lin Su , Hsin-Shu Peng, May 2010
In mold decoration (IMD) has attracted attention for industrial applications in recent years. In this paper PC films with thickness of 0.125 mm and 0.175 mm combined varied ink formulas were be utilized and the effects of processing conditions on Nylon6 nanocomposites and Nylon6 molding were investigated. Related processing conditions include melt temperature mold temperature injection speed and packing pressure. It was found that high injection speed would increase shear stress leading to large printed ink will be washed out whereas high melt temperature would decrease shear stress. In addition Nylon6 nanocomposites can reduce 50% washout region than the IMD Nylon6 molding.
EFFECTS OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON PART MOLDABILITY OF IN MOLD DECORATION NYLON6 NANOCOMPOSITES MOLDING
Pao-Lin Su , Hsin-Shu Peng, May 2010
In mold decoration (IMD) has attracted attention for industrial applications in recent years. In this paper, PC films with thickness of 0.125 mm and 0.175 mm combined varied ink formulas were be utilized and the effects of processing conditions on Nylon6 nanocomposites and Nylon6 molding were investigated.Related processing conditions include melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure.It was found that high injection speed would increase shear stress leading to large printed ink will be washed out whereas high melt temperature would decrease shear stress. In addition, Nylon6 nanocomposites can reduce 50% washout region than the IMD Nylon6 molding.
OPTICAL COATING APPLICATIONS FOR CONSUMER AND INDUSTRIAL POLYMER DISPLAYS
Brian Wilson , Daniel Fiore, May 2010
North American Coating Laboratories provides vacuum- and dip-applied thin film coatings to polymer manufacturers and suppliers across numerous market segments. These coatings are predominantly deposited on polycarbonate and acrylic substrates used in a wide variety of applications. In many cases such vacuum-applied coatings as broadband anti-reflective treatments and polysiloxane dip-applied treatments improve the optical quality of polymers as well as extend the lifecycle of polymers in the field. This presentation will focus on the full spectrum of thin-film coatings that are currently being applied to polymers resins and displays.
OPTICAL COATING APPLICATIONS FOR CONSUMER AND INDUSTRIAL POLYMER DISPLAYS
Brian Wilson , Daniel Fiore,, May 2010
North American Coating Laboratories provides vacuum- and dip-applied thin film coatings to polymer manufacturers and suppliers across numerous market segments. These coatings are predominantly deposited on polycarbonate and acrylic substrates used in a wide variety of applications. In many cases, such vacuum-applied coatings as broadband anti-reflective treatments and polysiloxane dip-applied treatments improve the optical quality of polymers as well as extend the lifecycle of polymers in the field. This presentation will focus on the full spectrum of thin-film coatings that are currently being applied to polymers, resins and displays.
RISING TO THE HALOGEN CHALLENGE IN FLAME-RETARDANT ENGINEERING PLASTICS
William J. Hassink , Gary P. Kozielski, May 2010
Halogenated additives have long been used toenhance the flame-retardant properties of plastics.Recently, after many years of growing concern over theenvironmental and human impact of the disposal ofcertain halogen-containing products and theirincompatibility with recycling operations, leading globalelectronics manufacturers have begun moving to eliminateor sharply reduce the use of certain halogen-containingingredients in their products. DuPont is meeting the needsof these and other environmentally consciousmanufacturers with a growing range of engineeringpolymer grades using non-halogenated flame retardantsystems. This paper shows that they can fulfilldemanding requirements for strength, toughness, hightemperature resistance and processing efficiency.
COMPARISON OF SERVO-DRIVEN ULTRASONIC WELDER TO STANDARD PNEUMATIC ULTRASONIC WELDER
Miranda Marcus , Paul Golko , Steve Lester , Leo Klinstein, May 2010
Ultrasonic welding is one of the most widely used processes for bonding polymers valued for its speed flexibility and low cost. Recently there has been a call for more controlled and consistent welding processes especially in the medical field. Dukane has worked to meet this demand through the development of a new iQ series Servo-Driven Ultrasonic Welder with MeltMatch™ technology. Careful comparison detailed here has shown that the servo-driven welder can provide more consistent results than the standard pneumatic welder can. The newly developed welder also offers a number of user friendly ergonomic features superior Graphic User Interface with Ethernet connectivity (iQ Explorer) as well as more accurate process control capabilities.
COMPARISON OF SERVO-DRIVEN ULTRASONIC WELDER TO STANDARD PNEUMATIC ULTRASONIC WELDER
Miranda Marcus , Paul Golko , Steve Lester , Leo Klinstein, May 2010
Ultrasonic welding is one of the most widely used processes for bonding polymers, valued for its speed, flexibility, and low cost. Recently there has been a call for more controlled and consistent welding processes, especially in the medical field. Dukane has worked to meet this demand through the development of a new iQ series Servo-Driven Ultrasonic Welder with MeltMatchƒ?› technology.Careful comparison, detailed here, has shown that the servo-driven welder can provide more consistent results than the standard pneumatic welder can. The newly developed welder also offers a number of user friendly ergonomic features, superior Graphic User Interface with Ethernet connectivity (iQ Explorer) as well as more accurate process control capabilities.
FLOW INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF POLYMERS IN EXTENSION
Martin Sentmanat , Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos, May 2010
In this paper the effect of uniaxial extension on the crystallization of a linear low-density polyethylene is examined by using rheometry with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Uniaxial extension experiments were performed at temperatures below and above the peak melting point of the polyethylene in order to characterize its flow induced crystallization behavior at extensional rates relevant to processing. The?ÿ degree of crystallinity of the stretched samples was quantified by DSC i.e. by analyzing the thermal behavior of samples after stretching. Analysis of the tensile strain hardening behavior very near the peak melt temperature revealed that crystallization depends on temperature, strain and strain rate. In addition it was revealed that a very small window of temperatures spanning just 1-2 degrees Celsius can have a dramatic effect on polymer crystallization.
EFFECT OF ANNEALING ON FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF A TRANSPARENT NYLON UNDER HIGH SPEED IMPACT
John W. Song , Nicholas Tsantinis , Roy Paulson, May 2010
The effects of temperature exposure as well as annealing TROGAMID CX-7323 (CX) on its mechanical and ballistic impact properties were examined. CX generally exhibits ductile failure upon ballistic impact. However upon complete penetration the impact failure behavior occasionally changes depending on the projectile type and size. Notched izod impact test results revealed that annealing CX significantly increased the notch sensitivity. However it was concluded that the notch sensitivity does not directly influence the ballistic impact resistance. This is attributed to the improvement of molecular perfection via reduction in the free volume of the polymer molecule during the annealing process.
EFFECT OF ANNEALING ON FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF A TRANSPARENT NYLON UNDER HIGH SPEED IMPACT
John W. Song , Nicholas Tsantinis , Roy Paulson, May 2010
The effects of temperature exposure as well as annealing TROGAMID CX-7323 (CX) on its mechanical and ballistic impact properties were examined. CX generally exhibits ductile failure upon ballistic impact. However, upon complete penetration, the impact failure behavior occasionally changes depending on the projectile type and size. Notched izod impact test results revealed that annealing CX significantly increased the notch sensitivity. However, it was concluded that the notch sensitivity does not directly influence the ballistic impact resistance. This is attributed to the improvement of molecular perfection via reduction in the free volume of the polymer molecule during the annealing process.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MELTING PROCESS FOR BARRIER-FLIGHTED SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDERS USING SCREW ROTATION PHYSICS
Kazumi Tada, Daisuke Fukuzawa, Ayako Watanabe, May 2010
The focus of this investigation was to develop a new model for the melting dynamics of the solid bed for barrier melting sections in single-screw extruders. This analysis is an extension of the screw rotation melting model presented earlier for conventional screws. In this paper we present a new physical concept for melting in a barrier screw for single-screw extruders that is consistent with more rapid loss of solid material in the cross-channel direction when compared to conventional screw melting discussed previously. We developed a dynamic melting model and then simulated this first-order theory. The simulation qualitatively fits the literature observations for melting in a barrier-flighted melting section of a screw.
COMPUTER SIMULATION FOR FLOW BEHAVIOR ON MICRO- AND NANO-MOLDING
Kazumi Tada , Daisuke Fukuzawa , Ayako Watanabe, May 2010
3-dimensional FEM simulation was performed to clarify the mechanism on surface replication in micro-injection molding and thermal nano-imprinting. Especially the filling behavior into micro- and nanosurface features was discussed in comparison with the experimental results. The simulation results and the experimental results of injection molding show possibility of the generation of air traps in the filling stage and it is considered that those air traps have a strong relation with replication shape and replication rate. The simulation results of thermal imprinting clarified penetration behavior of polymer melt into nano-surface feature and show that the aspect ratio of the cavity and imprinting pressure influenced flow behavior in thermal imprinting.
COMPUTER SIMULATION FOR FLOW BEHAVIOR ON MICRO- AND NANO-MOLDING
Kazumi Tada , Daisuke Fukuzawa , Ayako Watanabe , Hiroshi Ito, May 2010
3-dimensional FEM simulation was performed to clarify the mechanism on surface replication in micro-injection molding and thermal nano-imprinting.Especially the filling behavior into micro- and nanosurface features was discussed in comparison with the experimental results. The simulation results and the experimental results of injection molding show possibility of the generation of air traps in the filling stage and it is considered that those air traps have a strong relation with replication shape and replication rate. The simulation results of thermal imprinting clarified penetration behavior of polymer melt into nano-surface feature and show that the aspect ratio of the cavity and imprinting pressure influenced flow behavior in thermal imprinting.
ELASTIC RECOVERY BEHAVIOR OF THREE LAYER FILM STRUCTURES COMPRISED OF TPO AND VARIOUS ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS
Christopher Shelley , Nicolas Kokel, May 2010
Stretch hood films used to protect and unitize pallet loads are becoming more sophisticated structures that combine the unique properties of several advanced polymers. The combined properties of reactor TPO resins and ethylene copolymers will continue to expand the envelope of application and performance possibilities for film engineers delivering enhanced strength and pallet security heat resistance extensibility elastic recovery and material use reduction. This paper will discuss the relationships between film formulation and degree of orientation on the elastic and physical properties of a three-layer stretch hood film structure.
ELASTIC RECOVERY BEHAVIOR OF THREE LAYER FILM STRUCTURES COMPRISED OF TPO AND VARIOUS ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS
Christopher Shelley , Nicolas Kokel, May 2010
Stretch hood films used to protect and unitize pallet loads are becoming more sophisticated structures that combine the unique properties of several advanced polymers. The combined properties of reactor TPO resins and ethylene copolymers will continue to expand the envelope of application and performance possibilities for film engineers, delivering enhanced strength and pallet security, heat resistance, extensibility, elastic recovery, and material use reduction. This paper will discuss the relationships between film formulation and degree of orientation on the elastic and physical properties of a three-layer stretch hood film structure.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THERMOPLASTIC FOAMS THROUGH MODIFICATION OF THE FOAM STRUCTURE
Walter Michaeli , Laura Flórez , Dominik Obeloer , Markus Brinkmann, May 2010
Foaming an injection molded thermoplastic part can reduce its weight warpage and the associated processing costs but it also results in a loss of mechanical performance. This loss can however be mitigated through specific modifications of the foam structure while at the same time the material consumption is minimized. This paper analyzes the changes that are induced by foaming in the mechanical performance of thermoplastic materials and demonstrates the gain in mechanical strength that can be achieved by inducing modifications of the foam structure for example in the skin thickness the mean cell size and the foam density.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THERMOPLASTIC FOAMS THROUGH MODIFICATION OF THE FOAM STRUCTURE
Walter Michaeli , Laura Flórez , Dominik Obeloer , Markus Brinkmann, May 2010
Foaming an injection molded thermoplastic part can reduce its weight, warpage and the associated processing costs, but it also results in a loss of mechanical performance. This loss can, however, be mitigated through specific modifications of the foam structure, while at the same time the material consumption is minimized. This paper analyzes the changes that are induced by foaming in the mechanical performance of thermoplastic materials and demonstrates the gain in mechanical strength that can be achieved by inducing modifications of the foam structure, for example in the skin thickness, the mean cell size and the foam density.


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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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