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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
EFFECTS OF HYDROLYSIS AGEING ON THE PERFORMANCE AND DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED POLYAMIDE 66
Koffi L. Dagnon, Hua H. Chen, Lucia H. Innocentini-Mei, Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2010
Results of an in-depth study of hydrolysis testing on the mechanical performance, weight change, and dimensional stability of injection moulded glass-fiber reinforced polyamide 66 automotive composites are presented. Composite and resin samples have been characterised after conditioning in water-glycol mixtures at 70?øC, 120?øC and 150?øC for a range of times up to 1000 hours. The results reveal that hydrothermal ageing results in significant changes in the mechanical performance, weight, and dimensions of these materials. Mechanical performance after conditioning at different temperatures could be superimposed when considered as a function of the level of fluid absorbed by the composite matrix.
STRUCTURE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-CO-HYDROXYVALERATE) (PHBV)/Zn-Al STEARATE LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDE (LDH) NANOCOMPOSITES
Koffi L. Dagnon , Hua H. Chen , Lucia H. Innocentini-Mei , Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2010
Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) /Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites were prepared by solution intercalation. The structure thermophysical and mechanical properties were studied by means of X-ray diffraction scanning electron microscopy differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry analysis dynamic mechanical analysis and mechanical testing. Experimental data showed that intercalated nanocomposites were obtained the melting temperature and enthalpy of melting were decreased and the mechanical and thermomechanical properties were improved. (Ref.6)
CARBON FIBER, NANOFIBER AND NANOSPRING-BASED LLDPE COMPOSITES: EFFECT OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.
Sriram Ambadapadi, Koffi Dagnon, Ali Shaito, Sunny M. Ogbomo, Maham Rahimic, Kytai Nguyenc, Paul S. Braterman, Nandika Anne D’Souza, May 2010
The effect of processing on electrical and mechanical properties of linear low density polyethylene composites reinforced by mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers, carbon nanofibers and helically coiled carbon nanotubes was studied. Batch mixing and twin-screw extrusion was used for melt-mixing the matrix and the filler. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for assessing the morphology. In general, the electrostatic dissipation, electrical conductivity, modulus and yield stress increase with increasing filler content; however, tensile strength and elongation-at-break decrease. The type of filler and its dispersion affected the final properties.
ZINC ALUMINUM LAYER DOUBLE HYDROXIDE IBUPROFEN PLLA NANOCOMPOSITES: SYNTHESIS STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERIZATION
Sriram Ambadapadi , Koffi Dagnon , Ali Shaito , Sunny M. Ogbomo , Maham Rahimi , Kytai Nguyen , Paul S. Braterman , Nandika Anne D’Souza, May 2010
The purpose of this research was to study the intercalation of the anions of Ibuprofen non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -methyl-4-(2- methylpropyl)-benzene acetic acid into a layer double hydroxide (Zn-Al LDH) to form a new organic-inorganic hybrid intercalated material and the formation of nanocomposite with Poly (l-Lactic acid) (PLLA). The synthesis was achieved through two steps. The first step is the modification of layer double hydroxide with Ibuprofen anions. The second is the dispersion of the LDH into PLLA. The resulting organo-inorganic hybrid material was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Tensile Test. X-ray diffraction evinces the presence of dispersion of LDH and intercalation.
DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF INJECTION MOLD FOR MOUSE SHELL BASED ON PRO/ENGINEER AND MOLDFLOW
M. Zatloukal, W. Sambaer, A. Libotte, May 2010
The 3D models of gating system, ejection mechanisms and cooling system of the mouse shell for injection mold are designed by using Pro/ENGINEER software. MOLDFLOW software is utilized for CAE analysis. Three schemes are obtained by changing the injection molding process conditions, improving the gate location and cooling system. After comparing the volume shrinkage during injection, shrink marks index, filling time, all the factors leading to the total deformation of the products and the clamping force, the best scheme is obtained. The results showed that simulation analysis method can not only improve the successful probability of mold trial, but also shorten the production development cycle of developing product.
DESIGN CONCEPTS OF LINK CROSS-SECTIONS FOR DEVELOPING COMPOSITE-BASED LONG-REACH ROBOTIC ARMS
Darrin Willis , Remon Pop-Iliev , Scott Nokleby, May 2010
Metallic robotic arms currently dominate in industry but due to their intrinsic weight have limited usefulness for large-scale applications in terms of precision and speed.This research work investigates the feasibility of using solid or cellular polymeric composite materials or a combination thereof for the construction of long-reach robotic arms.This paper summarizes the preliminary study of the crosssectional geometry of the links in terms of stiffness-andstrength- to-weight ratios that would be capable of preserving high precision under time-dependent external excitations.
MORPHOLOGY OF SULFONATED STYRENIC PENTABLOCK COPOLYMER SOLUTIONS AND MEMBRANES
Arun K. Kota , Karen I. Winey, May 2010
In this paper, we report a systematic investigation of the morphology of sulfonated styrenic pentablock copolymer solutions and membranes obtained from Kraton Polymers LLC. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that all the solutions exhibited isotropic micellar morphology. The solution SAXS data was modeled using the Kinning-Thomas model to obtain radius of micelle core, aggregation number, radius of closest approach between two micelles, volume fraction of micelles, and volume fraction of solvent in micelle corona. In contrast, the membranes exhibited anisotropic morphology with different d-spacings in-plane and through-plane.
POLYMER SOLAR CELL
Dharini Soni, Mamta Saiyad, May 2010
The Sun is providing the Earth with an enormous amount of energy, approximately 200ƒ??000 times the capacity of the total energy production facilities. Only a very small amount of this energy is used. Hence the thought of developing a device that effectively and cheaply harvests the solar energy is very attractive. There is a line of problems connected with using the solar energy. Firstly the averaged yearly local intensity is varying from less than 100Wmƒ??2 to a little more than 300Wmƒ??2. This means that sunlight must be collected over a very large area in order to produce an amount of electrical energy comparable with that consumed by a city, fabric or even a house. Secondly the energy of the sunlight cannot be directly used in any way. Therefore, turning the radiative solar energy into a more useable energy type is the primary objective. There exists two different approaches to this problem but with either approach a rather large amount of the radiative energy is lost in the conversion. ƒ?› Conversion into thermal energy. ƒ?› Conversion into electrical energy. The solar light is converted into thermal energy when interacting with matter. This can be used for heating water and house warming etc. The applications are naturally limited as a very large part of our energy consumption is electrical energy. The silicon solar cell (SSC) has been and is the most used way to convert solar energy into electrical energy. A short summary of the history and basic physical principles of the silicon solar cells is presented in the following sections
A STUDY OF USING INTERNET TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE LEARNING EFFICIENCY OF LEARNING INJECTION MOLDING TECHNOLOGY
Hsuan-Liang Lin, Ming-Chang Jeng, Shia-Chung Chen, May 2010
Now internet is a very important source that we get the new knowledge, and e-learning is a popular type of learning new technology or existed knowledge. This study developed an e-learning system of injection molding by the standard of SCORM 2004. A learner can attend class by a computer with a network without the limitation of time or places. We let 32 persons of using the system to learn for test-retest experiment. And using paired samples t-test to analyze the results of the experiment can get that t-value is -14.182 and p value is smaller than 0.05.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTIC POLYOLEFIN (TPO) CELLULAR FOAMS
Steven Wong , John Lee , Hani E. Naguib , C. B. Park, May 2010
In this study mechanical properties of injection molded Thermoplastic Polyolefin (TPO) foams were investigated. Closed cell TPO foams were prepared using injection molding process. Tensile properties impact resistance of various injection molded TPO samples were correlated with different foam morphologies. The findings show that the mechanical properties were significantly affected by the foam morphologies. The experimental results obtained from this study can be used to predict the microstructure and mechanical properties of cellular injection molded TPO foams prepared with different processing parameters
SOFT AND FLEXIBLE IONOMER WITH GOOD SCRATCH RESISTANCE
Agustín Torres, Joel Bohórquez, Willian Noriega, May 2010
New ionomers have been developed to afford exceptional soft feel, high flexibility, and good scratch resistance. The thermoplastic characteristics enable ease of melt processing, good adhesion to various substrates, HF weldability, and deep draw thermal forming. The new ionomer is optically clear and glossy, and can be colored and printed. It has good compatibility with various pigments and additives for enhanced esthetic effects and outdoor weatherability. The soft feel and scratch resistance, coupled with the versatile processibility, make the new ionomers well-suited for protective and decorative applications. It contains no intentionally added halogen and can be recycled or incinerated to serve as an environmentally friendly alternative to flexible PVC or a lower cost alternative to flexible TPU.
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS VARIATIONS AT HIGH DEFORMATIONS IN TENSILE TESTS OF PE FILMS
Agustín Torres , Joel Bohórquez , Willian Noriega, May 2010
Plastic films properties are very sensitive to evaluation conditions and other factors that are present during tensile testing procedures. A study of standard tensile test results variation was performed on extruded HDPE films in order to determine which factors have greater influence on repeatability and how to reduce their influences. Finite element simulations were used as a tool understand the sources of variations. Three HDPE resins from different manufactures with similar properties were selected as samples and two testing machine operators were considered in the analysis. Other variables such as film blowing conditions and sample geometry were also considered in the study.
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS VARIATION AT HIGH DEFORMATIONS IN TENSILE TESTS OF PE FILMS
Agustín Torres , Joel Bohórquez , Willian Noriega, May 2010
Plastic films properties are very sensitive to evaluation conditions and other factors that are present during tensile testing procedures. A study of standard tensile test results variation was performed on extruded HDPE films in order to determine which factors have greater influence on repeatability and how to reduce their influences. Finite element simulations were used as a tool understand the sources of variations. Three HDPE resins from different manufactures with similar properties were selected as samples and two testing machine operators were considered in the analysis. Other variables such as film blowing conditions and sample geometry were also considered in the study.
A STUDY ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE BLENDS OF POLYCARBONATE/ LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMER/MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES
Penwisa Pisitsak, Rathanawan Magaraphan, Sadhan C. Jana, May 2010
A thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) was introduced into the composites of polycarbonate (PC) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) with the goal of improving electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. It was hypothesized that double percolation networks would be produced first from aligned, continuous fibrils of LCP and then by CNT networks within LCP fibrils. Two grades of LCP were chosen: Vectra A950 (VA950), and Vectra V400P (V400P) from Hoechst Celanese. The CNT used was Baytubes, C-150P and the PC used was Lexan 121. The compounds were prepared by melt-blending in a twin-screw mini-compounder and injection molded using a mini-injection molder. The LCP content was kept at 20 wt% and the CNT contents were varied from 0.5 to 15 wt%. Only PC/VA950 blend showed fibrils of LCP. However, these fibrils turned into droplets with the addition of CNT. Results from TEM showed that CNT preferentially located inside the LCP domains as predicted from the value of spreading coefficient. The electrical conductivity showed the following order (the numbers in parenthesis are electrical percolation threshold): PC/CNT (2%) > PC/VA950P/CNT (3%) > PC/V400P/CNT (4%). The resulting discontinuity of the LCP droplet phase with CNTs located inside disrupted the electrically conductive pathways and resulted in lower electrical conductivity values. The value of storage modulus showed improvement by the addition of CNT and VA950.
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES WITH SURFACE MODIFIED CARBON NANOTUBES
Koffi L. Dagnon, Clark Robinson, Hua H. Chen, Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2010
Surface of the multi walled carbon nanotubes was modified by purification with strong acid mixture followed by treatment with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) based conductive polymer composites were prepared with untreated and modified carbon nanotubes by using a twin screw extruder. Carbon nanotube characterization methods showed the formation of new functional groups on carbon nanotube surface after purification and chemical treatment. Surface modification of the carbon nanotubes increased the tensile strength of the composites.
WEATHERING OF TRANSPARENT POLYESTER-CARBONATES UNDER HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LIGHTING
Gheorghe Cojocariu , Chris Blubaugh , Douglas G. Hamilton, May 2010
Weathering of transparent materials based on polycarbonate homopolymer and a new improved weatherability resorcinol arylate copolymer have been investigated under the exposure of various high intensity discharge (HID) light sources. The effect of lighting fixture design variables such as bulb type wattage and bulb to lens distance onto the material performance as a lens or refractor has been correlated with the amount of UV and the temperature at which the material is exposed.A model that can predict the material photoyellowing based on the exposure conditions has been developed.
EFFECT OF CITRATE PLASTICIZER ON THE THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYLACTIC ACID
Juan D. Sierra , María Noriega , Silvio Ospina , Elkin Cardona, May 2010
This research work is focused on the effect of citrate plasticizers on thermal and viscoelastic properties of Polylactic acid (PLA). As expected the glass transition temperature decreases with addition of citrates demonstrating the effectiveness of citrates as a PLA plasticizer. It was observed that the decrease in glass transition temperature with the increase of citrate content behaves in exponential way. Viscoelasticity of PLA is considerably affected by the presence of citrate plasticizer. The zero shear-rate viscosity and pseudoplasticity index decrease could be correlated with the plasticizer content by using an exponential function.
CONVENTIONAL PROCESSING AND RHEOLOGY OF NANOCOMPOSITES ABS/MONTMORILLONITE
S. Sanchez , R. Ibarra , F. Solis , L. Cordoba, May 2010
ABS/montmorillonite nanocomposites were obtained via conventional melt mixing by single screw capillary extrusion. Nanocomposites from 0.5 to 9 % Volumetric Fraction (VF) of nanoclay were formulated. Melt rheology shows a decrease in the Newtonian range as modified clay increases. The opposite is true for the viscosity at zero shear. Shear thinning behavior is observed as clay content is increased. From XRD, it is inferred an increase of nanoclay d-spacing independent from the clay content in samples from the capillary rheometer. TEM shows both intercalated and exfoliated clay structures obtained from capillary extrusion. The processing conditions in conventional equipment for plastics transformation, i.e. extrusion, may lead to obtain intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposites, without the need for complex tooling configuration.
EFFECTS OF SOLVENT-CASTING CONDITIONS ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY FLUORINATED POLY (ARYLENE ETHERSULFONE) COPOLYMER FILMS FOR POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANES
Michael Heinzer , Myoungbae Lee , Rachel VanHouten , Ozma Lane , James E. McGrath , Donald G. Baird, May 2010
Poly(arylene ether sulfone) block copolymers are studied as candidates for membrane materials in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Highly fluorinated versions are of particular interest as increase hydrophobicity of the fluorinated blocks will induce greater phase separation resulting in improved proton conductivity. This work studies the effect of processing temperature on membrane properties and compares results for highly-fluorinated poly(arylene ether sulfones) to results for the sparingly fluorinated copolymer. Proton conductivities are below the expected values, which is likely due to high processing temperatures having detrimental effects on ion clusters in copolymer chain coupled with a lack of ample time for phase separation. Studies of the phase separation kinetics and final film morphologies can help better understand the drying process.
TIME DEPENDENT PIEZORESISTIVE BEHAVIOR OF POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE / CARBON NANOTUBE CONDUCTIVE
Shailesh Vidhate , Jaycee Chung , Nandika D’Souza, May 2010
In this work conductive nano composite has been prepared by incorporating multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by melt blending method. The creep behavior of PVDF composite is studied by compression test. To study the time and stress dependent piezoresistive behavior of the prepared composite mechanical testing was synchronized with electrical resistance measurement. Comparison of mechanical creep with the creepdependent resistance implied that there is a conducting percolation attributed to the physical contacts between MWCNT and a mechanical network formed by the molecular chains of the polymer matrix and the interaction between the filler and the matrix.


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