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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
NANOSTRENGTH BLOCK COPOLYMERS FOR EPOXY TOUGHENING
Robert Barsotti, May 2010
Due to their high strength, excellent high temperature properties and good adhesion to many surfaces, epoxies are extremely valuable engineering materials in composite, adhesive, coating, and electronic applications. Epoxies, however, suffer from a very low toughness. Arkema's controlled radical and anionic polymerization technology has been used to synthesize block copolymers additives, which provide excellent toughening to epoxies without sacrificing modulus or glass transition temperature. By incorporating functionality into the epoxy miscible block of the polymer, nanostructuration of these polymer additives are achieved in a wide range of epoxy systems, resulting in excellent thermal and mechanical properties.
IONOMERS WITH ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIVE SELF-REGULATED BREATHABILITY AND THEIR APPLICATIONS FOR HOUSE AND ROOF LINERS
Yushan Hu, Debbie Chiu, Jose M. Rego, Hongyu Chen, Benjamin Poon, May 2010
Environmentally responsive self-regulated gas transmission is achieved by smart vapor barrier (SVB) ionomers. Their moisture transmission changes reversibly from barrier to transmitter as the environmental relative humidity changes. This provides a means to regulate the moisture content within enclosed structures, such as buildings, and enables effective dissipation of moisture to mitigate problems from moisture condensation. It also provides an effective draft barrier to minimize heat transfer for energy conservation. WUFI (W??rme Und Feuchte Instation??r) modeling, methodology pioneered by the Frauhofer Institute, can be used to calculate the coupled heat and moisture transfer in building components containing smart vapor barrier membrane.
STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS OF POLYOLEFIN BASED ELASTIC FIBERS
Yushan Hu , Debbie Chiu , Jose M. Rego , Hongyu Chen , Benjamin Poon, May 2010
The DOW XLA™1 fiber is a unique elastic fiber that is olefin-based and designed for durable comfortable stretch performance with excellent heat and chemical resistance. The elastomeric properties of DOW XLA™ elastic fiber result from superimposed molecular networks of flexible polymer chains with three types of molecular junctions: entanglements crystallites and covalent crosslinks. DOW XLA™ elastic fibers are made by meltspinning. This paper discusses how polyolefin elastomer properties fiber spinning conditions and fiber crosslinking enable the design of polyolefin elastomer fibers with properties useful in elastic apparel manufacture.
STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS OF POLYOLEFIN BASED ELASTIC FIBERS
Yushan Hu , Debbie Chiu , Jose M. Rego , Hongyu Chen , Benjamin Poon, May 2010
The DOW XLAƒ?›1 fiber is a unique elastic fiber that is olefin-based and designed for durable, comfortable stretch performance with excellent heat and chemical resistance. The elastomeric properties of DOW XLAƒ?› elastic fiber result from superimposed molecular networks of flexible polymer chains with three types of molecular junctions: entanglements, crystallites and covalent crosslinks. DOW XLAƒ?› elastic fibers are made by meltspinning. This paper discusses how polyolefin elastomer properties, fiber spinning conditions and fiber crosslinking enable the design of polyolefin elastomer fibers with properties useful in elastic apparel manufacture.
NEXT GENERATION HDPE FOR BLOW MOLDING APPLICATIONS
Mridula (Babli) Kapur, May 2010
High density polyethylene (HDPE) is widely used to fabricate blow molded articles for rigid packaging as well as for other market segments such as industrial and chemical containers automotive home and recreation. The drive to reduce packaging cost as well as minimize impact on the environment has increased the emphasis on light weight packaging. A next generation (NG) of HDPE resins was developed through selective molecular architecture modification to offer a unique combination of easy resin processing on existing extrusion blow molding equipment and a superior balance of physical properties which allow blow molded articles to be light weighted. A higher percentage of post consumer recycle can also be incorporated while meeting the blow molded article performance requirements.
AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO THE CORRECTION OF ROTATIONAL FLOW CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDERS
Minoru Ogasahara, Manabu Shidou, Shigeru Nagata, Hiroyuki Hamada, Leong Yew Wei, May 2010
Simulation of single-screw extruder screws using the standard pseudo-Newtonian method is known to deviate from measured performance. Part of this deviation is caused by the calculation of the drag flow rate. Previous research has shown that the calculation of the drag flow rate using this method is higher than that in the actual channel, causing the pressure gradient to be incorrectly adjusted to compensate for the error in the drag flow term. The research provided here provides the correction factors for rotational flow (historically known as drag flow) such that axial pressure gradients can be quickly and accurately calculated.
INFLUENCE OF LUMINESCENT COMPOUND DERIVATE OF ALDOL CONDENSATION IN PVC DEGRADATION INFLUENCE OF LUMINESCENT COMPOUND DERIVATE OF ALDOL CONDENSATION IN PVC DEGRADATION
S. Vázquez-Rodríguez , V. A. González-González , R. Benavides-Cantú , E. M. Arias-Marin , I. Moggio, May 2010
New conjugated oligomers have been synthesized through aldol condensation from chemical reaction between different kinds of ketone and aromatic dialdehydes. These novel compounds showed absorption in UV-vis spectrum from 275 to 525 nm. In this work we reported the synthesis of an organic compound prepared by reaction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and terephthalaldehyde (TPA) following a typical aldol condensation route. The luminescent adduct was mixed with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in solution (in THF). Films of PVC-adduct were evaluated in a degradation chamber and changes in chemical structure were evaluated by FTIR in where an increase of carbonyl band was larger than control sample. This new compound can be used to promote degradation of PVC under UV radiation.
INFLUENCE OF LUMINESCENT COMPOUND DERIVATE OF ALDOL CONDENSATION IN PVC DEGRADATION
S. Vázquez-Rodríguez , V. A. González-González , R. Benavides-Cantú , E. M. Arias-Marin , I. Moggio, May 2010
New conjugated oligomers have been synthesized through aldol condensation from chemical reaction between different kinds of ketone and aromatic dialdehydes. These novel compounds showed absorption in UV-vis spectrum from 275 to 525 nm. In this work, we reported the synthesis of an organic compound prepared by reaction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and terephthalaldehyde (TPA), following a typical aldol condensation route. The luminescent adduct was mixed with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in solution (in THF). Films of PVC-adduct were evaluated in a degradation chamber and changes in chemical structure were evaluated by FTIR, in where an increase of carbonyl band was larger than control sample. This new compound can be used to promote degradation of PVC under UV radiation
NOVEL POROUS FILM-LIKE MATERIALS
Julius Uradnisheck, May 2010
Melt blowing is an extrusion process that produces nonwovens with fine fibers in the 1 to 10 micron diameter range, and finds applications in filtration, sound and liquid absorbency and thermal insulation. Co-extrusion is a process where two polymer resins in the molten state are arranged via feed blocks or layer multipliers to give alternating layers. We have made microfibers that have multiple layers within each fiber and using temperature and pressure have demonstrated that the multi layer microfiber webs can be converted to materials that appear as films but have the internal structure of fibers, which we refer to as filbers. The structure and properties of different type of filber materials have been studied and will be presented.
INTERFACE DETERMINATION OF TWO SHEAR THINNING THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS IN THE EXTRUSION PROCESS
Bruce Catoen, Harold Godwin, May 2010
Simulation of single-screw extruder screws using the standard pseudo-Newtonian method is known to deviate from measured performance. Part of this deviation is caused by the calculation of the drag flow rate. Previous research has shown that the calculation of the drag flow rate using this method is higher than that in the actual channel, causing the pressure gradient to be incorrectly adjusted to compensate for the error in the drag flow term. The research provided here provides the correction factors for rotational flow (historically known as drag flow) such that axial pressure gradients can be quickly and accurately calculated.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVED PROFITABILITY IN PET MOLDING USING ADVANCED HOT RUNNER TECHNOLOGIES
Bruce Catoen , Harold Godwin, May 2010
A key element in successfully molding high quality PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) preforms is the delivery of molten plastic to each cavity in a rheologically similar manner. This has been a significant challenge in light of the shear/viscosity and crystalline behavior of bottle grade PET in its molten state. This paper will review the economics of molding PET preforms the impact of improved performance on profitability design philosophies for molding PET preforms and hot runner technologies that are now available to confront historical issues in the PET preform molding process. These new technologies applied to molding PET preforms will help converters improve their bottom lines.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVED PROFITABILITY IN PET MOLDING USING ADVANCED HOT RUNNER TECHNOLOGIES
Bruce Catoen , Harold Godwin, May 2010
A key element in successfully molding high quality PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) preforms is the delivery of molten plastic to each cavity in a rheologically similar manner. This has been a significant challenge in light of the shear/viscosity and crystalline behavior of bottle grade PET in its molten state. This paper will review the economics of molding PET preforms, the impact of improved performance on profitability, design philosophies for molding PET preforms and hot runner technologies that are now available to confront historical issues in the PET preform molding process. These new technologies, applied to molding PET preforms, will help converters improve their bottom lines.
BIODEGRADATION OF POLY(HYDROXY BUTANOIC ACID) COPOLYMER MULCH FILMS IN SOIL
Vasko Naumovski, May 2010
Agricultural mulch films that are used to cover soil of crop rows contribute to earlier maturation of crops and higher yield. Incineration and landfill disposals are the most common means of disposal of the incumbent polyethylene mulch films; these are not environmentally friendly options. Biodegradable mulch films that can be rototilled into the soil after crop harvest are a promising alternative to offset problems such as landfill disposal, and film retrieval and disposal costs. In this study, an in-house laboratory scale test method has been developed in which the rate of disintegration, as a result of biodegradation, of films based on polyhydroxybutanoic acid (PHB) copolymers were investigated in a soil environment using residual weight loss method. The influence of soil composition, moisture levels in the soil and industry-standard anti-microbial additive in the film composition on the rate of disintegration of PHB copolymer films will be discussed.
CHARACTERIZING THE ELASTICITY OF VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS BASED ON RHEO-DIELECTRIC EFFECT
Jeff Gearhart, Hans Posselt, May 2010
Dielectrostriction is a rheodielectric phenomenon that relates the variation of dielectric properties of a material with deformation. For an initially isotropic material, two independent material coefficients, ?ñ1 and ?ñ2, are required to describe dielectrostriction in terms of strain. Deformation affects a materialƒ??s dielectric properties in two ways: (a) by introducing anisotropy in the material, which is characterized by ?ñ1; and (b) by changing the volume density of the polarizable species, which is associated with 1ƒ?3?ñ1 + ?ñ2. Purely viscous fluids will remain isotropic during any flow-induced deformation and therefore the coefficient, ?ñ1, is always zero. In this paper, the dielectrostriction effect is studied on viscoelastic materials with varying elasticity. The coefficient, ?ñ1, is measured by a planar capacitance sensor rosette. Also, the relationship between the coefficient, ?ñ1, and the material elasticity is discussed.
X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY (XRF) AS A PUBLIC HEALTH SCREENING TOOL FOR THE PRESENCE OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS IN PLASTICS
Jeff Gearhart , Hans Posselt, May 2010
Potentially toxic chemicals such as heavy metals phthalates and halogenated organic compounds are currently found in many consumer products and are cause of great concern. The authors employed XRF methodology in extensive testing for hazardous chemicals contained in plastic components of over 450 domestic and imported 2006-2009 model year cars in 130 children’s car seats and 3 700 (2007-2008) children’s products including toys. Over 13 000 individual samples are included in the database. Handheld and non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) yields data of most elements at ppm and higher levels with good correlation to time consuming and destructive traditional analytical techniques. The presentation of data includes analysis of trends in the use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) PVC lead and heavy metals in plastics with emphasis on relevance to public health. Methodologies to translate the test data into a relative product rating system have been developed and published for consumer use (see healthytoys.org and healthycars.org).
X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY (XRF) AS A PUBLIC HEALTH SCREENING TOOL FOR THE PRESENCE OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS IN PLASTICS
Jeff Gearhart , Hans Posselt, May 2010
Potentially toxic chemicals, such as heavy metals, phthalates, and halogenated organic compounds are currently found in many consumer products and are cause of great concern. The authors employed XRF methodology in extensive testing for hazardous chemicals contained in plastic components of over 450 domestic and imported 2006-2009 model year cars, in 130 childrenƒ??s car seats, and 3,700 (2007-2008) childrenƒ??s products including toys. Over 13,000 individual samples are included in the database. Handheld and non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) yields data of most elements at ppm and higher levels with good correlation to time consuming and destructive traditional analytical techniques. The presentation of data includes analysis of trends in the use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PVC, lead, and heavy metals in plastics with emphasis on relevance to public health. Methodologies to translate the test data into a relative product rating system have been developed and published for consumer use (see healthytoys.org and healthycars.org).
HOW DO MULTIPLE FLIGHTS IMPROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A COOLING EXTRUDER SCREW?
Ali R. Zahedi, May 2010
As the use of tandem extrusion lines for producing quality structured foams expands, the need for better cooling screws is receiving increased attention. In a tandem extrusion line, the role of the cooling extruder is to homogenize the melt, and to efficiently remove heat from the gas-laden melt, without excessive viscous heat generation. There are a variety of design elements that are commonly applied to cooling screws, but the use of multiple flights is the most common. However, it is not clear how multi-flight configurations lead to better overall performance. This paper presents a numerical study of the effect of multi-flight screw configurations on the homogenizing and cooling of a polymer melt. Various characteristics of the melt flow and heat transfer in multiflight screws are compared to those of a corresponding single-flight design.
UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESIN FROM CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF OFF-GRADE POLYETYHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE
Ali R. Zahedi, May 2010
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) [PET] from off-gradesof industrial manufacturer was depolymerised usingexcess ethylene glycol [EG] in the presence of metalacetate. Influences of the reaction time volume of EG and catalysts concentrations on the yield of theglycolysis products were investigated. In this study wehad three 3-level factors for reaction time volume ofEG and catalysts concentrations on the basis ofTaguchi's statistical method. The optimal conditionsare reaction time of 3 h molar ratio (EG to PET) of 5 weight ratio (catalyst to PET) of 0.25 wt%. Theglycolysis products were analysed for hydroxyl valueand identified by DSC and VPO. The optimum samplewas used to produce unsaturated polyester resin [UPR]by maleic anhydride [MA]. The samples alsocharacterized well by FT-IR 1HNMR and 13CNMR.
RAPID PROTOTYPING AND TOOLING TECHNIQUES FOR PULTRUSION
Ronald D. Moffitt , Sandeep Vennam , Bhyrav Mutnuri , Wade DePolo, May 2010
Traditionally pultrusion dies have been fabricated using conventional machining. However rapid tooling techniques permit the construction of complex preform and die cross-sections which may be used to pultrude interlocking fastenerless joint designs. For rapid construction of naval structures like ship deckhouses 3-D printing a rapid prototyping technique was utilized to develop a new snap fit joint pultrusion die. 3-D printing required approximately 115 man-hours less than conventional machining. Furthermore an innovative and cost effective multi-modular die has been developed and implemented in manufacturing a snap fit joint for scale ship deck houses.
RAPID PROTOTYPING AND TOOLING TECHNIQUES FOR PULTRUSION
Ronald D. Moffitt , Sandeep Vennam , Bhyrav Mutnuri , Wade DePolo, May 2010
Traditionally, pultrusion dies have been fabricated using conventional machining. However, rapid tooling techniques permit the construction of complex preform and die cross-sections, which may be used to pultrude interlocking, fastenerless joint designs. For rapid construction of naval structures, like ship deckhouses, 3-D printing a rapid prototyping technique was utilized to develop a new snap fit joint pultrusion die. 3-D printing required approximately 115 man-hours less than conventional machining. Furthermore, an innovative and cost effective multi-modular die has been developed and implemented in manufacturing a snap fit joint for scale ship deck houses.


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