SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

The SPE Library is just one of the great benefits of being an SPE member! Are you taking advantage of all of your SPE Benefits?

Not an SPE member? Join today!

Use % to separate multiple keywords. 

Search SPE Library
After Date: (mm/dd/yy)  
Sort By:   Date Added  ▼  |  Publication Date  ▼  |  Title  ▼  |  Author  ▼
= Members Only
Conference Proceedings
Erosion and Continuity Development in High Viscosity Ratio EPDM/PP Blends
Prashant Bhadane, Basil Favis, Michel Huneault, Michel Champagne, Florin Tofan, May 2005
Blends of EPDM and PP provide an interesting model system to examine continuity development in very low interfacial tension systems. In this work an emphasis is placed on the study of high viscosity ratio blends. The SEM micrographs of the dispersed phase, after matrix dissolution, demonstrate a variety of unusual morphological features including: isolated nanometer-scale fibers, very large particles, and numerous particles interconnected by fibers. It is found that the high viscosity EPDM phase slowly erodes during melt blending by a number of different mechanisms: i) simple erosion, at low compositions, ii) via droplet alignment, elongation in the direction of first normal stress and the subsequent strangulation in the flow direction, and iii) collisioncoalescence- separation type erosion, at higher compositions of the dispersed phase. It is found that the unique morphologies generated enable the dispersed phase to percolate and become cocontinuous at unexpectedly-low compositions of the dispersed phase.
Dimensional Stability of Pre-Shaped Nylon-6 Tubes
Jean Zheng, James Colunga, Yi Zhang, May 2005
During the fuel tank assembly process, preshaped Nylon-6 vapor lines were subjected to 148.9°C. At this elevated temperature the bent tubes tended to return to their original straight shapes, which created undesirable contact with the tank shell. A series of experiments were performed in lab to quantify the effect of several design and processing variables – bend radius, angle, and orientation; forming temperature; and storage temperature – on the tube dimensional stability. Experimental results indicated that the bend radius, forming temperature, and storage temperature affected the tube dimensional stability significantly while the other factors did not. Curved beam theory was employed to calculate the equivalent bending moments associated with the radius change measured in the experiments. Those bending moments were then applied to FEA models to predict the dimensional change of vapor lines at assembly positions. The CAE predictions correlated well with the assembly test results and successfully resolved the contact issue.
Rapid Thermal Response Mold Design
Weidan Liu, Tom Kimerling, Byung Kim, May 2005
Rapid thermal response (RTR) technology has been successfully applied to the injection molding and hot embossing processes. This technology was found to be durable and reliable for manufacturing disposable plastic parts with micro/nano scale features. This paper focuses on the mold design challenges. Thermally induced surface deflection and stress of the mold were simulated and used for optimal mold design with respect to thermal fatigue failure. A mold was constructed and tested to verify simulation results by experimental study. In a thermal fatigue test, the optimal designed mold showed no signs of fatigue after 10,000 thermal cycles.
Development of a Technology for Large Scale Production of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites
W. Krause, O. Geiger, F. Henning, P. Eyerer, May 2005
New highly economical process technologies for long-fiber reinforced thermoplastics such as the LFT-D process are the current trend of the market in the automotive industry in Europe. The next step on the way to enhanced LFTs is the use of engineering thermoplastics (e.g., PA66, SAN and PBT) as well as co-molding with local reinforce ments and tailored fiber placement [1, 2, 3, 4]. The process described in this paper shows how continuous fiber reinforcements such as fabrics, profiles, and preforms are co-molded with an LFT material in one step (Tailored LFT). Process parameters for a sufficient bonding of the thermoplastic preform with LFT-material as well as an example of an automotive application are given in the paper. A pilot-scale production plant has been built to demonstrate the ability of serial production.
Research of Screw Configurations on Dispersing Nano-Particles in Polymer
Xiuqing Ma, Qingfeng Liu, Haiyong Li, May 2005
Melt compounding is one of the methods in dispersing nano-particles in polymer. In this paper, 12 different screw configurations in co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder for preparing nano-particles/polymer composite (by Melt compound processing) were studied. The physical property test and TEM of extrudates were carried out. The results show that VCR which characterized as having highly tensile effects, are much more preferred in the melting zone of the intermeshing twin-screw rather than in the melt conveying zone, as well as the forward kneading block which have remarkable shearing performance. While the reversed kneading block and NIMPE elements being set in melt conveying zone of the twin-screw will have much more advantage over those in the melting zone.
The Effect of Sorbitol Based Nucleating Agents on Tear Strength in Polyethylene Film
Arnold Lustiger, May 2005
Ziegler-Natta (Z-N) based polyethylenes have been generally known to display higher tear strengths in blown film applications, especially in the machine direction, than their metallocene-based counterparts. Z-N films display an oriented lamellar morphology, while the metallocene film morphology is more spherulitic and hence less oriented. The objective of this work, in part, was to try to duplicate the Z-N film morphology in metallocene films by adding nucleating agents that orient during film blowing. It was shown that addition of sorbitol based nucleating agent to metallocene based films gives rise to increased lamellar orientation and hence improved tear strength since the nucleant forms an oriented gel in the melt.
Optimization Model Based on a Heuristical Method for Barrier Films Design
Iván Darío López, Omar Estrada, María del Pilar Noriega, Kellys Osorio, May 2005
This paper presents an optimization model based on a heuristical method to support the design of plastic barrier packaging for food and beverage. The goal is to minimize the cost of a multilayer film structures satisfying the end product requirements. The technical conditions for every layer and its polymer material (support, tie and barrier materials) are considered.The algorithm of this optimization model was evaluated by means of numerical experiments considering accuracy and precision for obtaining the target results. The oxygen and water vapor barriers for several multilayer films up to seven layers were measured and compared with the results of the model.
Polypropylene - Polyethylene Multilayer Films
X. Zhang, A. Ajji, May 2005
In this study, we investigated the properties and some structural parameters of multilayer and blends films of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) obtained from the extrusion blowing process. Three PP’s (a homopolymer, copolymer and a high melt strength PP compound) and one LLDPE were used. In general, tensile strength and modulus were larger in MD than TD and tear resistance higher in TD than MD, with some differences between the different sets of polymers. The modulus and strength were lower for the films made from the blend. Haze depended strongly on the PP used and whether it was pure, multilayer or blend, with the lowest haze obtained for the multilayer films made of copolymer PP and the highest with the multilayer films with homopolymer PP. Other properties such as oxygen permeability will also be discussed. The oriented crystalline structure of the PP’s was such that b-axis oriented in ND-TD plane and c-axis oriented in MD. PE crystalline morphologies at the interface were different for the different PP’s multilayer films and blends. PP had similar crystalline orientation for blends and co-extruded films but not PE.
Optimise Organoclay Exfoliation in Polymer Nanocomposites by Customising the Extrusion Temperature Gradient
C.Y. Lew, I.M. Major, W.R. Murphy, G.M. McNally, May 2005
This is a communication article describing a novel and simple approach to optimise the exfoliation and dispersion of organoclay layered-silicate in the extrusion processing of polymer nanocomposites. A range of HDPE nanocomposites were processed by configuring the extrusion temperature gradient in a single-screw compounder. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis showed that the degree of organoclay exfoliation, which is directly associated with the various property improvement in nanocomposites, was influenced by the extrusion temperature gradient. These nanocomposites exhibited significant difference in their rheological flow characteristic and mechanical properties, owing to the difference in the resultant organoclay structures. Regardless of the level of organoclay exfoliation, all the nanocomposites exhibited better processability and improved mechanical properties compared to the virgin HDPE. The elongation at break of all the nanocomposites was considerably greater than the virgin HDPE despite recording an increase in crystallinity.
Comparative Study between Metallocene Polyolefin Blends Modified by Beta-Irradiation and a Silane Crosslinking Process
N. Villarreal, I. Gobernado-Mitre, J.C. Merino, J.M. Pastor, May 2005
Three binary groups of metallocene blends of ethylene- 1-Octene copolymer (80 and 50 weight %) with two metallocene ethylene-1-Octene copolymers of different crystalline density and a metallocene EPDM were made in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The first group corresponds to blends without chemical modification. In the second group the dispersed phase was grafted with vinyl-triethoxy silane by means of a reactive extrusion process (SIOPLAS). The blends of the third group were crosslinked with Beta-Radiation at 200 KGy as final dose. The gel content of the crosslinked blends showed higher values for those blends crosslinked by Beta- Irradiation than SIOPLAS process. DSC using a heat treatment known as Successive Self- Nucleation/Annealing (SSA) and DMA techniques were used to analyze the effect of the comonomer content on the crystalline morphology of the crosslinked materials. Important changes in crystalline morphology of the blends due to the crosslinking process were observed.
Structure and Oxygen Barrier of Polyhydroxylated Dendritic Polyols
Sergei Nazarenko, Jason Pratt, Brian G. Olson, Jun Lin, Shaosheng Dong, May 2005
Dendritic polymers exhibit properties that often differ dramatically from those of the more traditional polymer types. Only minimal research has been done in the past to understand gas transport behavior of these unique polymers.In the present work, oxygen barrier properties of a series of inexpensive dendritic aliphatic polyesters (Boltorn™) containing multiple functional hydroxyl groups have been studied as a function of relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The structure of these HB polyols was also modified by cross-linking with linear aliphatic, 1,6- hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), to improve the mechanical properties and to reduce the water sensitivity.
Compatibilisation Protocol for the Processing of Polypropylene Organoclay Nanocomposites
C.Y. Lew, W.R. Murphy, G.M. McNally, J.E. Godinho, D.C. McConnell, May 2005
The effects of compatibilisers on the structures and properties of polypropylene organoclay nanocomposites, produced through maleation or acrylation with a range of chain functionalized oligomers were investigated using wide-angle (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical analysis. Results showed that optimal nanocomposite properties, exfoliation and dispersion of the clay particles in the PP matrix required wetting of the clay substrates by a low molecular weight and high functionality compatibiliser, loaded at moderate concentration.
An Investigtion of Metallocene and Ziegler-Natta Catalysed LLDPE/Clay Nanocomposites
C.Y. Lew, W.R. Murphy, G.M. McNally, D.C. McConnel, I. Moore, J.E. Godinho, May 2005
The influence of controlled-chain branching in a metallocene-catalysed LLDPE (mPE) and random chain branching in a conventional LLDPE (zPE) on the exfoliation behaviour of an organoclay was investigated. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed the clay exfoliation level to be significantly higher in the metallocene LLDPE. Rheological analysis suggested that higher shear stress during the processing of metallocene polyethylene, attributed to the narrower molecular weight distribution was responsible for this phenomenon.
Impact of Titanium Dioxide Surface Characteristics on Extrusion Processing
Rajath Mudalamane, Philipp M. Niedenzu, William T. Sedar Jr., May 2005
Interfacial interactions between the titanium dioxide pigment surface and the polymeric matrix have a significant impact on the energy requirements for incorporation and the rheology of the resulting compound. This study investigated the effect of screw geometry and operating conditions on dispersion performance and torque loading during twin-screw compounding of three different grades of titanium dioxide pigments with different surface treatments into highly loaded polyethylene masterbatches. It was found that the screw design and operating conditions where the pigments performed best were quite different for the three grades. It was found that low intensity mixing sections and cooler barrel temperature settings seemed to favor the pigment with a compatibilizing hydrophobic surface treatment and high intensity mixing sections and hotter barrel temperature settings favored the pigments that did not have such a surface treatment. It was also found that by optimizing screw designs, much higher throughputs and better dispersion could be achieved.
Twin Screw Extrusion of the Reactive Blends of Thermoplastic Polyurethanes and Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
Shane Parnell, Johanna Baena, Kyunsuku Min, May 2005
The reactive blending of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) and Thermoplastic Polyurethanes (TPU) was performed by using a counter-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw extruder. The blending technique consists of two sequential stages of mixing and reaction respectively. In the first stage, the PVC is pre-blended with monomers of the TPU (soft segment and chain extender). In the second stage, the polymerization of the TPU in-situ with the PVC takes place upon the addition of the third monomer of the TPU (diisocyanate). In this study, the novel in-situ reactive extrusion technique and the procedure for producing PVC/TPU blends are discussed.
Single Site Catalysts and Dual Reactor Technology Create More Freedom in Pe Rotomolding Resin and Product Designs
XiaoChuan (Alan) Wang, Mark Weber, Henry Hay, Marlee Cossar, May 2005
While polyethylene continues to be the resin of choice for rotational molding, advancements in material design are still required. From a structure-property perspective, a thinner lamellar thickness of a polyethylene resin may lead to a higher tie chain formation probability. It is also believed that longer polymer chains with proper comonomer incorporation enhance this probability. Single site catalysts and octene comonomer usage enable the design of rotomolding resins with superior properties compared with conventional Ziegler-Natta resins. This paper combines our fundamental understanding of this topic with experimental data.
Characterization of Reactive Blends of Thermoplastic Polyurethanes and Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
Johanna Baena, Shane Parnell, Kyunsuku Min, May 2005
In this study, a novel reactive blending technique was used to produce PVC/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blends. The blending technique consists of two sequential stages of mixing and reaction. In the first stage, the PVC is pre-blended with two monomers of the TPU (soft segment and chain extender). In the second stage, the in-situ polymerization of the TPU with the PVC takes place upon the addition of the third monomer of the TPU (diisocyanate). TPU monomers were changed in order to determine the effect of chemical structure and isomers on the miscibility with the PVC and the tensile properties of the resultant blends.
Nanotribology of Protein- Modified Surfaces
Rahul Misra, Jun Li, Sonya D. Benson, Nick Malkovich, Sarah E. Morgan, May 2005
Nanoprobe technology has emerged as an important tool for the study of thin films and biological materials. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely employed to determine surface features at the nano- to microscale, and is increasingly used for evaluation of friction and wear performance at small scales. Hydrophobins are a unique class of amphipathic fungal proteins that exhibit remarkable capability to modify surfaces, both natural and synthetic. Novel rigid rod polymers with high strength to weight ratios are of interest for a wide range of engineering and biomedical applications. The nanotribological properties of spin coated rigid rod polymer and hydrophobin-modified polymer surfaces are reported. Surface roughness analysis is reported for uncoated as well as hydrophobin-coated rigid rod polymer samples.
Material Properties of Thermal Conductive Thermoplastics for Mold Design and Processing Strategies
Simon Amesöder, Alexander Markov, Gottfried W. Ehrenstein, May 2005
The use of highly filled thermal-conductive thermoplastics is an innovative approach to directly adjust the thermal conductivity of plastic parts for heating and cooling systems. Compared to standard resins thermal conductive thermoplastics show a higher thermal conductivity in the range of 2 – 20 W/mK. The filler-content and the high thermal conductivity affect directly the flow- and cooling-conditions during injection molding. Therefore, the manufacture of injection-molded parts requires adjusted processing strategies. In this paper properties of thermal conductive thermoplastics relevant to the design of injection-molded parts as well as the effect to relevant processing parameters are introduced.
Retardation of Shrinkage in Phthalosyanine Blue Pigmented Polypropylene Using Nanoclay as Filler
Matthew Reichelderfer, Sean Stabler, May 2005
A common problem with crystalline polymers that occurs when an organic pigment is added to the melt matrix is non-uniform or anisotropic shrinkage. A nanoclay has been compounded into polypropylene. An organic pigment masterbatch was made and then added to the nanoclay/polyproplyene (PP) compound. Percent crystallinity was then tested using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Percent elongation also was tested using a standard tensile testing machine. Shrinkage differences between colorant with and without nanoclay were measured using the ASTM flame-bar and mold and a two inch disk and mold.

This item is only available to members

Click here to log in

If you are not currently a member,
you can click here to fill out a member application.

We're sorry, but your current web site security status does not grant you access to the resource you are attempting to view.

  Welcome Page

How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.

If you need help with citations, visit www.citationmachine.net