SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Analysis of Organic Colorants in Plastics
Constantinos Nicolaou, May 2013
The use of analytical techniques for analyzing organic colorants in plastics is described. These include spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques such as mass spectrometry(MS), visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), FTIR, and high performance or ultra performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, UPLC).
Flex Barrier Property Enhancement in Film Structures Using Microlayer Coextrusion Technology
Patrick C. Lee, Joseph Dooley, Jeff Robacki, Steve Jenkins, Robert Wrisley, May 2013
Microlayer coextrusion is a process in which two or more polymers are extruded and joined together in a feedblock or die to form a single structure with multiple layers. This paper describes a multilayer coextrusion process technology to maintain the gas barrier property of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH) barrier films after flexing.
Integrated Process Monitoring and Process Control of Injection Molding Machines and Molds
Stefan Kruppa, Reihard Schiffers, Martin Würtele, Georg P. Holzinger, May 2013
The injection molding process is often exposed to a wide variety of influences that lead to variations in the required product quality. Today there are separate control loops for the machine and the mold. Each system is operated standalone" which leads for example to higher mold and melt temperatures and longer cycle times. The approach is to couple the control of the injection unit with the temperature control of the mold to gain energy efficiency in the overall process."
2PC-Recu-Module for Energy Recovery at Hydraulic Driven Injection Molding Machines
Marco Lenzen, Andreas Unger, Johannes Wortberg, May 2013
In contrast to electrically driven injection molding machines, for hydraulically driven machines energy recovery during the breaking process of the single axis is not state of the art. Particularly in these cases there is the highest capability for energy recuperation. For this reason a new hydraulic drive module has been developed, which is able to recover the kinetic energy of the clamping unit. In this paper the results of the model based investigations are shown.
Blow molding of solid silicone rubber
Christian Hopmann, Anna Funk, May 2013
Complex hollow parts made of thermoplastics are often produced in the extrusion blow molding process. This cost-efficient production technique with a high reproducibility, a high degree of automation and short cycle times has not been adapted for rubber processing until now. At the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) preliminary investigations show the potential for processing solid silicone rubber in blow molding. The blow moldability of solid silicone rubber is analysed thoroughly and a prototype blow molding machine will be built to examine the processing behavior of the adapted material.
Development of a Foaming Technology to Produce Polyurethane Molded Foam Parts Using Co2 as Blowing Agent
Christian Hopmann, Simon Latz, May 2013
The existing technologies to foam polyurethane (PU) in a discontinuous molding process show all several disadvantages regarding to the achievable foam properties. At the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) a physical foaming process has been developed that allows to foam PU molded parts using CO2 as a blowing agent. Two different methods which enable a controlled dissolving process of CO2 out of the reaction mixture and con?sequently a homogenous cell structure have been investigated.
Analysis of Sustainability-related Web Content for General and Medical Plastics Packing Firm
Shristy Bashyal, Bonnie J. Bachman, May 2013
The purpose of this study is to determine how plastic-packaging companies define sustainability or sustainable practices and communicate sustainable practices to its target audience e.g., customer, consumer. There are two research questions this study intends to answer. First, how do such companies define sustainability or sustainable practices, and second, what persuasive appeals are used to communicate sustainable practices to their audiences via a company website?
Influence of the Melting Zone on Compounding of Cellulose Fiber Reinforced Polylactide
Tobias Koplin, Hans-Josef Endres, Gerhard Ziegmann, May 2013
The compounding of natural fiber composites (NFC) requires a preferably low melt temperature to prevent thermal damage from the fibers. In this test series the influence of the melting zone and the role of melt temperature by addition of natural fibers on compound properties are examined.
Ultrahigh Flow Liquid Crystal Polymer
Young Kim, Frank Zhao, Yanjun Li, May 2013
A new flow improvement technology (FIT) including reactive extrusion and Ticona’s proprietary compounding technology enables a high flow liquid crystal polymer (LCP) with lower warpage. LCP polymer chain and its molecular weight distribution were tailored via reactive extrusion, while filler length was also controlled via the compounding technology. As a result, this technology makes it possible to improve product flowability, warpage, surface smoothness, and weldline strength for electrical and electronic devices.
Prediction of Ejection Forces Using Combination of Mold Filling and Mechanical Simulations
Alexander Bakharev, David Astbury, May 2013
The paper deals with the prediction of the force required to eject thermoplastic moldings from an injection mold using a combination of mold filling and mechanical simulations. It demonstrates that ejection forces are strongly dependent upon geometrical parameters of the moldings and design of the mold and that simple formulas are not adequate for prediction of the ejection forces.
The Extrusion Forming Technology of PMMA Light Guide Plate with Micro-Structure
Yeh Wang, Stanley Tsai, Howard Hu, May 2013
The purpose of this article is to study the continuous manufacturing process for PMMA sheet with micro-structures transferred on its surface, and also the influences of the process parameters on the transfer ratio of the micro-structure. The micro-structured sheet with optical features can serve as a novel type light guide plate (LGP) which enhances the image quality of a LCDTV by increasing the contrast ratio and reducing the motion blur.
Cross Metathesis of Olefin Terminated Polypropylene and Polydimethysiloxane iin the Melt Phase
Neil McManus, Costas Tzoganakis, Yan R. Wu, May 2013
Vinyl terminated polypropylene (PP) and mono-vinyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been reacted in the melt phase with Grubbs second generation catalyst to, synthesize PDMS modified PP copolymers. Some chemical, physical and rheological properties of produced materials are determined and the results indicated the feasibility of cross metathesis (CM) reaction in melt phase.
Correlation of the 'Trans' Conformer Content and Sequence Probability to the Crystallinity in Injection Molded Stretch Blow Molded PET Bottles
Kris Akkapeddi, May 2013
The relative ‘trans’ conformer content of the glycol moiety in various types of injection stretch blow molded PET bottles was determined by an ATR-FTIR analysis. The total ‘trans’ conformer (t) content and the calculated ‘trans’ diad (-t-t-) and triad (-t-t-t-) sequence probabilities were correlated to the % crystallinity. The effect of orientation and heat setting on the residual ‘trans’ content in the amorphous phase is discussed.
Eliminating Burned Parts Through Vent Sensing
Fred Buja, May 2013
A mold vent TeMp™ sensor [1] thermally profiles each injection cycle melt flow rate volume. The temperature sensor profiles mold open to close and return molded part ejection. The site mold cavity trapped gas temperature and pressure melt is sensed. The gas exits as melt fills to peak pack volume point in time. A following melt to mold heat loss occurs during cure time. Mold open and part ejection completes the cycle. Profiles of single and multiple cavity molds will be presented.
Low Gloss, Low Emission UV Stabilized Polyacetal Copolymer (POM)
Bruce Mulholland, May 2013
Automotive OEMs have increasingly become more interested in monitoring cabin air quality inside the vehicle. This leads to the need for further understanding and testing of emissions from the various materials including plastic parts. In addition, styling trends for automotive interiors continue to demand low gloss appearances. This paper explores how both demanding requirements can be met through the development of a low gloss, low emission POM material.
Predication of Weld Joint Long-Term Strength Under Creep Conditions
Haiying Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Alexander Chudnovsky, Prasanna Kondapalli, William McMaster, Ankur Bhosale, Douglas Shearin, May 2013
Based on failure analysis of glass reinforced Polyamide (PA) weld joints, this paper proposes a thermodynamic model for weld joint lifetime using continuum damage mechanics and Eyring kinetic equation for damage growth. It presents the formulation of the model, and uses the accelerated test data to estimate basic parameters: activation energy and activation volume of fracture. The model is also validated by comparison its predictions with a relatively low temperature test data.
Mold Building and Project Management Maturity
Jason Williams, May 2013
This paper will investigate organizational size and how it relates to project management maturity models. The results of a survey of 44 mold builders will be presented to illustrate these relationships. The results were used to estimate the level of project management maturity as it correlates to organization size. It was found that larger mold builders do exhibit a higher level of project management maturity.
Thermoplastic Polycarbonate Based Polyurethanes
Anthony Walder, Umit Makal, Pallavi Kulkarni, May 2013
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) that are used in a variety of applications (1). TPUs exhibit low temperature flexibility, excellent abrasion resistance, high tensile strength and good processing characteristics. One drawback to standard TPU’s was heat resistance and having both oxidative and hydrolytic stability at the same time. The polycarbonate based polyurethanes can supply these characteristics.
Universal Melt Temperature Diagram
Stephen Derezinski, May 2013
The Universal Melt Temperature Diagram (UMTD) provides the developing melt temperature versus length of an extruder based on four unique dimensionless groups. Factors included in the four groups are; the dependence of melt viscosity on shear and temperature, resin thermal properties, screw geometry, and process conditions. Melt temperature vs. extruder length is provided in a succinct format that vividly illustrates the melt temperature development process.
Squeeze-Out of Sealant During Hot Bar Sealing: Modeling Insights
Barry A. Morris, Jonathan M. Scherer, May 2013
Excessive pressure and temperature during hot bar sealing can result in poor seals due to squeezing out of the sealant. A model is developed that shows the amount of squeeze out increases with increasing seal bar pressure, seal temperature (by lowering the viscosity of the sealant), sealing dwell time, film thickness and decreasing seal bar width. Initial validation experiments qualitatively agree with the model predictions.


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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
Available: www.4spe.org.

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