The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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In-Situ Polymerization of Graphene-Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites
Isotactic Polyproyplene-Exfoliated Graphene Nanoplatelet (iPP-xGnP?) nanocomposites were prepared through an in-situ polymerization technique. Single site metallocene catalysts polymerized propylene within a dispersion of xGnP nanoparticles. The nanocomposites showed increased crystallization and melting temperatures, along with increased elastic moduli. The 1.3 wt% composite showed an increase in ductility over the neat polymer.
A Mechanism for Solid Bed Breakup in Single-Screw Extruders
Solid bed breakup in plasticating single-screw extruders can lead to defects in the downstream product, reduced rates, and process instabilities. The literature generally attributes this breakup to pressure gradients emanating from the beginning of the metering section of the screw although little evidence is available. In this paper a new mechanism is proposed that was developed as a result of the physics of the melting mechanism and fluid flows associated with screw rotation physics.
Evaluation of Planar and Uniaxial Extensional Viscosities for Linear and Branched Polyolefins
In this work, planar and uniaxial extensional viscosities for linear and branched polyolefins has been determined through entrance pressure drop technique on conventional twin bore capillary rheometr by using novel circular and rectangle orifice dies and the capability of two different constitutive equations to describe the measured experimental data has been tested.
Simulation of Distributive Mixing in a ZSK-90 Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruder
Mesh partitioning technique is used for three-dimensional simulation of the flow for 36 different screw orientations in a ZSK 90 co-rotating twin-screw extruder from Coperion. The predicted velocity distribution is used to trace the pathlines for 2034 particles flowing through the extruder. The pathlines are used to determine the spatial distribution of initially segregated particles, which is then used to estimate the Shanon entropy as a measure of the quality of mixing in the extruder.
Sustainability and Plastic Technology
Sustainability principles are becoming associated with best practices. This paper will cover results of a 2011 survey and implications for Sustainability in the plastics industry. We will also present a few examples from the Plastics Industry that illustrate the principles of sustainability in practice.
Effect of process parameters on properties of devulcanized rubber obtained from a supercritical CO2 assisted devulcanization process
Continuous devulcanization of tire rubber crumb was performed using supercritical CO2 in an industrial scale twin screw extruder. A reasonably high throughput extrusion process has been developed and the effect of processing conditions has been studied. Using a fractional factorial design in three levels, the effects of process temperature, screw speed, and feed rate on the sol and gel fractions and degree of devulcanization of devulcanized rubber have been investigated.
PVD Coatings to Improve Engineering Properties in Molding Tablets Applications
With the purpose to develop innovative solutions for the tablet tooling sector in pharmacy industry, in order to improve the behavior of punches and dies in service and improve the extraction, decrease wear and decrease the risk of contamination, this experimental work presents the development of thin films by PVD, studied in the ambit of a large project of Engineering & Tooling sector, namely Tooling EDGE.
The New PC/PMMA Blend Materials having High Scratch Resistance and High Transparency
In general, a blend of PC and conventional PMMA is immiscible and its appearance is opaque such as pearl-like gloss. This new material using new PMMA modified chemical structure improved miscibility between PC and PMMA, and this material could be enhanced surface scratch resistance keeping with high transparency. Other features of this new material are 1) superior impact strength and heat stability than PMMA and 2) better flowability than PC high flow grade.
A New High Flow Copolycarbonate Resin Meeting the Requirements of the New Europen EN 45545 Train Standard
A new copolycarbonate resin has been developed that meets the Hazard Level 3 (HL3) requirements for the new European rail standard EN 45545, including the heat release, smoke density and toxicity requirements. This resin is designed for high melt flow, while retaining good practical impact properties. As such, this resin is the ideal candidate for injection molding of train seat back shells with compliance to the new EN 45545 standard. Finally, new FR technology has led to a fully halogen-free product.
Cemented Tungsten Carbide: An Innovative Material For Custom Core Pins in the Plastic Injection Molding Industry
Cemented tungsten carbide has revolutionized productivity in many applications throughout many industries and when used as a material for core pins has proven to reduce cycle time, increase core pin rigidity and extend core pin life in the plastic injection molding industry resulting in significant cost savings. To achieve profitability in the increasingly competitive global marketplace plastic injection molding plants must operate with maximum efficiencies and minimal unplanned downtime.
Color Compatibilty of Thiol-ene nail polish Formulation
Thiol-ene chemistry is a emerging and environmentally friendly polymer synthesis. It is therefor obvious that new applications would be sought for the process. Currently, the use of Thiol-ene chemistry is being investigated for use as a replacement chemistry for nail polish. However, a nail polish formulation requires a consistent and aesthetically pleasing application of colorant. Our project looks at the application of colorants to Thiol-ene coatings.
Select Properties of a Rotationally Molded Polyethylene/ Nanoclay Composite
A composite material consisting of 5 percent weight of nanoclay and polyethylene was prepared by twin screw compounding. The resulting material in pellet form was ground and rotationally molded. A RotoLog was used to determine melt completion in the mold and the resulting test box was tested for low temperature impact and tensile properties versus those of the control material.
High Intensity Mixing Study: Effect of Blade Design on Powder Properties
High intensity mixing is a preferred way to disperse colorants or additives into resins. Two different blade designs are being evaluated, one being a polyvinyl chloride dry blend and the other a polyethylene dry blend blade, for aggression of particle size in polyethylene powder. The resulting mixtures are evaluated for temperature, particle size distribution, bulk density, and powder flow properties.
Select Properties of a Rotational Molded Natural Fiber Reinforced Polyethylene Composite
Several properties of a rotational molded composite material comprised of polyethylene and a bio-derived fiber reinforcement are investigated and compared with those of the non-reinforced control. This poster presents the effects of the bio-derived reinforcement on tensile and low temperature impact performance.
Crosslinking Recycled Polyethylene For Low End Medical Applications
This experiment determined the most effective technique in crosslinking HDPE to replace PP medical containers. HDPE was crosslinked using silane methods at levels of 2%, 5%, and 10% and irradiation at levels of 21.6kGy, 42.12kGy, and 105.3kGy. After crosslinking, these materials, along with a medical grade PP and a general grade of PE were tested using melt index, stress relaxation, tensile, impact, flexural, HDT, and autoclave sterilization. The e-beam at 21.6kGy yielded the results closest to the PP.
Evaluating The Effects of Conformal Cooling on Core, cavity, and part temperature on Injection Molded Parts with Finite Element Analysis
This study will focus on the effect conformal cooling channels have on cooling time, mold temperature, part temperature and warpage. An infrared camera was used to determine the mold and part temperatures. The processing variables were material and cooling times. Two amorphous materials (HIPS and PC), and two semi-crystalline materials (PP and PA) were used. The conformal cooling layout provided more even cooling and less part warpage. Moldflow was used to verify molding trial results.
Deformation from Ejection for Autodesk Moldflow
A simulation verification study was performed to understand how part ejection can cause deformation during injection molding. Excessive issues that occurred from ejection forces such as surface indentations or part distortion were assessed after altering different processing parameters. OFAT testing was used with a crystalline and an amorphous material in separate part geometries to analyze the most influential factors. Cooling time was the most influential process variable.
Rapid Tooling for Thermoforming Applications
This research explores the possibility of using printed FDM tooling in the thermoforming process to produce prototype parts. Three thermoforming tools with various geometries were designed then printed using a 3D printer. Sheets of Polystyrene were used for testing the molding ability of the tools. The FDM tooling performed well in producing prototype thermoformed parts.
Novel Non-Halogenated Flame Retardants for Polypropylene
Toxicity of some halogenated flame retardants (FR) has resulted in restriction of their use in plastic materials. Therefore, there is significant interest for development of non-halogenated FR with comparable performance. Here, we report a new type of FR additives based on combination of metal oxides and polyphenols. This FR additive is expected to exhibit a combination of char formation behavior and radical scavenging action. Synthesis and thermal characterization of this new class of FR material will be presented.
Options for Your High Volume Color - Blue
If you are coloring plastics for packaging, fiber, or automotive blue is going to one of, if not your highest volume color. When it comes to creating blue colors using organic pigments, today’s formulators have a limited, but high functioning selection to choose from—specifically phthalocyanine (pcn) and indanthrone blue. Pigment Manufacturers have developed a new range of indanthrone pigments for polymers and coatings. This article will review the new Alpha Crystal of Pigment Blue 60 as compared to the “next best alternatives.” You will have all the information you need to select the right blue for your high volume color – blue.
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