SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
A Transparent Barrel for Study of Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding
Furong Gao, Zhiming Jin, Xi Chen, May 2000
A transparent barrel system has been developed to assist in the understanding of polymer behavior in a reciprocating screw injection molding machine. This system allows the dynamic status of the polymer inside the injection barrel to be conveniently visualized though photography and video recording, and the corresponding material conditions can be measured via a computerized data acquisition system. Effects of different processing conditions on the melting behavior are analyzed. This system can not only assist in the understanding of the process but also can be used to quantitatively verify the modeling and optimization of injection molding system.
Characterization of Biaxial Orientation in Polyolefin Films
A. Ajj, K.C. Cole, May 2000
Among the most widely used orientation processes are those involving films; they include both film blowing (with a low level of orientation) and biaxial orientation or tentering (with a high level of orientation). Polyolefins (polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and their copolymers) represent a significant proportion of the polymers commonly used in these processes. The knowledge of the orientation developed in these films is critical for establishing the process conditions and the final properties of the films. In this study, we investigate the biaxial orientation developed in blown and biaxially oriented polyethylene films using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and birefringence. Biaxial orientation factors are determined for both crystalline and amorphous phases and discussed in relation with process conditions.
Measuring the Low Frequency Linear Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Melts: Trials with PDMS Using Sphere-Plane Squeeze Flow and Interferometry
Edwin C. Cua, Montgomery T. Shaw, May 2000
The problem of measuring the linear viscoelastic (LVE) properties of polymers at low frequencies is a long-standing one, especially for polyolefins with broad relaxation times and small time-temperature shift factors. A squeeze flow apparatus utilizing Newton's interference rings has been devised to measure minute strains at very low stresses with a minimum resolution of ¼ wavelength of light. Its simplicity allows several samples to be run simultaneously under vacuum. This arrangment minimizes degradation, manhours and cost, all critical considerations for long experiments. The design and preliminary results for PDMS as measured by a prototype of the instrument will be discussed.
New Polypropylene for Differentiated Blown Films
W.D. Hoenig, C.P. Bosnyak, K. Sehanobish, W. Van Volkenburgh, C. Ruiz, L..M. Tau, May 2000
New polypropylene resins have been developed which allow for the commercialization of novel, air-quenched blown films. The new resins have been developed using molecular design principles and provide significantly enhanced properties. Key performance properties include stiffness, seal strength, and higher service temperature for many applications as well as flexibility and toughness for other applications. This new breadth in product offerings and performance ranges provides significant new opportunities for PP resins in blown films. This paper will highlight properties and processability of the new resins.
Improvement of Pentium-II Connector Support Design by CAE Tool
Thomas Hsieh, David C. Hsu, Alice S. Lin, Andy G. Day, Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2000
Weld line problem is crucial to a Pentium-II connector support part on appearance and mechanical consideration. In this work, a CAE tool is adopted during the product-development in order to detect potential weld line problem of the design. Various design revisions are proposed and tried on the computer. This approach is proved to be cost-and-time-effective to shorten time-to-marketing and avoid molding problem by improving design in advance.
In-Situ Production of Electrically Conductive Fibres in Polyaniline-SBS Blends
R.H. Cruz-Estrada, M.J. Folkes, May 2000
Electrically conductive polyaniline (PANI) was thermally blended with polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene (SBS) at different weight compositions. The resultant blends were capillary extruded in order to generate a drawing process in the PANI. Microscopic analysis of the extrudates revealed that the PANI was deformed during the process to produce elongated structures. Electrical measurements showed the relationship between the electrical conductivity and the weight fraction of PANI in the blends.
Novel Fiber Surface Treatment for Use in Engineering Thermoplastic Composites
Jianwei Xu, Lawrence Acquarulo, Charles O'Neil, May 2000
A water-soluble polymer (Polyoxazoline) was used to treat nickel coated graphite (NCG) fiber and the treated fiber was then used to reinforce ABS, Polycarbonate and Polyetherimide. The water-soluble polymer improves the compatibility of the fiber in the thermoplastic resin matrix thereby providing an improved thermoplastic composite material with optimum mechanical and electrical performance.
Physical Model of Polymer Pellets Melting in Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extrusion
Zhu Linjie, Geng Xiaozheng, May 2000
The melting of polymer in co-rotating twin-screw extruder depends not only on screw configurations and operational conditions, but on the properties of the polymer as well. The melting progressing is too various to be described by single melting model. Only in the past few years (1-9), some attention has been paid to the research of polymer melting in co-rotating twin-screw extrusion. In present study, based on experimental results, the conception of melting sub-stage was defined to describe the complex polymer melting progressing in co-rotating twin-screw extrusion. Ten melting sub-stages were concluded and defined. It was found that the complicate polymer melting progressing can be modeled by combining some of these ten melting sub-stages. It showed that the definition of melting sub-stages would provide an important way to the research of polymer melting in twin-screw extrusion.
Numerical Analysis on the Melt Conveying Properties of Wave Screw Element in Intermeshing Counter Rotating Twin-Screw Extruder
Zhou Fuping, Geng Xiaozheng, May 2000
In this paper, one new kind screw element, wave screw element in intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder, is designed. Three-dimensional Non-Newtonian model is established to investigate the melt conveying properties of this new screw elements. The model consists of all the gaps between the screws and the barrel such as the side gap, the calender gap, the flight gap, and the tetrahedron gap, which is in accordance with the true extrusion process. With the finite element software ANSYS, velocity, pressure and viscosity field are obtained respectively. Experiments are used to verify the results of simulation. It shows that the calculated results such as output is nearly the same as the experimental results.
Morphology/Property Relationships in Thermoplastic Starch/Poly(hydroxy ester ether) Biodegradable Blends
P.S. Walia, J.W. Lawton, R.L. Shogren, F.C. Felker, May 2000
The effect of moisture level during processing on the mechanical properties of biodegradable blends of thermoplastic starch and poly (hydroxy ester ether) (PHEE) was studied. The morphology of the blends changed with the moisture content of starch. The dispersed phase was significantly deformed under high moisture conditions, leading to fibrillar and laminar types of morphologies at 50-80% starch level. A low moisture level produced a more dispersed morphology. Improved tensile properties were observed for the blends processed at high moisture levels due to the presence of elongated morphologies.
Mechanical Properties of Starch Filled Poly(hydroxy ester ether) Biodegradable Composites
S. St. Lawrence, J.L. Willett, C.J. Carriere, May 2000
The mechanical properties of starch filled biodegradable composites have been investigated. The strength was found to be independent of the filler content below 10 vol% and above approximately 30 vol%. This behavior is due to the failure mechanism operating in these composites. The matrix, poly(hydroxy ester ether) (PHEE), adheres well to starch and as a result the granules do not dewet during deformation. Instead the composites behave as a quasi-homogeneous material with increased brittleness as the filler content increases. The deformation mechanism was investigated by acoustic emission analysis and by a post-mortem examination of the fracture surfaces.
Mold-Making Apprenticeship Program in Georgia
William T. Thielemann, May 2000
This paper will trace the development of the Mold-Making Apprenticeship Program in Georgia's technical institutes, developed to support the plastics industry within the state. It will explain why the program was developed, how it was developed, the content of the program and the results to date. The purpose of the poster presentation is to explain the process and outline the program with the goal of assisting other states with similar programs and ultimately addressing the shortage of trained and available mold-makers. The poster presentation will include three sections: industry growth and potential, team process and program outline.
Regulatory and Experimental Approaches to FDA Food Contact Compliance
Robert L. Pesselman, Melanie McCort-Tipton, May 2000
Tests to determine the migration of indirect additives into actual foods are essential in order to ensure food safety. Recent changes in regulatory protocols and evolving analytical technologies have helped define new ways to receive regulatory clearance for food contact polymers. This poster summarizes the issues to be addressed when designing a test plan and outlines regulatory considerations and experimental approaches applicable to both Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European compliance. In addition, the proper use of food simulants, available extraction cells, and analytical techniques are discussed.
Optimising Nano Filler Performance in Selected Nylons
Charles J. O’Neil, Lawrence A. Acquarulo, Jr., Jianwei Xu, May 2000
A class of polymer materials having significantly improved properties has emerged. This class of material is being referred to as polymer nano composites. Typical of this class is the nano clay filled Nylon 6 family. We have recently found that by exposing the nano clay filled Nylon 6 materials to ionizing irradiation at low levels, 3 - 5 megarads that we further improve the flex-modulus. We have also found that this technology can be applied to Nylon 12. This technology is new to the 12.
Analytical System for Measuring Thermally Generated VOC Emissions from Polymers
Q. Xiang, S. Mitra, S. Dey, M. Xanthos, May 2000
An analytical instrument and procedures were developed to investigate the thermally generated VOC emissions from different polymers with a flame ionization detector (FID). This system was applied to estimate the upper limit of VOC emissions from recyclable 100% carpet residue by exaggerating its thermal exposure at a predetermined temperature. The pattern of VOC emissions was also studied for the 100% carpet residue as well as its composite (80% carpet residue + 20% virgin LDPE), and virgin resins (PP and LDPE).
Load-Carrying Ability of Injection Molded Products with Holes
Anton J. Heidweiller, Marcel J.M. van der Zwet, May 2000
The mechanical loadability distribution around a molded-in hole in a polystyrene plate has been analyzed using flatwise bending. Four different injection molding conditions have been applied. Birefringence measurements have been carried out to analyze the molecular orientation. The weld line is the weakest point, but the loadability reduction is small when it is related to the loadability perpendicular to the molecular orientation. Almost no effect of variation of process conditions was found.
Profit from Recycling Tooling and Leadership Change
Wilhelm O. Morgan, May 2000
This paper is about upgrading tooling that has been built many years ago, or simply to make mouldings to suit our type of manufacturing operation. When these tools were built the techniques and technology used was the latest available to the polymer technologist designer, mould shop and toolmaker. Using tooling technologies as the starting point, I have added management, and more so Leader techniques to show how production can be changed and opportunities gained, by modernising; towards increasing production, saving money, material, and bringing about attitudinal changes. This paper will concentrate on the following topics, and show details where this revisiting process has changed tools and people to make them more motivated about competition, which will result in profitable, faster cycling and be better suited to today's fast operational needs.
Wood Flour Reinforced Polystyrene Composite Using SEBS-g-MA as Compatibilizer
Chen-Jui Hung, Jenn-Fong Kuan, Jaine-Ming Huang, May 2000
A functionalized thermoplastic elastomer, SEBS-g-MA (styrene-ethylene-butadiene elastomer grafting maleic anhydride), has been demonstrated to be an effective compatibilizer in polystyrene-wood flour composite and results in the formation of an in-situ formed copolymer existing between the interface of polystyrene and wood flour and thus enhance the interface adhesion and mechanical properties of the composite. With the addition of SEBS-g-MA, both flexural modulus and impact strength of polystyrene-wood flour composite has been improved substantially and a good interaction between polystyrene and wood flour can be indicated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images as well. The result shows that composite with 4phr SEBS-g-MA gives the optimum mechanical property.
Dispersion of Nanoscopic Clay Particles in Thermoplastic Polymers
Grant D. Barber, Christopher M. Carter, Robert B. Moore, May 2000
The formation of clay nanocomposite, hybrid materials will be achieved through the incorporation of organically modified montmorillonite clay particles within a variety of thermoplastic polymers. In order to facilitate a homogeneous dispersion of the clay nanoparticles in the thermoplastic matrix, ionomeric compatibilizers will be utilized. The matrix polymer/ionomer pairs chosen for this study include polystyrene/sulfonated polystyrene, PET/sulfonated PET, and polypropylene/carboxylated polypropylene. Various methods of clay dispersion, including melt-processing, in-situ polymerization, and solution-state mixing will be utilized and compared. The morphology and physical properties of the resulting nanocomposites will be investigated using SAXS, TEM, DSC, TGA, DMA and standard tensile test methods.
Modeling Residual Stresses in Thermosetting Materials
Patricia Prasatya, Gregory B. McKenna, Sindee L. Simon, May 2000
The residual stresses in a composite subjected to three-dimensional constraints are calculated by extending a thermo-viscoelastic model developed previously by Simon et al. [1] to describe the time, temperature, and conversion dependence of the shear modulus for a commercial thermosetting material during cure. Experimental residual stress data as a function of cure are fit to obtain limiting values for the rubber and glassy bulk moduli. The residual stresses are then calculated as a function of cure history using the bulk moduli and the time function obtained in the thermo-viscoelastic model which include the dependence of the shift factor on temperature and conversion.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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