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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Sheet Extrusion of Thermoformers
Walter B. Virginski, K. Christian Barnwell, May 1999
Thermoformers can achieve many advantages by producing sheet in house. Sheet extrusion systems for in-line thermoforming and off line use are available in a wide range of sizes to suit almost any consumer or industrial thermoformed product application. The benefits of in-house sheet extrusion will be reviewed. Thick cut to length, thin roll stock, and in-line applications will be discussed. The methods of determining the size of the required sheet extrusion line and the capital equipment requirements will be used to determine the cost per pound of extruded sheet to enable you to calculate your savings.
The Development of a Resin Coated Sand Tooling Process for the Manufacture of Plastic Components
A.D. Venus, S.P. Soe, J.W. Elder, A.R. Wheatley, May 1999
This paper describes the application of foundry sand moulding technology to the development of a rapid and low cost injection-moulding tooling system. An assessment of the sand / binder foundry moulding processes is presented which considers the requirements of the injection moulding process. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is used to provide a master pattern for transferring the geometry to the tool. Suitable formulations of sand, binder, hardener and curing conditions for tooling application are then discussed.
Deformation and Fracture of Polymer Silicate Layer Nanocomposites
J.P. Harcup, A.F. Yee, M.K. Akkapeddi, May 1999
The deformation and fracture behaviour of polyamide-6/silicate nanocomposites are studied. With increasing clay content the modulus increases much more substantially than can be achieved with micron-sized clay particles, but the fracture toughness drops significantly. The micromechanisms of fracture are relatable to the microstructure of these materials. The matrix is capable of a surprising amount of shear plasticity. Rubber modification is effective in producing more crack tip damage which increases the toughness of these composites.
High Performance Structured Polymer Barrier Films
Ali A. Yousefi, Mosto Bousmina, Abdellatif Ait-Kadi, May 1999
Polypropylene (PP) was functionalized with maleic anhydride (MAH) and diethyl maleate (DEM) in a twin-screw extruder. The functionalized PPs were mixed with a 80/20 wt./wt.% blends of polypropylene and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and the extruded films were stretched at the exit of the flat die. The effect of the functionalized PPs and stretching on PP/EVOH blend were investigated. Morphological analysis along with mechanical and thermomechanical analysis showed that PP-g-DEM is a good candidate for tailoring materials with enhanced barrier properties.
Overmolding and Co-Extruding Melt-Processible Rubber on Rigid Substrates
Paul Zwick, May 1999
This paper will review the use of melt-processible rubber (MPR) in overmolding and co-extrusion with various rigid plastic substrates. Looking to improve product quality and develop new applications, plastics engineers are turning to MPR technology to cost-effectively add the high performance properties and warm, soft feel of rubber to their products. MPR exhibits superior resistance to weather, oils, chemicals, gasoline, and UV light, and is processed on conventional plastics equipment, which provides potential cost savings.
Effect of the Skin/Core Ratio on the Flow Behaviour during Co-Injection Moulding
A. Derdouri, A. Garcia-Réjon, K.T. Nguyen, Y. Simard, Kurt A. Koppi, Brent A. Salamon, May 1999
The effect of the core/skin ratio on the overall flow behaviour in the co-injection molding process was studied. A 7.6x16.4x0.7 cm3 rectangular plaque was moulded using a 150-ton Engel co-injection machine. ABS was used both for the skin and core material and PC were used only as the skin material. For visualization purposes, a black pigment was added to the core material. The results are discussed in terms of the relative viscosity, injection speed, melt and mould temperatures.
Thermal Stability of Polyurethanes Based on Vegetable Oils
Ivan Javni, Zoran S. Petrovic, Andrew Guo, Rachel Fuller, May 1999
A series of polyurethanes from polyols derived from soybean, corn, safflower, sunflower, peanut, olive, canola and castor oil were prepared and their thermal stability in air and nitrogen assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR and GC/MS. Oil based polyurethanes generally had better initial thermal stability in air than the polypropylene oxide based polyurethane, while the latter was better in nitrogen. If a higher conversion is taken as the criterion of stability then all oil based polyurethanes have better thermals stability both in air and in nitrogen.
Wall Slip of Polypropylene/EP Rubber Blends
Jonathan Lopez, Sang-Yoon Kang, Krishnamurthy Jayaraman, May 1999
The wall slip flow behavior has been determined for different blends of a polypropylene with an EP rubber. This is done by analyzing capillary flow data with several dies of different diameters. Mooney plots drawn from this data are strongly curved. This is attributed to viscous heating effects and to a more complex slip velocity relation for the blends. The relevant mass, momentum, and energy equations for flow of a power-law fluid through a capillary are solved numerically to incorporate the combined effects of slip and viscous heating, for fitting the capillary flow data.
Recent Advances in Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Injection Molding Process
S.-S.L. Wen, C.-K. Jen, K.T. Nguyen, A. Derdouri, Y. Simard, May 1999
Ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques were used to monitor the entire injection molding process including the flow front advancement, the end of filling, the packing phase, the solidification and the detachment of the part from the mold. Compared to conventional pressure and temperature sensors, ultrasonic sensors are non-intrusive, have very fast response and can provide unique capabilities such as monitoring of filling and solidification, and detection of part/mold detachment from both sides of the cavity.
Rod Strength Analysis for Polyethylene/Gas Systems
S.T. Lee, Tom Kimble, May 1999
Roller pull-off experiments have been performed to investigate the rod strength with and without blowing agent. Low density polyethylene was melted to mix with physical blowing agent, or to liberate inert gas by decomposing chemical agent to form a homogeneous melt in the extruder. The extrudate exit a capillary die and went through a driven nip roll for force measurement at a given speed. Extensional viscosity was calculated from the pulling force and roller speed. It appears that plasticization and foaming are important factors in the stretched strength analysis.
Study of Surrounding Temperature Effects on Extruded Foam Structure
S.T. Lee, Kevin Lee, May 1999
Foam extrusion experiments were performed to study the effects of surrounding temperature variation on cell structure. Linear low density polyethylene was used with endothermic chemical blowing agent on a single screw extruder to exit from a capillary die into environments with different temperatures. Cell density, foam density, and cell morphology were investigated. The amount of chemical blowing agent and the surrounding conditions have to be viewed together to correlate with the cell density. Foam density appears to be related to gas escape from the surface during foaming.
Effect of Formulation Variables on Rheology of Rigid PVC
Virginia Odle Hayes, May 1999
The effect of lubricants, impact modifier, and process aid on the processing and physical properties of a rigid PVC compound have been modeled using a Central Composite designed experiment. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties of the various formulations in the study. By modeling the rheological properties it is possible to simultaneously optimize flow, extruder conditions, and final part properties.
Mold Wear vs. Wall Thickness: Critical Information for Thin Wall Molding
Kurt Hayden, Paul Engelmann, Robert Dealey, Michael Monfore, May 1999
The plastics industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the wall thickness of molded parts. Thin wall molding provides a host of concerns not present in standard molding applications. An analysis of the relationship between tool wear and wall thickness was conducted as part of the long-term copper alloy mold wear studies at Western Michigan University (WMU). This analysis suggests tool design for the proactive reduction of high shear erosive wear associated with thin wall molds.
Moulded Part Design for the Gas Injection Technique
H. Potente, H.-P. Heim, May 1999
In gas assisted injection moulding the melt front advancement has a considerable effect on the gas penetration. The evaluation of an appropriate melt filling is an important step to avoid instabilities in the process sequence. Taking a sample moulded part a procedure is presented that enables the part designer to evaluate required melt and gas injection points according to the gas injection technique. Using finite element simulations different calculations for the melt front advancement lead to the correct gate location in correspondence with the gas nozzle and the part geometry.
Thermoplastic and Elastomeric Toughened Cyanate Esters for Composite Applications
Roman W. Hillermeier, James C. Seferis, May 1999
Cyanate ester resins were modified using thermoplastic and elastomeric materials to study their effect on properties and long term durability when used as high temperature matrices in glass fiber composites. Toughness improvements without significant sacrifices in flexural properties were only observed for the systems that did not phase separate. Conversely, the thermal properties of these materials were more seriously affected after exposure to a high temperature environment.
Correlation of Step-Wise Fatigue and Creep Slow Crack Growth in Polyethylene
A. Hiltner, M. Parsons, E.V. Stepanov, E. Baer, May 1999
The correlation in mechanism and kinetics of slow crack growth between fatigue and creep of high density polyethylene was studied. The step-wise crack propagation mechanism characteristic of long-term failures in polyethylene was observed over all fatigue and creep loading conditions examined. Fatigue fracture kinetics allowed for extrapolation to the case of creep failure, which suggested that short-term fatigue testing can be used to predict long-term creep fracture properties. Under high stresses the presence of shear deformation retarded crack growth.
Utilization of Dynamic Feed Control in Family Tools
Mark Doyle, Albert Bernier, Karen Camille, David Kazmer, May 1999
Just-in-time business agreements have forced molders to become more flexible in the way they produce parts. One way to improve efficiency in the production of complete assemblies is to mold all of the components at once in a family tool. This paper examines the ability of Dynamic Feed Control to produce high quality parts in family tools with widely varying parts in regards to wall thickness and volume.
Effect of PP-GMA on Properties of Talc Filled Polypropylene
Patrice G. Godfroy, Michel A. Huneault, Pierre G. Lafleur, May 1999
Glycidyl methacrylate grafted polypropylene (PP-GMA) was used as a coupling agent in a PP/talc blend. Two coupling agents with GMA grafting levels of around 0.34 %wt. and different molecular weights were used. It was found that the use of PP-GMA at concentration between 1 and 10 %wt. increased the tensile strength and impact resistance of PP/talc composites. The performance of the PP-GMA was comparable to commercial PP-MAH modifiers. The chemical or physical effect of the coupling agent are discussed.
Optimization of the Weld Line in Injection Molding via an Experimental Design Approach
Tao C. Chang, Ernest Faison, III, May 1999
Weld lines are sometimes inevitable when processing large and complex parts by injection molding. In this paper, a design of experiments approach (Taguchi Method) was utilized to study the influence of seven processing variables (melt and mold temperatures, injection and hold pressures, cooling and holding times, and back pressure) on the weld line width and the tensile impact properties of injection molded dog-bone bars. The important processing variables affecting the weld line behavior are identified.
Effects of Additives on Scratch Resistance of Polypropylene Materials
J. Chu, May 1999
Pigmented mineral-filled polypropylene (PP-PMF) is marketed as a potential alternative to ABS (acrylonitril-butyldiene-styrene) and ABS/ PC (acrylonitril-butyldiene-styrene/ polycarbonate) for interior automotive components. PP-PMF is more easily damaged by surface scratch & mar, thus limiting its acceptance for interior applications. This study investigates the scratch and mar mechanisms of talc-filled PP and the effects of various additives on the scratch and mar resistance of PP-PMF. Talc filler provides higher modulus for PP. The addition of nucleation agent and lubricant showed beneficial effects.

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