The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Faisal J. Alzahrani, Peng Gao, Alaauldeen Duhduh, John P. Coulter, June 2022
This research investigated the effect of the addition of Orotic Acid (OA) on the crystallization kinetics of Polylactic Acid (PLA) in quiescent and non-quiescent conditions. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study was used to investigate and understand the effect of the addition of orotic acid on 2500 HP PLA under quiescent conditions. DSC technique was utilized to capture the crystallinity, melting point, and other thermal parameters of PLA-OA blends. Conventional injection molding (CIM) was used to investigate the influence of adding OA into PLA under non-quiescent conditions. Two concentrations of orotic acid, 0.3 wt% and 0.7wt% were mixed with neat PLA and then investigated. It was observed that the 0.3 wt.% orotic acid provided significant improvement in crystallization kinetics by increasing the crystallinity and reducing the incubation time. Both blends under quiescent conditions showed almost the same crystallinity in which the maximum crystallinity that was observed was around 63% in the blend of the PLA/0.7OA at 85°C. For 2500HP PLA, Orotic acid (OA) showed to be an effective nucleating agent. A small amount (0.3 wt%) was sufficient to achieve 61% of crystallinity in injection molding at 80°C mold temperature.
Felix Vorjohann, Lucas Schulz, Mirco Janßen, Reinhard Schiffers, June 2022
CFD-Simulations are a common tool to design and optimize mixing elements. The manual evaluation and experience-based derivation of an optimized geometry is still an iterative process which is time consuming. In this paper an automated algorithm is developed and tested for a mainly distributive Block-Head-Mixer. To automatically evaluate the flow field of each geometry variant, quality criteria are introduced which enable the assessment of the mixing capability. The investigation showed that the quality criteria are suitable to evaluate the flow field and an optimized candidate compared to a starting geometry could be found automatically.
Luke Weger, Luis Velazquez, Corina Barbalata, Debaroty Roy, Genevieve Palardy, June 2022
Robotic 3D printing systems utilizing photopolymers can enable free-standing structures, large-scale printing, extensive mobility, and increased part complexity. However, to better estimate robotic printing parameters and eliminate expensive trial-and-error approaches, a simulation framework for curing behavior is needed. In this work, an autocatalytic curing model, considering printing speed, UV light intensity, spotlight diameter, and filament thickness, was used to create a MATLAB simulation to study the effect of different printing parameters. The printed filament was discretized into a set number of elements over its length and thickness. UV light exposure time above each element was derived based on spot diameter and printing speed. This simulation framework, combined with experimental data (real-time ATR-FTIR), can better inform decisions regarding printing parameters selection. Overall, it was estimated that a speed ≤ 3 mm/s with a filament thickness ≤ 2 mm would produce acceptable ranges of degrees of cure at different UV light intensities and spot diameters. Finally, control of printing parameters (robotic arm movement and UV light intensity) to obtain a specific degree of cure (DoC) ensuring structural rigidity is demonstrated for a two-degree-of-freedom manipulator, showing both the desired endeffector position and the desired DoC are achieved in four seconds.
Microporous ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) parts were produced by microcellular injection molding (MIM) technology, which enabled higher production efficiency and lower part cost compared to the traditional powder sintering method. The microstructure could be tuned by adjusting the shot size to produce either sandwiched solid-skin – porous-core – solid-skin parts or open porous parts. The pore morphology, average pore size, pore size distribution, and pore density were characterized, and the water contact angle (WCA) and degree of oil-water separation were determined. The part weight reduction of open-porous UHMWPE and sandwiched UHMWPE parts were 16.5 wt% and 11.8 wt%, respectively. The WCA results showed that the porous surface transformed molded UHMWPE samples from being hydrophilic (34.5°) to hydrophobic (124.6°). Furthermore, the open-porous structure exhibited good oil water separation capacity. Tensile tests were carried out to study the effect of morphology on the mechanical performances of the molded UHMWPE parts. The characterization shows that a possible application for the sandwiched UHMWPE parts could be as a bone replacement material because of its high mechanical performance, and an application for the open-porous UHMWPE is as a functional filter material due to the fine pore size and high pore density.
James Sternberg, Srikanth Pilla, David G. Brandner, Reagan J. Dreiling, Arik Ringsby, Jacob S. Kruger, Gregg T. Beckham, June 2022
The movement to transfer from petroleum-based products and materials to renewables does not necessarily have to bypass the use of oil. A new type of “black-gold” is readily abundant from the earth’s most abundant source of aromatic carbon: lignin. While fractionation of petroleum yields fuels and chemicals for a diverse set of industries, lignin fractionation using targeted catalysts has demonstrated the ability to generate monomers and oligomers rich in functional groups for polymer synthesis. This study explores the use of lignin-oil, generated from reductive catalytic fractionation of popular wood, to a hydroxyl-rich mixture of aromatics that is used to synthesize a thermoplastic non-isocyanate polyurethane. The lignin-oil is first converted to a cyclocarbonated derivative using a benign synthetic sequence and further polymerized with a diamine to yield the non-isocyanate TPU. While more work is underway to optimize the reaction conditions and meet typical mechanical properties of commercial materials, initial analysis shows thermoplastic behavior and flexible properties consistent with traditional thermoplastic polyurethanes.
In polymer extrusion, the die temperature is normally set to the recommended temperature in order to reach a homogeneous melt. Nevertheless, the measurement of the melt and surface temperature of the product leaving the die is not state of the art due to the difficulty of an inline - measurement. As a consequence, the product temperature leaving the die is assumed as the set die temperature. Therefore, this article aims to engineer an inline-measurement system of the surface temperature of square hollow profiles immediately after leaving the die. First, two objective quality criteria to define the thermal melt homogeneity, named weighted melt temperature and radial temperature, are introduced. After that, experimental investigations are carried out for two different types of polyolefin polymers with the variation of several process parameters such as the screw speed and the die temperature. In order not to distort the product, the developed construction is based on a contactless measurement system using infrared pyrometers to measure the average surface temperature on each side of the profile. After all, rules of behavior are derived from the process and correlations between the investigated process parameters and the melt quality as well as the surface temperature are identified.
Jordan Greenland, Caroline Multari, Raymond A. Pearson, June 2022
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is certified biodegradable under specific composting conditions, but its inherent brittleness limits usefulness in commercial applications. In this study, novel additives were supplied by TRuCapSol for twin-screw melt compounding and injection molding with general purpose PLA resin. These additives were received in powder form and investigated for their ability to improve the tensile toughness. We compared our blends to several commercially available toughened PLA blends. The inherent micro-deformations of PLA were amplified by the novel additive and resulted in improved ductility. Therefore, the potential for the development of blends that enhances the toughness and increase the rate of biodegradation of PLA has been demonstrated.
Joshua Krantz, Peng Gao, Zarek Nieduzak, Elizabeth Kazmer, Olvia Ferki, Margaret Sobkowicz-Kline, Davide Masato, June 2022
The importance of utilizing recycled materials to manufacture plastic products has been a topic of great interest due to the environmental repercussions. Processing issues arise from the usage of these resins due to the variation in their molecular weight and rheology. In this work, pressure-controlled injection molding is evaluated and compared against conventional velocity-controlled injection molding. The effects of injection velocity, mold temperature, and pressure on part shrinkage and mechanical properties of injection molded parts fabricated with post-consumer film-grade polyethylene were evaluated. The experimental results show that the different processing techniques significantly affect the mechanical properties and part shrinkage for both materials. Additionally, different levels of injection pressure and velocity significantly affect the shrinkage of the plastic parts. Moreover, it was seen that parts fabricated using pressure-controlled injection molding had preferable overall quality.
Joshua Voll, Jonathan Baier, Rene Brunotte, Stefan Roth, June 2022
Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology is a widely used additive manufacturing processes. In this process, a plastic filament is fed to a nozzle, melted there and deposited in the X, Y direction based on an imported geometry. Afterwards the print bed moves one layer in the Z direction and starts depositing the plastic again in the X, Y-direction. These steps are repeated until the component is completely built up. In a recently developed system by one of the authors, the degrees of freedom in movement of the print head are extended to five axes: X, Y, Z-movement in translational direction plus an additional degree of rotation of the print bed and the possibility to tilt the print head with respect to the printed surface. Thereby, the surface quality and the geometric accuracy for rotationally symmetrical parts are intended to be improved. This paper investigates the potential of the additional motion axes with respect to part quality. To determine the accuracy, surface quality and the ability to print overhangs, tests have been carried out and compared to conventional manufactured FDM parts (X, Y, Z-kinematics). In a further step, the printing of the parts after model preparation in polar coordinates is compared to printing in Cartesian coordinates. To investigate the influence of the print head adjustment on part quality, namely surface roughness, test runs were performed with print head adjusted at different angles to the surface. Suitable demonstrators were developed for this purpose and evaluated in comparison with manufactured FDM parts using commercially available printers limited to X, Y, Z-movement only. The tests show that the recently developed 5-axis printer has a lot of potential. It’s comparable in performance to a commercially available FDM printer from the mid-price segment. The possibility of tilting the print head is the biggest advantage of the system. This has significantly improved part quality when printing overhangs and angled surfaces. The comparison between polar and Cartesian coordinates showed an improvement in surface quality for cylindrical parts printed by polar coordinates.
Justin Anderson, Tyler Sequine, Mica Pitcher, Amir Sheikhi, Michael J. Bortner, June 2022
A new type of nano-cellulose crystal (CNC) has been gaining interest for its unique morphology combined with its as-produced carboxylate functionality: electrosterically stabilized nano-crystalline cellulose (ENCC). When ENCCs are added to thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites and submerged in water they display a unique increase in opacity. Using UV-VIS and DMA, the optical and mechanical properties of these composites can be studied at differing ENCC concentrations.
Karun Kalia, Benjamin Francoeur, Alireza Amirkhizi, Amir Ameli, June 2022
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of in-situ foaming in fused filament fabrication (FFF) process. Development of unexpanded filaments loaded with thermally expandable microspheres, TEM is reported as a feedstock for in-situ foam printing. Four different material compositions, i.e., two grades of polylactic acid, PLA, and two plasticizers (polyethylene glycol, PEG, and triethyl citrate, TEC) were examined. PLA, TEM and plasticizer were dry blended and fed into the extruder. The filaments were then extruded at the lowest possible barrel temperatures, collected by a filament winder, and used for FFF printing process. The results showed that PLA Ingeo 4043D (MFR=6 g/10min) provides a more favorable temperature window for the suppression of TEM expansion during extrusion process, compared to PLA Ingeo 3052D (MFR=14 g/10min). TEC plasticizer was also found to effectively lower the process temperatures without adversely interacting with the TEM particles. Consequently, unexpanded filaments of PLA4043D/TEM5%/TEC2% was successfully fabricated with a density value of 1.16 g/cm3, which is only ~4.5% lower than the theoretical density value. The in-situ foaming in FFF process was then successfully demonstrated. The printed foams revealed a uniform cellular structure, reproducible dimensions, as well as less print marks on the surface, compared to the solid counterparts.
Kevin Buchalik, Reinhard Schiffers, André Kayser, Marco Grundler, June 2022
Pipes for heat exchanger systems are usually made of metals to achieve a high level of energy transfer. Polymers, in comparison, save weight and costs and are suitable for use in corrosive and chemically aggressive environments. However, for many applications the comparatively low thermal conductivity of polymers is a disadvantage. To overcome this, polymers are usually mixed with high amounts of fillers, which transport the heat through the pipe wall. But the use of high filler ratios influences the mechanical properties of the pipe significantly. The aim of this paper is to develop a concept for a pipe extrusion die which aligns the filler particles in radial direction, so that the anisotropic material properties of the compound can be utilized and thus the amount of filler can be reduced. Consequently, the flexible material properties can be maintained as far as possible. Several die concepts are presented and their influence on the thermal and mechanical properties of the pipe are compared.
Manoj Nerkar, Sam LaRosa, Mark Swain, Rich Ketz, June 2022
Acrylic processing aids are used widely in rigid Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) applications. Key functions of processing aids in terms of processing and performance are discussed in the paper. Effect of molecular weight of acrylic processing aids on their functions are studied. Additionally, effect of processing conditions, such as temperature and shear on fusion characteristics of PVC formulations, are investigated. Shear rate in the processing was varied by means of rotor speed in torque rheometer. Processing aids of wide molecular weight range are evaluated in the study. It was observed that relatively lower molecular weight processing aids have different response to change in shear and temperature than higher molecular weight processing aids. Depending upon fusion conditions PVC formulations can yield either single or double fusion peak. Generally, it was considered that ultra-high molecular weight processing aids yield double fusion peak, however, it was demonstrated in the studies that it is not true. Fusion conditions, temperature, and shear are the main driving forces of fusion dynamics, resulting in either single of double fusion peak. Melt viscosity and shear thinning properties are also examined. Relatively lower molecular weight processing aids showed higher shear thinning behavior.
Michael Cantwell, Chris Oseredczuk, Mike Hus, Joseph Dooley, Michael Ponting, June 2022
A nanolayer coextruded optical film process was scaled up and optimized to show improvements in the thickness and compositional control at production level throughput rates. Adjustment of processing temperatures, implementation of online continuous gauging and automatic die lip adjusting equipment, and upgrades to the cast film pinning system led to improvements of film thickness control. A unique profile control scheme utilizing only the middle layer’s thickness instead of the total film thickness has been successfully utilized to control the critical layer’s thickness. Automation and optimization of the extruder’s feeding system provided compositional control capable of meeting tight quality specifications. With these improvements, production scale throughput rates of high-quality optical cast film capable for unique gradient refractive index (GRIN) optical applications were demonstrated.
Michael Werner, M.Eng., Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Seul, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Gehde, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Wenzel, Norbert Greifzu, M.Sc., Markus Lehr, June 2022
This conference paper presents the investigations, results and findings from the research project "Tool-integrated assistance system for production control of highly complex and demanding component specifications" (acronym in German WASABI). The project investigates the possible use of sensor technology in combination with machine learning methods for the prediction of quality-determining component features on large-format plastic products. Furthermore, the information obtained will be used to propose target-oriented recommendations for action based on the predicted feature characteristics. An outer skin component (bumper) from the automotive sector was defined as the reference product for the investigations into the prediction possibilities of demanding component specifications. The injection molding tool required for production was designed as part of the project work and equipped with a variety of different sensor types (including pressure, melt contact, displacement measurement). The recording of the measurement signals is realized by a self-developed hardware system concept. The aim of the research is to predict various quality-determining characteristics from the fields of geometry (including total length) and surface (including sink marks). In the course of the project, extensive tests were carried out to generate a meaningful database. Through analysis and evaluation, it was possible to define the positions and number of sensors that provide a high level of information. Ultimately, three different approaches of machine learning methods could be learned for the prediction of component qualities and the prediction of corrective actions. These structures could be verified in laboratory environment by appropriate test data sets.
Mohamadreza Y. Azarfam, Anuj Maheshwari, Frank D. Blum, Siddhesh Chaudhari, Clinton Switzer, Ranji Vaidyanathan, Jay C. Hanan, June 2022
A method was developed for fabricating recycled composites from post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) carpets and recycled PET resins. Compression molding of the components under different pressures, temperatures, and compositions was performed. Preliminary molding conditions were arrived at based on analyzing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and melt viscosity data for different raw material combinations. Molding factors were screened to define applicable ranges for each parameter. The effects of configuration and composition of components, temperature, molding time, and pressure were considered in the screening process. Mechanical properties of composites were determined by 3-point flexural (according to ASTM D790) and creep tests. The molded materials showed acceptable mechanical strength and modulus values required for structural applications.
Nabeel Ahmed Syed, Utkarsh, Mohammed Tariq, Amir H. Behravesh, Ghaus Rizvi, Remon Pop-Iliev, June 2022
There has been a common goal among various researchers across the globe to investigate sustainable and high-strength materials as a suitable replacement for metallic materials in many industrial sectors. Many products obtained through reinforcing steel can potentially be replaced with those synthetic fibers such as carbon and glass to overcome the critical issues pertaining to dimension stability along with the creep effect that could pose complications in applications such as belts driving heavy machinery. In the current study, Steel, Carbon and glass fibers were reinforced in TPU matrix and manufactured by compression molding. The resulting composite materials were then tested for tensile analysis. After comparing the mechanical properties of the fibers, it was observed that the carbon/TPU showed the highest load-bearing capacity, followed by steel and glass reinforced TPU composites. The results also opened up the possibilities for carbon fibers to be a suitable replacement candidate to the steel cords that are used in applications such as conveyor belts for providing the required tensile strength.
Natalie Duprez, Christopher Luettgen, Donggang Yao, June 2022
In this study, PET was combined with a latent metal oxide reagent, CaO, which allowed the PET to hydrolyze when submerged in water, breaking down the polymer chain and forming calcium terephthalate as a nontoxic byproduct. PET/CaO composites were mixed at 10, 20, and 30 wt% CaO, and 0.001” thick films were prepared by compression molding. These films were degraded in water at 90°C for varying amounts of time. Puncture testing, optical microscopy, FTIR, and TGA were performed to probe the degradation of the material and verify that it was producing the products that were expected from the reaction. The PET/CaO composites were shown to be degradable in water, with a significant loss in mechanical properties after only an hour. The rate of degradation was strongly dependent on the concentration of CaO, with significantly faster degradation at higher concentrations.
In flexible packaging, film thickness transitions can be problematic regions to seal due to their propensity for leaking, as well as the high seal pressure required to create a continuous seal over the transition. A compliant anvil can be used to decrease the required seal pressure, as the hot tool will be able to contact both the thick and thin regions of the packaging, with compression of the compliant anvil. However, a compliant anvil cannot be used in a double-sided heating process. Therefore, in a double-sided heating process, high seal pressures must be utilized in order to reduce the film thickness in the thick region, to facilitate tool to film contact in the thin region. In this study, the required seal pressure needed to create continuous (non-leaking) seals over a 4-film to 8-film thickness transition was explored, with both a rigid and conformable anvil. With a rigid anvil 3.25 MPa was required to consistently create continuous seals. With a conformable anvil 0.87 MPa was required to consistently create continuous seals.
Cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) provide manufacturers and converters with an opportunity to create thin, stiff, high performance polyolefin packaging products. COC provides an unexpected, but essential benefit that enables the manufacture of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) containers by reheat injection stretch blow molding. COC has good dimensional stability and excellent heat resistance, minimizes distortion of PE exposed to thermal and mechanical stresses.
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