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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Business Platform in the Modern Textil
Liliana Rubio, May 2017

Be Functional, smart and interactive are the most valuable asset to become a reference in our markets. The global S-textile market is already an 3 billion dollars business that is expect to exhibit double-digit growth, which are very interesting to go ahead with the implementation of projects of Biopolymer, Bio composites and nanotechnology and microelectronic in this issue. Please note the market by moving beyond traditional path of what means value and fulfilling business future.

Effect Nanoclay Addition on the Compatibility and Diffusion Properties of Commercial Gasoline through Polymer Membranes
James Sloan, May 2017

In this work, we consider the effect of the addition of functionalized clay particles to a poly (tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) based polyurethane that is a candidate to be used as for flexible storage containment for a variety military fuels. We have synthesized urethanes with layered silicate inorganic nanoclay concentrations varying from 0% to 10% by weight and evaluated the diffusion of commercial gasoline.

Design Optimization of Maddock Mixers for Single-Screw Extrusion Using Numerical Simulation
Xiaofei Sun, Mark A. Spalding, Timothy W. Womer, Ned Uzelac, May 2017

Maddock-style mixers are used extensively on single-screw extruder screws to disperse materials into the molten resin matrix. Since the time LeRoy invented the device and Maddock perfected and commercialized it, the device has undergone several innovations. The goal of this paper is to describe the optimal flute geometry and mixing undercut dimension for a Maddock mixer with the goal of mitigating degradation gels and maximizing dispersive mixing efficiency.

An Improved Algorithm for Determining Energy Interchange between Heaters and Sheet in Thermoforming
Jim Throne, May 2017

The general Stokesian-generated exact equation for radiant interchange between heaters and sheet produces results similar to the differential method but is more versatile. Often, when a sheet of plastic is heated prior to forming it into a part, there are planes of heaters above and below the sheet. The heaters often have many segments, with each segment temperature controllable. As a result, the energy input to the sheet can be "shaped" to provide uniform heating of the sheet.

Parametric Radiant Energy Absorption in Plastics
Jim Throne, May 2017

I consider the respective roles of inbound radiant energy absorption and internal scattering for plastics containing particulates.

The Myth of Radiopacity
Jim Throne, May 2017

Heat transfer to plastic sheet is described mathematically with a traditional one-dimensional transient heat conduction equation with energy input occurring at the sheet surfaces. The model is called radiopaque. In this article, I propose that plastics usually absorb energy volumetrically. As a result, IK propose modifications both in the traditional heat conduction equation and its attendant boundary equations

How Important Is the Volumetric Absorption Concept? Part 2 - LPM
Jim Throne, May 2017

In part 1 of this series, I defined the equations and parameters for the subject. In Part 2, I examine how volumetric absorption influences time dependent heating rates for PE and PS in three thin-gauge thicknesses. I also compare these results to the effect of heater and sheet emissivities.

A Journey Toward Packaging Sustainability
Donna Visioli, Karlheinz Hausmann, Sarah Perreard, May 2017

Packaging sustainability has many contributing factors including: renewable materials; reduced package weight; recyclable materials; reduced food waste (for food packaging); and reduced packaging waste. These factors and interactions among them are described, along with examples of implementation.

Modelling Mechanical Behaviour of Amorphous Poly (L-Lactic Acid) under Biaxial Stretch at Temperatures above Glass Transition
Huidong Wei, Gary Menary, Shiyong Yan, May 2017

Stretch blow moulding process has been applied to manufacture of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) made by poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) improve the mechanical properties of product. Biaxial stretching test was conducted to obtain the mechanical properties of amorphous PLLA materials at temperatures above glass transition. The glass-rubber (GR) constitutive model was adopted to model the mechanical behaviour and can be used for the simulation for the forming process.

Effects of Process Parameters on Cell Morphology of Microcellular Injection Molded Parts
Ming Zhai, May 2017

A Taguchi DOE method was employed to investigate the effects of injection molding process parameters on cell morphology of microcellular foams. Melt temperature, mold temperature, super critical fluid (SCF) concentration, and shot size were considered. It was found that the cell size depended strongly on shot size. The results are helpful for designers to optimize the process conditions to achieve high quality microcellular part.

Ultrasonic Processing of Epoxy/CNT Nanopaper Composites
Yanan Zhao, Eusebio Cabrera, Tairong Kuang, Dan Zhang, Willie Yang, Jose M. Castro, Avraham Benatar, L. James Lee, May 2017

This work presents a novel ultrasonic infiltration approach for epoxy and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanopaper prepreg. The prepared prepregs and their nanocomposites demonstrated promising performance in processing flexibility, abrasion resistance, scratch resistance, EMI shielding, and thermal transfer properties for potential applications in wind energy, electronics, and automotive industries.

Creep and Recovery of Polylactic Acid and its Clay Nano-Composite
Wei Zheng, Kevin Fuhrman, May 2017

This work focuses on exploring the long-term rheological behavior of polylactic acid and its nano-composites containing 3% clay. Creep and recovery experiments were performed at 160°C for the neat PLA and its composite. Zero-shear rate viscosity was determined and used to determine the terminal relaxation time. Also, the continuous retardation spectra were calculated from the creep data and found to be consistent with those from the oscillatory data.

Innovations in Automotive Plastics "Applications"
Suresh Shah, May 2017

SPE Automotive Innovation Awards

Innovations in Automotive Plastics "Materials and Processes/Enabling Technologies"
Suresh Shah, May 2017

SPE Automotive Innovation Awards

The Study of Polyolefin Elastomer Effect on Soiling Resistance
Cheol-hee Park, Chang Hee Sohn, Woong Jae Boo, Heung-goo Lee, May 2017

Soiling resistance has been issued in automotive industry, which is a measure of soiling or dirt pick-up such as mud on the surface for the interior and exterior of automotive. In this study, the effect of thermoplastic olefin (TPO) composition on soiling resistance was investigated, which is widely used for those applications, and the design guide of polyolefin elastomer (POE) in the polypropylene (PP) compounds for the automotive parts was suggested.

Advancements in Nanocellulose Biomaterials: Opportunities for the Plastics Sector
Gurminder Minhas, May 2017

• Types of Nanocellulose • Production Methods • Physical Characteristics • Surface Modification • Ongoing Research Areas • Case Study – Reinforced Plastics

Effectiveness of Silver Based Antimicrobial Immersed in a Universal Masterbatch
Lawrence Acquarulo, William Blasius, Larry Johnson, Lise Maloney, May 2017

Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI’s) are a critical problem in hospitals as well as other healthcare delivery institutions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that on any given day about one in every 25 hospital patients has at least one hospital associated infection. These incidences of HAI’s at the least raise the patients healthcare costs and time in the healthcare delivery institution and, at worst, cause death to affected patients. The battle to prevent HAI’s in healthcare delivery institutions is carried on via many different methods including sterilization of devices, disinfectant cleansing of hospital surfaces, UV lamps in patient rooms, surface engineering of polymers, as well as functionalizing polymers that are used in medical devices and medical substrates with an antimicrobial additive. Silver based antimicrobial additives have an excellent history regarding the prevention of HAI’s in the medical market. The silver additive can be added straight into the polymer melt stream as it is being compounded or it can be incorporated into a carrier masterbatch that is added into the polymer melt stream. The use of a “universal” masterbatch carrier that the silver antimicrobial is employed into can be an efficient and effective method for functionalization of a polymer to make it antimicrobial. This presentation will focus on the effectiveness and efficiency of a silver based antimicrobial additive employed into a universal masterbatch for deployment into a polymer melt stream. It will present testing, test methodology, and test results regarding silver release testing, ash testing, efficacy testing in ABS, polycarbonate, and TPU.

A Model for Permeability Reduction in Polymer Nanocomposites
Sushant Agarwal, Man Chio Tang, Fares D. Alsewailem, Hyoung J. Choi, Rakesh K. Gupta, May 2017

A simple theory that builds on the tortuous path concept is developed to quantitatively predict mass transport through a polymer containing dispersed nanoplatelets, and data are presented on polylactic acid (PLA)-matrix nanocomposites. PLA is a bioderived biodegradable polymer that is being employed in food packaging where the plastic is discarded after a single use. However, the poor water vapor barrier property of PLA limits its use in this regard, and it is of interest to reduce moisture permeability through this polymer. In the present work, Cloisite 30B, an organoclay that is compatible with PLA, was dispersed in the polymer via melt-mixing, and processing conditions were optimized to reduce platelet agglomeration. Nanocomposite morphology was characterized with transmission electron microscopy, and moisture permeability was measured as a function of clay content. There was good agreement with the proposed theory, and it was found that at a 5.3 vol% filler loading the water vapor permeability was reduced by almost 70%.

Synergistic Effects of Antioxidants (AO) on Properties of Homo Polypropylene
Mazen Ageely, May 2017

Antioxidants (AO) are used to protect the polymer from deterioration either during extrusion or after production. Probably two types of Antioxidants are used to protect polymer, primary antioxidant (phenol type) and secondary antioxidant (phosphate type). The performance ratio of both the antioxidants is depend on its process technology, processing conditions and its application. To understand the effect of each antioxidants on HomoPP, different samples at different AO dosage were extruded. Relevant product properties such as mechanical, physical and rheology were measured. The test result obtained elucidates that the polymer recipe is a balance of additives to meet the requisite end product properties under the employed processing conditions.

Lateral Torsional Buckling of Anisotropic Laminated Thin-Walled Rectangular Simply Supported Composite Beams Subjected to Pure Bending
Habiburrahman Ahmadi, Hayder A. Rasheed, May 2017

In this paper, a generalized analytical approach for lateral-torsional buckling of simply supported anisotropic, thin-walled, rectangular beams under pure bending condition was developed using the classical laminated plate theory as a basis for the constitutive equations. Buckling of such type of members has not been addressed in the literature. A closed form buckling expression is derived in terms of the lateral, torsional and coupling stiffness coefficients of the overall composite. These coefficients are obtained through dimensional reduction by static condensation of the 6x6 constitutive matrix mapped into an effective 2x2 coupled weak axis bending-twisting relationship. The stability of the beam under different geometric and material parameters was investigated. The analytical formula is verified against finite element buckling solutions using ABAQUS for different lamination orientation showing excellent accuracy.

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