The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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A Physico-Mathematical Model for the Dispersion Process in a Co-Rotating Intermeshing Twin Screw Extruder
To modify the properties of polymers, mineral fillers are frequently added during the compounding process. Due to adhesive forces, these pulverized fillers tend to agglomerate. Therefore, in order to achieve a good homogenisation, it is essential not only to distribute them but also to break down the solid agglomerates. A number of relating models have been published, describing observations (agglomerate rupture, erosion, clustering) made during the dispersion process in a mostly isolated manner. Here, a new model considering each observed effect have been developed in order to get a comprehensive description of the dispersion process. To verify the model, it was implemented into a program for the process simulation of co-rotating twin screw extruders (SIGMA ), and thus compared to experimental data. It showed that the model could well describe the experimentally determined data.
Determination of a Limit in Particle Concentration for Coalescence in PA6/HDPE Blends under Extensional Flow
A limiting dilute concentration of the dispersed phase in polyamide-6 (PA6) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) blends during extensional flow was detected. This limit concentration is explained in terms of coalescence phenomena. Blends of PA6/HDPE at different compositions and melt-drawn ratio were prepared using a twin-screw extruder with a rectangular slit at 250 °C. The rectangular sheets were cooled in water prior to being rolled with a suitable device. The extrusion velocity was maintained constant and the take up velocity was varied in order to obtain different states of deformation of the minor phase. The morphology results shown that at low take up velocity, the final state of deformation is independent of the dispersed phase composition. However, at high take up velocity the drop deformation increases with the composition. To determine a lower limit concentration, at which coalescence occurs, the average particle volume of the dispersed phase was evaluated. At the concentration range of 1 to 4 %vol. of PA6, the average volume of the particles remains constant (no coalescence) during the stretching process. However, at higher concentrations (> 5 %vol. of PA6) the coalescence process takes place and the volume increases with stretching.
Weathering of HDPE in Rio de Janeiro City
The action of weathering on the mechanical and thermal properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) without aditives in the atmosfere of Rio de Janeiro City was studied. After about 1800 hours of exposition time it was observed that degradation process was very fast and can be seen in some mechanical parameters. It was observed an increasing of 20% of elastic modulus. The stress at yield increased slightly and elongation decreased. Both, stress and elongation at break diminished. The elongation showed a decreasing about 90%. The impact resistance presented a loss of 50%. The molecular weight also decreased.
Supported Metallocene Catalysts for Ethylene Polymerization
Polymerizations of ethylene were carried out with SiO2 - supported Cp2ZrCl2 catalyst in toluene at 50°C. Several kinds of heterogeneous catalysts were prepared and an experimental design was elaborated in order to find the best preparing conditions of these catalysts. Silica gel for catalyst support was calcinated before used and for some catalysts, pretreatment with methylaluminoxane (MAO) at different concentrations was carried out. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the obtained polymers and also the polymerization behavior such as catalytic activity were examined.
High Molecular Weight Polyethylene and Copolymers with 1-Octene Obtained by Metallocene Alcoholates
High molecular weight polyethylene was obtained by the catalytic systems based on alcoholates of metallocenes and methylaluminoxane. These polyethylenes have Mw ranging from 720.000 to 850.000 and low polydispersity. Molecular weight control was made either by hidrogen at low concentrations or by using high polymerization temperatures. The crystalline melting temperature (Tm) of these polymers ranges from 131 to 135°C and the crystallinity degree (xc) was 55%. Polymers with medium Mw (about 500.000) were also obtained and in this case, the crystalline melting temperature was 139°C. Copolymers of ethylene and 1-octene were also obtained with the metallocene alcoholates.
Effect of the Crystallization Rate in the Roughness of Polypropylene Films
The roughness of iso polypropylene films crystallized at different cooling rates was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. For this characterization it was used the methods of variable bandwith (ZMax) and box-counting in order to determinate the fractal or self-afine character of the surfaces and its roughness. The methods and its computational algorithms were evaluated with synthetic profiles obtained with the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function. We report the observed deviations in roughens, the relationship between both methods and the effect of the cooling rate in the roughness of polypropylene films.
Setting Kinetics of an Acrylic Bone Cement Modified with Different Kinds of Hydroxyapatite
Acrylic bone cements are widely used in orthopedic surgery to fix artificial prostheses in the body osseous structure. One of the most important applications in this area is in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). The cement has two main functions: to assure the short and long term anchorage of the implant to the bone, and to allow a better distribution of body loads between the prostheses and the bone (1-3). Nevertheless several adverse effects are associated with the use of bone cements in this field: high temperature of the polymerization reaction m ay cause thermal necrosis to the adjacent bone (4,5), the release of unreacted monomer, methylmethacrylate (MMA), produces chemical dam age in the surrounding tissues, and the shrinkage of the cement upon curing produces gaps in the bone/cement and cement/prostheses interfaces. Curing of the acrylic cement is a complex process and plays an important role in determining its performance and durability in the hum an body. In this work, the influence of hydroxyapatite types on the curing kinetics of acrylic bone cements is presented.
Blends of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN) Obtained by Reactive Extrusion
Polyethelene terephthalate (PET) is a polymer broadly used in food packing and containers for carbonated beverages. PET is attractive for its transparency, good mechanical properties and low permeability to O2 and CO2. However, an important disadvantage of the PET container is its low thermal resistance that does not allow hot-filling at sterilization temperatures such as 100°C. Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) has been considered recently as the most promising alternative to PET. It possesses a glass transition temperature of 125°C which is 50°C higher to that of PET. This enables to fill containers made of this polymer at temperatures higher than 100°C. Another advantage of this polymer is its low permeability to O2 and CO2 which may be five times lower that that of PET. This increases the time of storage of the packed products.
Polyimides Based on Bis(o-am ino)Phenols or Aromatic Tetraamines: Synthesis and Chemical Reactions
Ortho substituted polypyromellitimides were prepared from ortho bis(amino)-phenols or tetraamines by means of either high temperature thermal treatment or low temperature catalytic imidization of poly(amic acid)s, PAAs. Cyclodehydration of the precursors, with ortho OH or NH2 groups in the diamine moieties, in the presence of aliphatic anhydrides and tertiary amines was accompanied by the formation of pendant acetate or acetamide groups, respectively. It was found that model compounds N-(2- hydroxyphenyl)- and N-(2-aminophenyl)- phthalamic acids cyclodehydrated spontaneously to form the corresponding imides at room temperature in aqueous media in the absence of any dehydration agent. A similar effect was observed for the o-hydroxy- and o-amino- polyimides. Treatment of N-(2-aminophenyl)-phthalamic acid with trifluoroacetic anhydride led to the isoimide with an ortho trifluoroacetamide group in the diamine moiety. This thermodynamically unstable compound easily underwent secondary cyclization to yield the ladder 1,2-benzoylenebenzimidazole structure. A higher yield was attained in this reaction when the number of atoms that form the heterocyclic rings was increased.
Aromatic Polyimides Based on 4,4-Diaminotriphenylmethane
The monomer 4,4’-diaminotriphenylmethane (DA-TPM) was used for the first time in the synthesis of aromatic polyimides (PI-TPM) by Koton and coworkers in 1980.1 The polyimides, obtained from DA-TPM and 1,2,4,5-benzotetracarboxylic (PMDA) or oxydiphtalic (ODPA) dianhydrides by thermal ciclodehydration of the precursor polyamic acids (PAA), were very brittle and insoluble in any organic solvent. These disadvantages resulted in an underestimation of the DA-TPM as a monomer for more than fifteen years. A new attempt for the use of 4,4’-diaminotriphenylmethane for the synthesis of polyimides was undertaken in 1995.2 In that work, the polyamic acids based on DA-TPM and PMDA or 3,3’,4,4’-benzofenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) were converted to the final polyimides by catalytic ciclodehydration at room temperature in the presence of acetic anhydride and a tertiary amine. In contrast to the results of Koton et. al.,1 the polymers prepared by this technique showed a good solubility in amide solvents, pyridine and, at high temperatures, in phenolic solvents such as m-cresol, nitrobenzene, etc. Their films exhibit good mechanical properties including high elasticity.
Morphological Stability of Postconsumer PET/HDPE Blends
The morphological stability of postconsumer PET/HDPE blends was studied. Blends at different composition of PET in HDPE, with and without compatibilizer (Kraton G-1652) were prepared in an internal mixer (HAAKE Rheomix 600) and in a twin screw extruder (LEISTRITZ). The mixtures from the extruder were obtained at different stretching ratios (VR/VE). From the morphological analysis of the blends, it is shown that when the copolymer is added to the mixtures, the particle size of the dispersed phase diminishes in some cases until 40% compared with un-compatibilized blends. Moreover, for the case of un-compatibilized blends, (previously prepared by extrusion), the particle size of the dispersed phase increases after being reprocessed in an internal mixer. This result is attributed to the coalescence phenomena that takes place during mixing process. In the case of compatibilized blend, the particle size and the average volume of the dispersed phase remain constant after to be re-processed. In this way, the compatibilizer reduces the interfacial mobility, the coalescence effects and stabilizes the morphology. Tensile mechanical properties confirm this result. Blends containing 10, 20, and 30 %vol. of PET in HDPE with Kraton indicate a strong influence of this copolymer on their properties.
Effect of Vinyl Silane Grafted Polypropylene on Foamability of Thermoplastic Vulcanizate Containing a Water Releasing Compound
Addition of vinyl silane grafted polypropylene to Sarlink® chemical foaming composition containing a water releasing compound was found to increase the extruder head pressure, foam diameter, and foam cell size in the extrusion foaming process. The resulting foams were found to have better compression set properties than the control samples containing no vinyl silane grafted polypropylene. The improvement in foamability was believed to be due to crosslinking and/or chain branching that took place involving vinyl silane groups in the polypropylene phase in the presence of water during the extrusion foaming process.
Effect of Polyamide Grafted Compatibilizer on the Adhesion of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates to Polyamide Substrates
Addition of polyamide (PA) grafted compatibilizer to Polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) was found to increase the adhesion strength significantly in polyamide injection overmolding and coextrusion processes. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies show that after melt blending grafted-polyamide compatibilizer with thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), the polyamide is present as small distinctive particles in the PP matrix of the thermoplastic vulcanizate. During injection overmolding onto polyamide, a thin layer seems to be formed on the polyamide substrate and thermoplastic vulcanizate interface. Parameters like molecular weight of the grafted compatiblizer and compatibilizer content have been varied to optimize the adhesion strength of TPV to polyamide substrates.
Properties Evaluation of Polyurethane Sandwich Panels with Plastic and Aluminum Skins: Thermal Insulation
Sandwich Panels have a wide field of use in applications such as construction of industrial and commercial buildings, insulation, etc. For large span sandwich panels, as used in housings, usage of thin and strong skins is a necessity. Among metals, an obvious candidate for skin is Aluminum (Al) because of its lightness. However, using plastics could further reduce a great deal of weight. A competitive candidate, in terms of strength, is Polycarbonate (PC), which is currently used in housing applications, in single or double sheets. Under a marketing motivation, an investigation was conducted to compare the properties of sandwich panels with polyurethane (PU) as a core material with two different skins; Al and PC. One of the primary aspects of the research was to theoretically asses thermal insulation performance of both panels with main emphasize on the solar radiation. The governing equations and boundary conditions were numerically solved. The results show that the skin absorptivity, core thickness, and core conductivity are the main parameters to control thermal insulating performance of a sandwich panel.
Effect of Multi-Functional Comonomers on the Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Copolymers
The properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and its copolymers containing 0.04~0.15 mol% pentaerythritol and trimethylolethane (TME) were investigated. The molecular weight of the copolymers increased with the comonomer content, and its effect was observed significantly in pentaerythritol copolymers, resulting in broad molecular weight distribution. The comonomer effect on the mechanical properties was not considerable. The shear viscosity of the copolymers showed the shear thinning at experimental shear rate range. The crystallization rate of the fiber containing 0.103 mol% pentaerythritol increased with the spin draw ratio and their birefringence was also increased, whereas decreased with the content of comonomer.
Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Liquid Crystalline PHB/PEN/PET Blends
Mechanical and rheological properties of blends of a para hydroxy benzoate - ethylene terephthalate copolyester TLCP (PHB 80 / PET 20 mole%) with Poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (PEN) and Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were investigated. Torque values of blends with increasing PHB content abruptly decreased above 40 wt% of PHB content because the melt viscosity of ternary blends were decreased. Tensile strength and tensile modulus of blends containing above 30 wt% PHB were improved with increasing PHB content due to the formation of fibrous structure. The blend of 40 wt% PHB showed pseudo LC phase, and mechanical property was improved with thermal treatment. Rheological property changes with shear rate and processing temperature will be presented.
A Method for Robust Flexible Design
The robust design method aims to seeks to minimize the sensitivity of performance to uncontrolled variation. Product development frequently uses numerical simulations, analytic models and experimental data. However, these underlying predictions may be inaccurate, and include errors that causes the design to be unacceptable and require a design change. This paper presents a method that analyzes the possibility of a design change based on prediction uncertainty, and then estimates possible changes and evaluates the product design flexibility. The results indicate that small changes in design variables to increase robustness may reduce the likelihood and cost of future design changes.
Linking Design to Analysis: The Future of Simulation for Injection Molding
In recent years designers of injection molded parts have widely adopted solid modeling techniques. The time to derive and prepare an analysis model has become burdensome. This is because conventional CAE analysis of injection molding has made extensive use of the Hele-Shaw approximation to simplify the equations governing the process. A consequence of this simplification is the need to generate a midplane mesh. This example of a technical limit hindering the use of a technology has changed with developments arising from Moldflow's product philosophy of Process Wide Plastics Simulation". PWPS has been enabled by three new technologies. In this paper we discuss these developments and how they will change the way analysis influences the design of injection molded plastic Parts"
Automatic Design Optimization Molding Simulation for Injection Molded Parts
The past five years have seen drastic improvements in injection molding simulation. While prior to this period, advanced simulations provided a wealth of information about a part and mold design, a common complaint was that too much time was required to perform an advanced simulation. This is part of the reason for the rise in popularity of desktop" simulations which provide fast useful results though not as detailed as advanced simulations. Besides improving part quality and reducing part costs one of the primary objectives of molding simulation use is to reduce the design cycle and the time to get a mold into production. This paper discusses recently developed molding simulation technology which greatly reduces the time requirement to run an advanced simulation and reduces the overall product development time."
Injection Molding Process Control
Injection molders require a consistent optimization strategy for machine set-up and production control. The ultimate aim of an injection molding machine is to achieve 100% automatic inspection and quality control of all manufactured parts, where no unacceptable moldings are passed on to the customer. Process monitoring and control offers a key opportunity to the polymer processing industry enabling it to gain an understanding of its processes, to dispel its 'black art' image, and by this provide greater clarity for the machine operators and greater confidence for its expanding and highly competitive markets. The next major development for injection molding machine controllers is the integration of 'industry focussed' expert systems for process optimisation and production control. These expert systems will provide a well documented link between design and process engineering, passing information in both directions.
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