The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Investigating the Morphology of Highly Gas-Barrier Layer-By-Layer Assemblies of Clay and Alternative Polyelectrolytes
This research studied the morphologies of layer-bylayer (LBL) assemblies, comprising clay and alternative polyelectrolyte layers of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and sulfonated polyethyleneterephthalate (PETi). The samples prepared with such coatings on polystyrene, showed very low permeability values against gases, like oxygen, that can be considered as the lowest recorded value for this polymer. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry pointed to the increased level of intercalation and orientation of LBL assemblies, below a certain range of montmorillonite (MMT) concentration in deionized water, above which LBL assemblies’ gas barrier improvement leveled out. These results may be connected to the possible decreased level of MMT dispersion in its suspension and its increased viscosity. Comparing the LBL assemblies formed from two alternative polyelectrolytes used, the ones comprising PEI showed better orientation and regularity levels. It may conjecture that PEI makes more significant interactions than PETi, with clay platelets surfaces.
Mitigating Gels in Polyethylene Products Produced Using Grooved-Bore, Single-Screw Extruders
Grooved-bore, single-screw extruders are commonly used in Europe, and they are used to a lesser extent in North America. In North America, they are often used as the extruders for blown film, blow molding, and pipe processes where the discharge temperatures need to be relatively low and the rates high. Screw designers for grooved-bore machines are very good at providing screws that discharge at low temperatures and high rates, but they typically are not focused on providing a gel-free extrudate. This paper will discuss methods to mitigate gels for grooved-bore machines running polyethylene (PE) resins.
Properties of Glass Filled Polypropylene for Fused Filament Fabrication
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) has the potential to enter industrial application due to the possibility of producing complex designs in limited series. However, currently only a limited number of materials is commercially available for use in this process. This study aims at expanding the material range for FFF towards polypropylene (PP) by modifying it with 30 vol.-% of glass spheres and a compatiblizer. Furthermore, the difference between hollow borosilicate and solid inorganic soda lime glass spheres of the same mean filler diameter was examined. In this paper the shrinkage upon solidification, the thermal behavior of the compounds, the mechanical properties of the filaments, and the viscosity of the molten materials were analyzed, as these properties are decisive parameters for a successful printing process. Additionally, the adhesion between the filament and various printing surfaces is addressed and all results are compared to PLA, a well-established FFF filament material. It was observed that the addition of spherical glass fillers leads to a reduction in shrinkage and an increase in the crystallization temperature, while the degree of crystallinity remains unaltered. The efficiency of the compatibilizer depends distinctly on the used glass type. Well-compatibilized compounds reveal yield stresses similar to unfilled PP and lead to a decrease in the overall viscosity. The PP-based compounds investigated do not adhere to the standard printing bed (mirror). However, they exhibit a tendency to stick to surfaces with similar polarity, such as PP-films.
Particle-Foam Composite Injection Molding
In the Particle-foam Composite Injection Molding (PCIM) process a compact material is injection molded onto foam. PCIM parts combine the positive properties of both material types, compact materials and particle foam in one part. This means it is possible to manufacture parts with thermal insulation properties, force absorbing properties, a high degree of stiffness and attached elements like snap-fits and screw fittings for example. The University of Applied Sciences Osnabrueck examines the adhesion properties between these components. This results in a mechanical characterization of PCIM parts, which will allow dimensioning of these composites in the development phase of PCIM products. The project is supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the companies Arburg, Krallmann and Ruch Novaplast are project partners.
To the Measurement and Influences of Process Parameters Variations on the Axial Melt Temperature Profile in the Screw Chamber of an Injection Molding Machine
Previous attempts to accurately measure the real polymer melt temperature in the screw chamber have failed due to the challenging metrological boundary conditions (high pressure, high temperature, rotational and axial screw movement) in the plasticizing unit. We developed a novel ultrasound system - based on reflection measurements - for the online determination of these important process parameter. The system is compared to an infra-red- (IR-) camera system, which measures the melt temperature during an air shot in front of the nozzle. The recorded data of the measurement systems are used to study the influence of process parameter variations on the melt temperature profile in the screw chamber of a reciprocating single screw plasticizing unit.
Crystallization Studies of Poly (Lactic Acid) during Extrusion Foaming
The poly (lactic acid) (PLA) crystallization behavior was investigated during an extrusion process via visualization techniques. Effects of various processing parameters, such as extruder barrel temperature profiles, the system pressure, the flow rate, and the blowing agent content, on formation of PLA crystallites in the melt flow were discussed. Various observations and results are reported. First, the PLA crystallites were visualized by decreasing the barrel temperature at a low flow rate. Then, it was visualized and quantified that a sudden increase in the flow rate, under the identical cooling protocol, enhanced the PLA crystallization dramatically. Moreover, by introduction of CO2 into the system, the PLA crystallites formed at a lower temperature profile. Finally, it was revealed that the induced crystallites improved the foaming behavior of extruded foams through minimizing the cell coalescence.
Fill Ratio Distribution in a Co-Rotating Self-Wiping Twin Screw Extruder—Theoretical and Experimental Study
Filling ratio is an important process parameter related to the residence time distribution and thermal history of resin in a twin-screw extruder. This study presents a theoretical method of filling ratio distribution calculated by our newly developed 2.5 D Hele–Shaw flow model and finite element method. The calculated filling ratio distribution of a full-flight screw was validated by on-line measurement of resin volume with the laser light section method. The calculation and measurement results were in good agreement.
Rheology of Ballistic Clay: the Effect of Temperature and Shear History
Ballistic clay is used as a backing material for standards-based ballistic resistance tests for the purposes of providing a measure of the energy transferred to the body when a threat is defeated. However, this material exhibits complex thermomechanical behavior under actual usage conditions. In this work, we characterize rheological properties of the standard backing clay material, Roma Plastilina No. 1, used for body armor testing, using a rubber process analyzer. Test methods employed include oscillatory strain sweep, frequency sweep, and oscillatory strain ramp. The results show that the material is highly nonlinear, thermorheologically complex, and thixotropic. The modulus decreases under dynamic deformation and partially recovers when the deformation is discontinued. Experimental protocols developed in this study can be applied for the characterization of other synthetic clay systems.
Enhanced Dispersion of Particle Additive into Polymers Using Twin Screw Extrusion with Ultrasound Assistance
Most plastics products are made from a base polymer mixed with complex blends of materials known collectively as additives, to ensure that the physical, mechanical and surface properties of the final product is optimised in all aspects. This will include safer, cleaner product possessing optimal colour and properties. Fine additives such as fillers or coloured pigments are most widely used and the improved technique for dispersing particles into polymer is highly demanding in industrial practice. A USV (ultra-sonication and vibration) assisted process during twin screw extrusion system was implemented and the dispersion results tested in our labs and the technology transferred to our industrial partner’s manufacturing facility. Particle additives such as clay, organic and inorganic pigments were compounded and tested using USV assisted twin screw extrusion.
Enhancement of Appearance, Stiffness, and Toughness of Olefinic Blown Films with Cycic Olefin Copolymers
Cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) offer many benefits for packaging films, including stiffness, strength, transparency, gloss, heat resistance, improved thermoforming, moisture, and alcohol barrier to name a few. Using full factorial experimental design, COC glass transition temperature, COC modification and blow-up ratio were studied to show how COC influences performance of several key blown film properties. Three-layer packaging films can be engineered with modified COC to provide higher than expected toughness, strength, and stiffness. By splitting COC into at least two layers in five layer structures, further significant property enhancements are possible without changing COC content.
High Strain Rate Testing and Modeling of Polymers for Use in Finite Element Simulations
Finite element analysis plays a crucial role in modern engineering problems, enabling engineers to predict the response of designed parts at any point in the design process. Specifying a constitutive model that accurately captures the mechanical response of a polymer material is paramount to obtaining useful results. In order to understand the capabilities of commercial FE packages used to simulate problems involving polymers, we have tested the uniaxial response of polyamide in tension and compression over six decades of strain rate. We then calibrated four constitutive models to the experimental data: an Abaqus Parallel Rheological Framework model, the LS-DYNA SAMP-1 model, the ANSYS Bergström-Boyce model, and the PolyUMod Three Network model. We compared the performance of the four models in predicting the experimental data; the Three Network model had the lowest error. Additionally, we compared the runtime of a simple test case for each model; the ANSYS Bergström-Boyce model being the fastest.
Impact of the Process-Induced Microstructure on the Mechanical Performance of Injection Molded Long Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene
The deformation of the material during injection molding of fiber filled composites causes a process-induced change in the fiber configuration. The local fiber orientation, fiber concentration, and fiber length within the molded part varies in thickness direction and along the flow path. This heterogeneous fiber microstructure inevitably results in anisotropic and locally varying mechanical properties. This paper presents a detailed experimental analysis of the microstructure of long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) plates and its influence on the mechanical properties. Large and thin center-gated plates are injection molded with three different nominal fiber concentrations (20, 40, and 60 wt%) and an initial fiber length of 15 mm. The analysis comprises local fiber orientation, fiber concentration, and fiber length measurements conducted by means of advanced measurement techniques, including micro-computed tomography (µCT) and digital image processing. Tensile test results reveal the correlation between the process-induced fiber configuration and the mechanical properties. The results of this experimental study verify a distinct seven-layered fiber orientation pattern for industry relevant nominal fiber concentrations. Besides a nominal fiber concentration and flow length dependent reduction of the average fiber length, the measurements suggest a non-uniform fiber orientation and fiber concentration distribution through the part thickness and along the flow path. Tensile test results show that tensile modulus increases with nominal fiber concentration, whereas tensile strength does not increase above 40 wt%. The process-induced fiber configuration causes a larger degree of anisotropy of the mechanical performance in high fiber-filled components (40 wt% and 60 wt%).
A Novel Approach to Evaluate Lifetime of Complex Plastic Applications Part I: Short Fiber Reinforced Plastics (SFRP)
Lifetime evaluation methodologies are gaining more focus and importance in the area of fiber reinforced engineering thermoplastics. Plastic applications are potentially subjected to harsh environments, where the lifetime of components can be significantly reduced. Failure due to fatigue and its consequent lifetime evaluation is particularly based on empirical studies, due to the interaction of multiple factors. The methodology proposed here based on 3D-optical techniques together with digital image correlations (DIC), establishes a generalized energy based fatigue model. The methodology is illustrated on a short fiber reinforced plastic (SFRP) specimen, typically used as a representative part in pressurized fluid applications. This fatigue model will include different influential parameters like ????-ratio, pressure, temperature, and the presence of a weldline, which are seen as critical parameters for failure. The fatigue model is developed using algorithms with surface strain energy density (SSED) that acts as a damage parameter of the component lifetime.
Plane Strain in Thermoforming
Plastic sheet is prestretched in a plane strain fashion as predicted by the Mooney-Rivlin constitutive equation of state. Once the plastic sheet is heated to its desired thermoforming temperature range, it is ready to be stretched into on onto the mold. The sheet is stretched differential pressure across its surface. To achieve a more uniform part wall thickness the sheet is often prestretched. Prestretching is achieved either by differential air pressure or by mechanic means. In the latter case, a shaped solid is pressed into the sheet prior to applying differential pressure. The solid, usually referred to as a plug or pusher, stretches the sheet into or over the mold, prior to the sheet touching the mold surface. After I briefly discuss the general characteristics of the stretching of thermoplastic sheet during thermoforming, I focus on the plastic sheet response during the mechanical prestretching phase of the thermoforming process.
Processing Thermoformable Low-Density Foam
Low-density thermoplastic foams primarily heat by volumetric absorption of incident infrared energy and are primarily formed into functional parts by shear compression in matched tooling. Thermoforming is a secondary process that follows sheet extrusion. The way in which low-density foam sheet is extruded is key to understanding the complex technical issues involved in heating and stretching the sheet into its desired product. I begin by summarizing the general desired methodology needed to produce quality low-density foam sheet. I follow this with discussion of a heating protocol. And conclude with the rationale behind forming the sheet into useful products.
How Important Is the Volumetric Absorption Concept? Part 3 - DPM
This is the third of a three-part series examining the role of volumetric absorption in heating of thermoplastic sheet. In this paper I compare the traditional radiopaque distributed parameter transient one-dimensional heat conduction model (DPM) with a transient heat conduction model with internal heat generation, viz, volumetric absorption of inbound radiant energy. It is apparent from calculations for two sheet thicknesses and two plastics that the two models produce distinctly different temperature profiles. I conclude that more attention needs to be paid to the role volumetric absorption of inbound radiant energy plays in the heating of both thin and thick plastic sheet.
Fabrication of Polypropylene Bio-Composites Utilizing Camelina Press Cake
Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz, family Brassicaceae) is an emerging oilseed crop which produces high oil content but has a press cake that contains glycosinolates which are potential health risks if employed as an animal feed. As an alternative to a dietaric use Camelina press cake (CAM) was employed as a filler material to fabricate lignocellulosic plastic composites (LPC). LPCs were generated by blending polypropylene (PP) with 25% or 40% CAM with 0% or 5% by weight of maleated PP (MAPP) via a twin screw compounding and injection molding. Injection molded test specimens had mechanical and flexural properties comparable to neat PP.
A Method for Controlling the Mold Filling Volume for BMC Injection Molding
Bulk molding compound (BMC) compositions are characterized by a comprehensive property profile, which makes this thermoset material attractive for a wide range of high-performance applications. BMC processing by injection molding allows high production rates and the fabrication of parts with a considerable shape complexity. Although the injection molding machine offers a high reproducibility and process reliability, several effects such as material induced disturbances or changing ambient conditions may cause fluctuations in BMC injection molding. The result is a varying part quality for example in the form of volumetric filling differences which causes rejects. The manual adaption of certain process setting parameters presents a possibility to react on disturbances in order to achieve constant part properties. However, the outcome of these adjustments is dependent on the experience of the operator, since an accurate knowledge of the influence of certain setting parameters on individual part quality features is required. In this paper a correlation between process setting parameters and the part filling volume for BMC injection molding is introduced and discussed. The main aim is the development of an adaptive machine function which autonomously compensates occurring disturbances and ensures a constant part filling in BMC injection molding.
Model Investigation of the Cooling Error
Uniform cooling plays a large role in the production of high quality plastic parts. However, simulations to help with this task are often too expensive and complex to perform in the mold’s early design phases. The literature on this topic provides various equations dealing with this issue. The so-called ‘cooling error’ presents an example of the issues surrounding uniform cooling. Some strange experiences with the equation describing the cooling error revealed the need to validate it. This paper examines the cooling error through thermal FEM simulations. The simulated results are then compared to those of the equation given in the literature. It turned out that it is necessary to re-evaluate the equation. Thereafter, the usefulness of the equation is analyzed with further thermal analysis.
A New Test Setup for Testing Polyethylene Tubes under Constant and Cyclic Internal Pressures
A test system was designed to evaluate the failure behavior of a thin-wall small-diameter polyethylene tube under internal pressure. The test setup was capable of delivering constant (static) and cyclic (dynamic) pressure patterns as well as maintaining an elevated testing temperature to accelerate the failure. Desired pressure patterns were obtained by controlling the opening/closing duration of the solenoid valves accordingly. A water-sensing system was used to detect the failure time, particularly for small brittle failure. A data acquisition system based on LabView™ was used to control and record the applied pressures and the failure times. The constant pressure tests were performed at 65 and 75°C and the cyclic pressure tests were performed at 75°C. The test data obtained from the constant pressure tests exhibited two distinguishable linear regions in a log-log plot of hoop stress versus failure time. Slope values of -0.034 and - 0.113 were obtained for ductile and brittle regions, respectively. A brittle failure curve with slope of -0.039 was obtained under the cyclic pressure testing condition. The slow crack growth (SCG) failure was considerably accelerated by the cyclic loading.
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