SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Evaluation of Various Weight Reduction Strategies on Mechanical Properties and Part Performance
Matthew T. Thompson, May 2017
Multiple options exist for decreasing the weight of injection molded automotive components. Each option offers unique advantages and limitations regarding weight reduction potential and mechanical performance of the final part. Advanced Composites has evaluated the effect of several strategies, including composite density reduction, wall thickness reduction, and foaming, on the performance of injection molded test specimens and parts made using a diagnostic tool. Densities and part weights were obtained as well as tensile, flexural, and impact properties. In the case of density reduction, the removal of mineral filler alone proved insufficient to maintain mechanical performance, indicating the need for optimization of the material formulation. The characteristics of foamed and thin-wall parts were also examined and demonstrate the need for careful consideration of part and material design.
Automotive Prototype from Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Recycled Polyamide Composite
Omar Faruk, Birat KC, Jimi Tjong, Mohini Sain, May 2017
Automotive industries are promoting and working to improve the sustainability of their vehicles by using materials, which includes increasing of recycled and lightweight materials. Increasing recycled materials is to improve resource efficiency by recycling consumer and industrial waste and increasing lightweight materials is to improve vehicle fuel efficiency by expanding the use of lightweight materials. An automotive prototype (oil pan) is developed from 100% recycled material (20 wt% recycled carbon fiber with 80 wt% recycled polyamide) to improve fuel efficiency by light weighting and as well as sustainability. The material properties and processing parameters are compared to current production part. A global thermal cycling durability test of prototype part has been performed where the continuous high temperature is mainly concerned. It is found that the prototype part is 15% lighter than current part and as well as lower processing time. The prototype part has successfully passed the global thermal cycling durability test.
Effects of Graphite Selection on Thermally Conductive Compounds for LED Lamp Heat Sinks
Daniele Bonacchi, May 2017
Thermally conductive compounds are viewed as potential replacements of metal based heat sinks in automotive and non-automotive LED lamp applications. Graphite is certainly the main candidate for thermally conductive applications that tolerate electrical conductivity for their high efficiency and reduced costs. In this article we demonstrate that the introduction of graphite increases substantially the thermal conductivity especially along the plastic flow (in plane) direction. We have tested several commercially available graphite grades in polyolefin model polymers and have seen that the crystallinity, the average particle size and the aspect ratio are the three main factors that promote thermal conductivity. In this comparative study we have also tested special high aspect ratio graphite that delivers high thermal conductivity at low loadings giving an advantage in terms of weight reduction.
Improved Optical Properties of Polycarbonate for Light Guide Applications
Jun-ya Hayakawa, Makoto Egawa, Keisuke Tomita, Masaki Hirono, Matthew Orlando, May 2017
The materials for vehicle light guide rod or liquid crystal display need superior optical and heat resistance properties. In conventional polycarbonate, these properties were improved by adding a general heat stabilizer. A search was made for new additives effective in any other properties. As a result, it was found that heat resistance and optical properties are improved dramatically by adding combinations with specific PAG and additives. The key properties for commercial production are molding retention time and weatherability. Results revealed that both properties were sufficient to use in vehicle light guides. Improvement of optical, heat aging properties, retention molding, and weatherability of the improved polycarbonate was examined.
Development of LDS Polycarbonate and Polyamide Materials for Soldering
Matthew Orlando, Bernard Schrauwen, Tatsuya Kikuchi, May 2017
Laser Direct Structuring (LDS) is a type of Molded Interconnect Device (MID) that uses optimized plastics which are compounded with special pigments. The LDS method is often times used for producing antenna and circuitry components. Aside from thermal stability, common requirements for plastics in these applications are good mechanical strength, dimensional stability, and stable radio frequency properties at operating ranges of high frequencies. Mitsubishi Engineering Plastics currently produces polycarbonate, polybutylene terephthalate, and aromatic polyamides for LDS. Newer polycarbonates and polyamides which are suitable for soldering are being developed at this time as well.
A Revised Approach to Rheological Behaviour and Processing Parameters of Polycarbonate Compound with Dispersion
Jamal Al-Sadi, May 2017
The objective of this work is to study the rheological characteristics of the compound of polycarbonate resins with different melt flow indexes and the affects of the processing parameters PC1 content (30wt%-pph) of MFI (25gm/10mins) and PC2 content (70 wt. %-pph) of MFI (6.5gm/10mins). By understanding the relationship between shear rate and viscosity, it becomes possible to define the viscosity model and exact color shifts. The temperature was varied at three stages (230°C, 255°C and 280°C) to study its effect on rheological characteristics, colour differences (dE*), pigment size distribution and dispersions.
Keratin Bio-Composites with Polysiloxane Thermoplastic Polyurethane
Firoozeh Pourjavaheri, Oliver A.H. Jones, Isaac Martinez Pardo, Frank Sherkat, Arun Gupta, Robert A. Shanks, May 2017
A sustainable resource in the form of chicken feather derived keratin was used to enhance the thermo-mechanical properties of polysiloxane-polyurethane bio-composites. Two methods, solvent–casting–evaporation–compression molding, and solvent–precipitation–evaporation–compression molding were used to create new bio-composites incorporating 20 %·w/w of chicken feather fibers into a polysiloxane-polyurethane matrix and the results were compared. A molecular modeling visualization indicated the possible existence of hydrogen bonding between fibers and polyurethane molecules. The thermo-mechanical properties of both the polysiloxane polymer and feather reinforced bio-composites were assessed using thermogravimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis and stress–strain measurements with hysteresis loops. The dispersion uniformity of the keratin fibers in the plastic matrix was investigated via macro photography. Addition of chicken feather fibers to the polysiloxane matrix was found to decrease the recovery strain and mass loss of the composites (at lower temperatures) but increase the elastic modulus, storage modulus, and char level (at higher temperatures). The results demonstrate that keratin derived from what is currently a waste product from the poultry industry (with significant economic and environmental disposal costs) can improve the thermo-mechanical properties of the tested bio-composites simply and cheaply, with potentially large cost savings and environmental benefits.
Fabrication of Hybrid Polymeric-Metallic Foams as Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
Anil Mahapatro, Lipi Malladi, May 2016
Thermoplastic foams have been explored for their use as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Challenges exist in their applicability and strategies for enhancement in mechanical properties are needed. In this paper we report the fabrication of hybrid polymeric-metallic foams where magnesium was electrodeposited on polyurethane foams with the goal to enhance the mechanical properties of polyurethane foams. The foams were characterized using visual methods and optical microscopy techniques, which clearly showed the presence of magnesium fused foams.
Weld Lines in Injection Molded Parts: Strength, Morphology and Improvement
I. Kuehnert, Y. Spoerer, M. Zimmermann, May 2016
Weld lines are rather well known as optical and/or mechanical blemishes in plastics products that can be avoided barely by mold design or process control. Although many publications show single solutions to optimize weld line strength in injection molded parts, there is no complete comparison of thermoplastic polymer materials available. Therefore, an overview about formation, morphology and strength of weld lines for amorphous, semicrystalline and filled polymer materials is given.
How to Add Value to Capillary Rheometers
Tim Haake, May 2016
Capillary Rheology has been around for many years. As technology moves on, this has opened doors to use the capillary rheometer as a base on which to build a sophisticated R&D platform to perform a wide range of other tests, which help rheologists and their colleagues. We look at extensional rheology, elasticity, pressure- volume-temperature (PVT), thermal conductivity (TC), sharkskin analysis and the effects of counter pressure measurements. Those are but a few of available options to lab managers who try to squeeze out extra capabilities from their budgets.
Single Pellet Extrusion
D.O. Kazmer, May 2016
Analysis and results are presented to model the melting of a single pellet in an extrusion screw. The analysis considers transient heat conduction with a convention boundary condition and three sources of internal generation. The results suggest that the theoretical melting time for a pellet is on the order of seconds and more optimal extrusion screw designs are possible.
A Protocol for Filament Production and Use in Fused Deposition Modeling
D.O. Kazmer, T. Coogan, J. Mead, C. Barry, S. Johnston, R. Malloy, M. Sobkowicz-Kline, J. Vangness, P. Casey, D. Rondeau, A. Moshe, May 2016
A protocol for filament production and use in fused deposition modeling (FDM) is proposed that includes four stages: 1) material characterization of the thermoplastic feedstock, 2) filament production, 3) test specimen production, and 4) protocol verification. Preliminary results indicate that the protocol is feasible and will assist in broadening the portfolio of materials for use in FDM, optimizing FDM process conditions, and developing a capable FDM process simulation.
Capacitance to Digital Converter Method for Dielectrostriction of Polymeric Materials
Yi Zhang, Zhigao Huang, Huamin Zhou, Xiping Gao, May 2016
Dielectrostriction effect has been applied as a polymeric material characterization method for decades. However, inherent complexity of the interdigital electrodes capacitor and capacitance measurement inhibits its further industrial applications. In this research, a systematical study was conducted on the dielectrostriction sensing of polymeric materials with capacitance to digital converter method, including its methodology and experimental validation. Finally, experimental results suggest a promising effectiveness of this capacitance measurement method.
The Effect of Flow Channel Aspect Ratio on Layer Uniformity in Flat Extrusion Dies
Sam Iuliano, Andrew Svenningsen, May 2016
Common extrusion systems used to produce multilayer structures include a coextrusion feedblock - which assembles individual melt streams into a narrow multilayer “sandwich”, and a flat die - whose primary purpose is to uniformly distribute this multilayer structure to the desired final width. Given the demand for improved layer uniformity, extrusion die distribution manifold features have been developed to reduce the distortion of coextrusion interfaces. This paper will discuss the effect of die manifold aspect ratio on coextrusion uniformity.
The Potental of Expanding Elongation Flows to Increase the Through-Plane Thermal Conductivity
Otto Skrabala, Christian Bonten, May 2016
Thermal conductive plastics are often used in electronical components for heat management or in heat exchangers. Often heat has to be conducted in thickness direction of a thermal conductive part (through-plane). Yet, conventional plastics processing techniques like injection molding or extrusion yield lower thermal conductivity in thickness direction, especially for thin parts. Therefore, a new method is presented, which significantly increases the through-plane thermal conductivity using expanding elongation flows. Medium expansion ratios of 4 to 5 already achieve high
Failure Analysis of a Plastic Toy Helicopter
Dale B. Edwards, Dennis B. Brickman, Charles A. Fox, Rodney A. Brewster, May 2016
A failure analysis was performed on a plastic toy helicopter that exhibited several fractures of both the rotor blades and the rotor hub sections. Fractography and flight testing were utilized to determine whether or not the toy helicopter fractures were due to operation and flight of the helicopter or due to other causes. The multiple fractures were found to be inconsistent with normal operation and flight of the helicopter and the analysis showed that the fractures were likely due to manual manipulation of the rotor blades and hub sections prior to use of the helicopter.
High Gloss “Piano Black” Acetal Copolymer
Bruce M. Mulholland, Coralie M. Richard, May 2016
High gloss, piano black is an appearance that continues to grow as an accent color for automotive interior, cosmetic packaging, small appliances and other markets. The most common way to achieve a piano black look is by painting plastic parts using a two-coat or three-coat painting process which adds significant part cost and scrap. A molded-in-color solution is desirable to reduce cost without sacrificing quality. This paper discusses development of a molded-in-color solution in acetal copolymer resin and how that solution compares to other resins commercially available.
Predicting the Impact Puncture Response of Multilayer Flexible Food Packages Using Explicit Finite Element Models
Leopoldo A. Carbajal, Rong Jiao, Diane M. Hahm, Barry A. Morris, Randy R. Kendzierski, May 2016
In previously presented work (ANTEC 2015), the authors developed a laboratory test method capable of ranking the impact puncture resistance (IPR) of multilayer flexible packages. This paper describes the development of nonlinear finite element models capable of predicting the IPR of the same multilayer structures. Information about the method used to obtain material properties at relevant strain rates, and comparisons between predicted and experimental responses are presented.
The Effect of Viscous Encapsulation on Layer Uniformity and Rheology in Multilayer Coextrusion
Hyunwoo Kim, Kurt A. Koppi, Robert Wrisley, Joseph Dooley, May 2016
Multilayer coextrusion is a process in which two or more polymers are extruded and joined together in a feedblock or die to form a single structure with multiple layers. This paper will discuss the effect of viscous encapsulation especially in a flow channel with a noncircular cross-section on layer re-arrangement and rheology of a coextruded structure.
Viscosity Measurement of Multilayer Structures via Parallel Plate Rheology
Kurt A. Koppi, Christopher M. Thurber, Hyunwoo Kim, Joseph Dooley, May 2016
Parallel plate rheometry has been used to characterize the viscosity of multilayer polymer structures. It has been demonstrated that this technique is not a good substitute for performing such measurements using a coextrusion slit die rheometer. For the purpose of designing dies for producing multilayer structures, one needs good viscosity data that correctly represent the behavior of the intended structure under flow and for this reason, a coextrusion slit die rheometer is recommended.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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