The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Case Studies of Plastic Failures Associated with Metal Fasteners
Four case studies are presented to illustrate failures associated with the interaction between plastic components and metal fasteners. The use of metal fasteners to secure and assemble plastics is widespread. The presented cases illustrate how the failure analysis process was used to identify the failure mechanism as well as the primary factors responsible for the failures. The four cases depict representative failures involving varied designs and service conditions.
Case Study of Utilizing round-Table Plastic Design Reviews to Promote Plastics Engineering Excellence
This paper address different methodologies for the design and development of plastics tooling. It looks at a process of enabling plastics design review from multiple perspectives (Plastic Design, Injection Mold Processing, and Tooling). A method that the team called round-table review. The benefits of the reviews enabled intrinsic savings to the product such as parts delivered on schedule, increased molding simulation, and professional development of the round table participants.
Color Development for Non Warping Thin Wall Injection Molding
Formulating the wide variety of Colors in demand today for thin section injection molding can be challenging. Customers require dimensionally stable parts that often must match or nest in assembly. Colorant selection is critical to meeting today’s demands and this paper describes a system to achieve these goals.
Structural Adhesives for Building and Construction Applications
Structural adhesives are becoming more prevalent in building and construction (B&C) applications as high performance cost-effective alternatives to traditional mechanical fastening. This paper will discuss technologies and processing considerations for one component liquid moisture cure (LMC) polyurethane chemistry in panelizing assembly, introduce new reactive hot melt (RHM) polyurethane technology, discuss advantages of RHM technology over traditional LMC materials, and illustrate examples where this advantage can translate into cost-effective solutions for the industry.
Experimental Methods to Detect Degradation at the Weld Caused by Laser Transmission Welding
Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to detect thermal degradation of polyester-polycarbonate blends at the weld interface after laser transmission welding. TGA and FTIR were found to be the most sensitive and able to differentiate between degraded and non-degraded material.
Agility™ Performance LDPE as a Blend Component in High Throughput and High Bubble Stability Blown Film Applications
Blends of LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene) and LDPE (low density polyethylene) are used in many film applications. This paper shows how several high performance LDPE resins can be used as a blending component to increase output or throughput on blown film lines. In addition, some of these LDPE resins are utilized in shrink films, providing a good combination of shrink and optics, and are also used in foams and extrusion coating among other applications.
Highly Resilient Non-Soften Thermoplastic Polyurethanes
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) that are used in a variety of applications (1). TPUs exhibit low temperature flexibility, excellent abrasion resistance, high tensile strength and good processing characteristics. The current medical grade TPU’s have unique property that the flex modulus decreases (softens) when placed in the body. A new resilient non-soften (RNS) thermoplastic polyurethane has been developed that does not soften like the current grades.
Effects of Viscoelasticity on Film Die Flow Uniformity
This study shows the effect of viscoelasticity on the flow uniformity in a film die. Flow simulations were conducted on flat die geometries based on the rheology of different resins with different viscoelasticity characteristics. The results have shown that viscoelasticity can have a significant influence on flow uniformity and flow distribution becomes less uniform as the elasticity of the resins increases.
Phase Morphology Assembling in PP:PS Blends by Addition of MWCNT
Morphology evolution of polypropylene (PP):polystyrene (PS)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were investigated. Selective localization of MWCNT in PS phase was investigated by means of electron microscopy observations. Morphology during melt mixing was characterized at different mixing times and morphology changes were analyzed. Addition of MWCNT led to an increase in coalescence and phase deformation with increasing mixing time. After compression molding, a transition from sea-island to more co-continuous morphology was observed upon increasing MWCNT concentration.
Automatic Optimization of Extrusion Dies
A newly developed extrusion die optimization software is used to optimize a sheet die and a square profile die with non-uniform wall thickness. The optimization software successfully optimized the two die geometries such that a uniform velocity distribution is obtained at the die exit without exceeding a pre-specified pressure drop across the die.
Holding Force Study of Polyolefin Resins for Stretch Hood Film Application
This paper investigated how polyolefin resin properties affect holding force performance for stretch hood film application. In this study, the effect of density/crystallinity and composition distribution on the holding force and elastic recovery of ethylene copolymers was examined. A large number of resins from different families were investigated in this study.
Effects of Annealing on the Bonding Properties of Polymer-Metal Hybrids
Polymer adhesion to a metal plate using an intermediate polymeric reactive layer was evaluated. A novel in-house adhesive powder coating was applied and compared with commercial ones, the influence of metal surface and a subsequent annealing process of the samples on the adhesive strength was also assessed through atomic force microscopy (AFM), mechanical test and differential calorimetry (DSC). Interesting results were obtained in terms of successful adhesion between the polymer and the metal, especially in samples that were annealed with the in-house coating.
Optimization of Maddock-Style Mixers for Single-Screw Extrusion
Maddock-style mixers are used extensively on singlescrew extruder screws to disperse materials into the molten resin matrix. Since the time LeRoy invented the device and Maddock perfected and commercialized it, the device has undergone several innovations. Two of these innovations have created processing issues. The goal of this paper is to describe the optimal flute geometry and mixing undercut dimension for a Maddock mixer with the goal of mitigating degradation gels and maximizing dispersive mixing stresses.
Short Pulsed Lasers in Marking
The world of laser technology continues to develop and grow. In the past 10 years lasers have evolved from CO2 and Nd:YAG systems to diode pumped and fiber lasers. The latest expansion is taking place in lasers that produce super short pulses. Some of these pulses are measured in the Pico and Femto second range.
This paper will look at what are the characteristics of a short pulsed laser, how the pulse width effects applications, and the applications that are using these lasers.
A Novel Synergist for Flame Retardant Glass-fiber Reinforced Polyamide 66
A novel silicon based synergist, DynaSil™, was used in glass-fiber reinforced polyamide 66 which is flame-retarded with organic phosphinate and traditional synergists. Mechanical, physical and thermal properties, as well as fire testing results, are reported. DynaSil™ helps to lower the using amount of organic phosphinate and traditional synergists in flame retardant glass-fiber reinforced polyamide 66 composites, meanwhile improving properties and fire performance and lowering the cost of the composites.
Education for the 21st Century
Since the downturn of 2009, there have been a number of developments that have caused us to question the value of a Liberal Arts education in our country. The events of the last year including free speech on college campuses and the high level of debt of college graduates plus the personal experience of seeing college again through the eyes of our children has inspired this paper.
Manufacturing has an opportunity to grow again in this country but the level of skilled personnel is diminishing. This gap in talent threatens the revival of manufacturing in the USA. What can be done in our education system to meet this gap or need?
Novel Thermoplastic Polymer for Soft Touch Applications
Polymer Dynamix has developed a novel thermoplastic compound which combines an appealing soft, silky feel combined with flexibility. The results demonstrate that reactive modification decreases the Shore Hardness and increases the flexibility and soft, silky feel of a thermoplastic elastomer.
3D Printing Offers a Giant Step for Short Run Injection Molds
Learn how 3D printed tools for injection molding can be used to save you time and money when creating short run prototypes from production grade plastics. This paper, will discuss the business rational behind this solution, show how some of our customers are using it and provide technical tips and tricks for success. We will also touch on a few of the future developments we see for this solution.
Long Chain Branched / High Melt Strength Linear Low Density Polyethylene for Blown and Cast Film Applications
While the physical properties of LLDPE are highly desired for many blown and cast film applications, it lacks the melt strength compared with LDPE. While LDPE can be blended with LLDPE to improve melt processability, key properties are sacrificed. This paper describes a proven technique for obtaining LCB or HMS LLDPE by means of high energy electron beam modification that increases the melt strength of reactor grade LLDPE by 5-7 times without secondary compounding and without creating gels. These materials can be used as stand alone film grades or as melt strength modifiers for conventional LLDPE and other polyolefins.
When Standards Get In the Way of Innovation
Standardization is a cornerstone of modern civilization. The weathering testing industry of today exists because of the work of standards writers around the world. However, there can be too much of a good thing. Test standards in weathering sometimes get in the way of innovation. For example, the most common cycle for testing polymeric materials in xenon arc test chambers is the 102/18 cycle. That is, the test is run for 102 minutes with light only, followed by 18 minutes of light plus water spray. Users of weathering standards assume the prevalence of this test cycle must mean that it has been carefully validated for a wide variety of materials over the decades. They may also assume that this cycle was developed to provide good correlation to natural outdoor weathering, with extensive scientific research and statistical analysis to support its broad application. They assume incorrectly. The origin of this cycle dates back to the Victorian era when the first carbon arc weathering test chambers were developed. Rotating racks completed one revolution in two hours, and specimens were sprayed with water for 18 minutes as they moved past the fixed spray nozzles in the chamber. In other words, the 102/18 cycle was set in stone a century ago and has rarely been questioned since then.
Standards have also hindered innovation by overstepping their boundaries. For decades automotive OEMs bemoaned the lack of correlation between their laboratory tests and real outdoor test results. Through the development of SAE J1960 and similar standards, OEMs wrote their testing requirements around specific pieces of hardware rather than test conditions designed to simulate and accelerate natural weathering conditions. Flaws and limitations in the old technology thus became standardized, precluding any improvements to the test methods. A few of the OEMs decided to do something about it, and this was the origin of ASTM D7869, which is a true state of the art weathering test standard fo
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