The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Viscosity Measurement of Multilayer Structures via Parallel Plate Rheology
Parallel plate rheometry has been used to characterize the viscosity of multilayer polymer structures. It has been demonstrated that this technique is not a good substitute for performing such measurements using a coextrusion slit die rheometer. For the purpose of designing dies for producing multilayer structures, one needs good viscosity data that correctly represent the behavior of the intended structure under flow and for this reason, a coextrusion slit die rheometer is recommended.
PC/ABS Recovered from Shredded Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
Our industry leading separation technology enables us to recover a variety of plastics from complex mixed streams such as shredded waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Plastic flakes recovered using our process are compounded and sold as pellets suitable for use in injection molding applications. Polyolefin and styrenic plastics have been in our product portfolio for nearly a decade, but recently we have been expanding our range of plastic products. This paper looks at the challenges of recovering additional plastics and the properties of PC/ABS we have recovered from shredded WEEE.
Modeling and Simulation of the Foaming Process in Elastomers
A numerical simulation for elastomer foaming extrusion process was made. Energy equation coupled with unit cell model were used and solved by Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Finite Difference Method (FDM), respectively. The curing reaction, the change of viscosity and the concentration of the gas inside the rubber are also taking into account. The effect of processing parameters as temperature of vulcanization and the velocity of the profile inside the tunnel were evaluated and the resultant bubble size and its distribution were analyzed.
New Approaches for the Integration of Process Disturbances in Injection Molding Simulation
During the product development of injection molded parts, simulation software is used to predict process parameters and part quality during the production process. The integration of process disturbances into the injection molding simulation software leads the way to a prediction of the quality variation. Thus, the optimization regarding a robust process parameter set already during early stages of the product development process is possible.
Application of TRIZ Tools to Develop a New Plastic Chemical Dispenser
The application of several TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) tools to support the development of plastic products is presented. The considered tools are the Function Analysis, the Inventive principle application, the solution of Physical Contradictions and Trimming. A plastic chemical dispenser is used as study case. The design starts from a plastic fish feeder that is commercially available. After applying the TRIZ tools, the design evolves to a complete new concept, overcoming the original design limitations.
High Precision and Repeatability in Micro Injection Molding Using the Inverse Screw
For an economical production of micro components made of thermoplastics by injection molding a reproducible and precise process control is essential. An alternative to two-step plasticizing units, which are commonly used in micro injection molding, is the so-called inverse screw. This newly developed plasticizing principle enables the integration of a conventional three-zone-screw’s geometry in a miniaturized plasticizing unit drastically reducing the overall melt volume.
High Temperature and High Energy Density Nanolayer Film Capacitors
Improvement of the dielectric properties was achieved by combining two or more polymers in a layered geometry using film coextrusion process. In recent development, film production scale-up of thin nanolayered films, film metallization and capacitor winding capabilities were demonstrated to create the world’s first nanolayer film capacitor prototypes. Increased temperature use of the high energy density films was demonstrated in capacitors. The detailed results of the capacitors fabrication process and the corresponding properties are discussed in this paper.
Reduced Post Crystallization of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and is both, biobased and biodegradable. Due to its linear chain structure, PHB is highly crystalline and has a melting temperature close to its decomposition temperature. Pure PHB crystallizes very slowly, so that the use for some technical applications is not commercially viable. This paper describes the crystallization of pure and nucleated PHB by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The cooling curve and the metabolic rate as a function of temperature are elaborated.
Thermoplastic Semiconductive Power Cable Jacket
A new thermoplastic semiconductive power cable jacket compound is presented. The compound is designed by adding carbon blacks to a blend of linear low density polyethylene and elastomer to achieve overall excellent performance, including good electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical properties, superior environmental stress crack resistance, and low moisture vapor transmission rate as well as low temperature brittleness property. The compound meets wire and cable industrial specifications such as ICEA S-94-649-2013.
Effect of Extensional Viscosity, Elasticity and Die Exit Stress State on Neck-In Phenomenon during Extrusion Film Casting: Theoretical Study
In this work, viscoelastic, isothermal extrusion film casting modeling utilizing 1D membrane model and modified Leonov model was performed in order to understand the role of extensional viscosity, elasticity and viscoelastic stress state at the die exit, on the polymer melt film stretching in the post die area. Experimental data for LDPE and theoretical predictions based on the eXtended Pom-Pom (XPP) model taken from the open literature were used for the validation purposes.
Analysis of the Foam Injection Molding Process Using a Chemical Blowing Agent
This paper details the analysis of the foam injection molding process which uses a foaming gas generated from a chemical blowing agent. The analysis is done using a numerical simulation program developed in this study. The simulation analyzes the injection molding process with the calculation of bubble nucleation and growth. Some experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results. The experiments performed include viscosity measurement and molding experiments. The experiment and simulation results compare reasonably well.
Microcellular Foam Injection Molding of Thick Parts
Achieving uniform, microcellular injection molded foams with large cross sectional thicknesses and high void fractions is difficult, due to the large temperature gradient. To investigate this issue, a thick part mold cavity has been manufactured and the effects of injection flow rate and mold temperature have been investigated. Higher injection flow rate resulted in higher cell density; while higher mold temperature resulted in more uniform cell density.
SIGMASOFT® Virtual Molding: An Alternate Approach to Resin Selection
This paper explains a new approach taken by a thermoplastic supplier running virtual trials instead of floor trials to compare and evaluate the performance of different MFI grades. The evaluation results showed energy consumption reduction in high MFI grades due to lower injection pressures and lower clamping force requirements. The total cycle time was reduced when using high MFI grades in comparison to low MFI due to faster cooling rate of the part.
New Synergistic GRAS Stabilizer for Polyolefins
Baerlocher has developed a new family of polymer stabilizers called Baeropol® RST (Resin Stabilization Technology). Baeropol® RST works synergistically with standard antioxidants to improve color, stability, and performance of polyethylene and polypropylene resins, while maintaining GRAS FDA food contact regulations. This synergy can allow for a reduction in the amount of both phosphite and antacid used in current resin formulations, while giving equal or better performance.
Eye Opening Impact of Simple Design Errors on Product Costs
Seemingly simple errors by the designer can add up to millions of dollars or more in direct, indirect and opportunity costs. A hypothetical case study based on realistic situations will illustrate how this can happen. Actual parts will be handed out to the attendees to drive home the point.
An Introduction of the Planetary Roller Extruder and Areas of Applications PVC Direct Extrusion
It‘s common practice for the production of PVC compounds to generate a premix of all components first. This premix is then plasticized and homogenized by an extruder. The production of the premix is a complex, energy consuming and expensive process.
The concept of direct extrusion is to dose all components directly into the extruder and to eliminate the entire premixing procedure. With this method, product composition and quality can be optimized and an increased cost efficiency can be achieved.
Phase Behavior of Polyamide 6/612 Blends
In order to develop new improved material by blending or alloying polymers effectively, it is important to understand the fundamental mixing behavior of the polymers. This paper studied phase behavior of aliphatic nylon 6 and nylon 612 blends based on melting temperature depression theory. A phase diagram was constructed using Flory-Huggins approach. This information will help formulators develop useful materials.
Studying Layer Alignment in Flows of Multi-Layered Systems through Dies with a Geometric Transition
Variables that effect layer interface distortion in multi-layered systems were studied computationally to understand how to control layer alignment for the creation of multi-layer tubing with high layer numbers consisting of concentric rings of material. Variables were studied through one particular geometric transition, from flat to a semi-circle and it was found that layer alignment could be controlled by the incorporation of slip conditions in the channel.
Characterization of Reaction Product of Polyethylene-Acrylic Acid Dispersion with Calcium Chloride
Dow is exploring new uses for polyethylene-acrylic acid (EAA) based copolymer dispersions. The use of hard water during the synthesis and dilution of EAA dispersions can cause precipitation leading to both technical and economic challenges. This report documents the characterization of the cross-linked reaction product generated from a model EAA copolymer dispersion with calcium ions.
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