The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Reduced Post Crystallization of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and is both, biobased and biodegradable. Due to its linear chain structure, PHB is highly crystalline and has a melting temperature close to its decomposition temperature. Pure PHB crystallizes very slowly, so that the use for some technical applications is not commercially viable. This paper describes the crystallization of pure and nucleated PHB by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The cooling curve and the metabolic rate as a function of temperature are elaborated.
Thermoplastic Semiconductive Power Cable Jacket
A new thermoplastic semiconductive power cable jacket compound is presented. The compound is designed by adding carbon blacks to a blend of linear low density polyethylene and elastomer to achieve overall excellent performance, including good electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical properties, superior environmental stress crack resistance, and low moisture vapor transmission rate as well as low temperature brittleness property. The compound meets wire and cable industrial specifications such as ICEA S-94-649-2013.
Effect of Extensional Viscosity, Elasticity and Die Exit Stress State on Neck-In Phenomenon during Extrusion Film Casting: Theoretical Study
In this work, viscoelastic, isothermal extrusion film casting modeling utilizing 1D membrane model and modified Leonov model was performed in order to understand the role of extensional viscosity, elasticity and viscoelastic stress state at the die exit, on the polymer melt film stretching in the post die area. Experimental data for LDPE and theoretical predictions based on the eXtended Pom-Pom (XPP) model taken from the open literature were used for the validation purposes.
Analysis of the Foam Injection Molding Process Using a Chemical Blowing Agent
This paper details the analysis of the foam injection molding process which uses a foaming gas generated from a chemical blowing agent. The analysis is done using a numerical simulation program developed in this study. The simulation analyzes the injection molding process with the calculation of bubble nucleation and growth. Some experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results. The experiments performed include viscosity measurement and molding experiments. The experiment and simulation results compare reasonably well.
Microcellular Foam Injection Molding of Thick Parts
Achieving uniform, microcellular injection molded foams with large cross sectional thicknesses and high void fractions is difficult, due to the large temperature gradient. To investigate this issue, a thick part mold cavity has been manufactured and the effects of injection flow rate and mold temperature have been investigated. Higher injection flow rate resulted in higher cell density; while higher mold temperature resulted in more uniform cell density.
SIGMASOFT® Virtual Molding: An Alternate Approach to Resin Selection
This paper explains a new approach taken by a thermoplastic supplier running virtual trials instead of floor trials to compare and evaluate the performance of different MFI grades. The evaluation results showed energy consumption reduction in high MFI grades due to lower injection pressures and lower clamping force requirements. The total cycle time was reduced when using high MFI grades in comparison to low MFI due to faster cooling rate of the part.
New Synergistic GRAS Stabilizer for Polyolefins
Baerlocher has developed a new family of polymer stabilizers called Baeropol® RST (Resin Stabilization Technology). Baeropol® RST works synergistically with standard antioxidants to improve color, stability, and performance of polyethylene and polypropylene resins, while maintaining GRAS FDA food contact regulations. This synergy can allow for a reduction in the amount of both phosphite and antacid used in current resin formulations, while giving equal or better performance.
Eye Opening Impact of Simple Design Errors on Product Costs
Seemingly simple errors by the designer can add up to millions of dollars or more in direct, indirect and opportunity costs. A hypothetical case study based on realistic situations will illustrate how this can happen. Actual parts will be handed out to the attendees to drive home the point.
An Introduction of the Planetary Roller Extruder and Areas of Applications PVC Direct Extrusion
It‘s common practice for the production of PVC compounds to generate a premix of all components first. This premix is then plasticized and homogenized by an extruder. The production of the premix is a complex, energy consuming and expensive process.
The concept of direct extrusion is to dose all components directly into the extruder and to eliminate the entire premixing procedure. With this method, product composition and quality can be optimized and an increased cost efficiency can be achieved.
Phase Behavior of Polyamide 6/612 Blends
In order to develop new improved material by blending or alloying polymers effectively, it is important to understand the fundamental mixing behavior of the polymers. This paper studied phase behavior of aliphatic nylon 6 and nylon 612 blends based on melting temperature depression theory. A phase diagram was constructed using Flory-Huggins approach. This information will help formulators develop useful materials.
Studying Layer Alignment in Flows of Multi-Layered Systems through Dies with a Geometric Transition
Variables that effect layer interface distortion in multi-layered systems were studied computationally to understand how to control layer alignment for the creation of multi-layer tubing with high layer numbers consisting of concentric rings of material. Variables were studied through one particular geometric transition, from flat to a semi-circle and it was found that layer alignment could be controlled by the incorporation of slip conditions in the channel.
Characterization of Reaction Product of Polyethylene-Acrylic Acid Dispersion with Calcium Chloride
Dow is exploring new uses for polyethylene-acrylic acid (EAA) based copolymer dispersions. The use of hard water during the synthesis and dilution of EAA dispersions can cause precipitation leading to both technical and economic challenges. This report documents the characterization of the cross-linked reaction product generated from a model EAA copolymer dispersion with calcium ions.
Effect of Silica Filler Concentration on the Mechanical and Diffusion Properties of Commercial Gasoline through Polyetherpolyurethanes
In this work, we consider the effect of the addition of functionalized silica particles to a poly (tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) based polyurethane that is a candidate to be used as for flexible storage containment for a variety military fuels. We have synthesized urethanes with silica concentrations varying from 0% to 40% by weight and evaluated the diffusion of commercial gasoline and their mechanical properties.
Case Studies of Plastic Failures Associated with Metal Fasteners
Four case studies are presented to illustrate failures associated with the interaction between plastic components and metal fasteners. The use of metal fasteners to secure and assemble plastics is widespread. The presented cases illustrate how the failure analysis process was used to identify the failure mechanism as well as the primary factors responsible for the failures. The four cases depict representative failures involving varied designs and service conditions.
Case Study of Utilizing round-Table Plastic Design Reviews to Promote Plastics Engineering Excellence
This paper address different methodologies for the design and development of plastics tooling. It looks at a process of enabling plastics design review from multiple perspectives (Plastic Design, Injection Mold Processing, and Tooling). A method that the team called round-table review. The benefits of the reviews enabled intrinsic savings to the product such as parts delivered on schedule, increased molding simulation, and professional development of the round table participants.
Color Development for Non Warping Thin Wall Injection Molding
Formulating the wide variety of Colors in demand today for thin section injection molding can be challenging. Customers require dimensionally stable parts that often must match or nest in assembly. Colorant selection is critical to meeting today’s demands and this paper describes a system to achieve these goals.
Structural Adhesives for Building and Construction Applications
Structural adhesives are becoming more prevalent in building and construction (B&C) applications as high performance cost-effective alternatives to traditional mechanical fastening. This paper will discuss technologies and processing considerations for one component liquid moisture cure (LMC) polyurethane chemistry in panelizing assembly, introduce new reactive hot melt (RHM) polyurethane technology, discuss advantages of RHM technology over traditional LMC materials, and illustrate examples where this advantage can translate into cost-effective solutions for the industry.
Experimental Methods to Detect Degradation at the Weld Caused by Laser Transmission Welding
Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to detect thermal degradation of polyester-polycarbonate blends at the weld interface after laser transmission welding. TGA and FTIR were found to be the most sensitive and able to differentiate between degraded and non-degraded material.
Agility™ Performance LDPE as a Blend Component in High Throughput and High Bubble Stability Blown Film Applications
Blends of LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene) and LDPE (low density polyethylene) are used in many film applications. This paper shows how several high performance LDPE resins can be used as a blending component to increase output or throughput on blown film lines. In addition, some of these LDPE resins are utilized in shrink films, providing a good combination of shrink and optics, and are also used in foams and extrusion coating among other applications.
Highly Resilient Non-Soften Thermoplastic Polyurethanes
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) that are used in a variety of applications (1). TPUs exhibit low temperature flexibility, excellent abrasion resistance, high tensile strength and good processing characteristics. The current medical grade TPU’s have unique property that the flex modulus decreases (softens) when placed in the body. A new resilient non-soften (RNS) thermoplastic polyurethane has been developed that does not soften like the current grades.
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