The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Characterization of Carbonized Electrospun Lignin Fibers
Non-woven carbon fiber mat was produced by thermal treatment of the electrospun lignin fibers. Aqueous solution blends of organosolv hardwood lignin and 5 percentage of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) were electrospun. Average diameter of lignin fibres had a 25% reduction after carbonization. Results of Raman spectroscopy, surface area analysis, and thermal conductivity are comparable to carbonized fibers obtained from electrospun PAN.
Impact Puncture Resistance of Multilayer Flexible Food Packages
The development of a laboratory test method to rank the relative impact puncture resistance of flexible packages is presented. Details about the laboratory test, and the method used to rank the structures are given. Test results for selected multilayer structures are shown, and a ranking based on the test results is presented. In turn, this ranking is compared against results obtained using a drop test developed for the purpose of simulating the food filling portion of the packaging process.
Bioadhesive from Lignin and Dried Distillers? Grains with Solubles (DDGS)
Lignin and dried distillers? grains with solubles (DDGS) were utilized to prepare biobased adhesives at different DDGS-to-lignin ratios. The adhesion properties of the bioadhesives for bonding plywood were then evaluated. The adhesives prepared from the mixture of DDGS and lignin showed higher bonding strength than the adhesives prepared from DDGS and lignin alone. Analysis of the hot pressed adhesives showed that the DDGS extract and lignin had favorable interaction, which contributed to better performance of the hybrid adhesives.
High Accuracy Methods for Foam Injection-Expansion Simulation
In this paper, we propose a set of advanced numerical methods in order to simulate foam injection-expansion processes in a single step. Our approach is based on a set of stabilized solvers for each governing equation. These solvers are coupled with an advanced global stabilization algorithm and a multi-criteria adaptive meshing technology. These new technologies provide realistic results. We present several analytical and technical examples to demonstrate the overall robustness.
Microwave Synthesis of Poly (Glycerol Sebacate)
In the present work, poly (glycerol sebacate) elastomer was obtained by microwaving glycerol with sebacic acid during 128 minutes at 180øC. The power and the temperature were recorded through the reaction. They were unstable (oscillating) during the initial period of reaction (one hour), and become stable after. The step in which the power was unstable could correspond to the pre polymerization and the second step to the polymerization. Thermogravimetric analysis, attenuated total reflectance, and mass loss measurement during the process support this hypothesis.
Capillary Rheometry Transient Data Analysis
A transient rheological analysis method is presented with investigation of three modeling effects: shear rate dependence, relaxation spectrum, and melt compressibility. Results are presented for Cross-WLF shear-viscosity model, two relaxation spectrum models and two compressibility conditions. The Cross-WLF viscosity model together with a power-law relaxation spectrum and melt compressible conditions yield the highest correlation between the modeled and observed viscosity.
The Effect of Fluorinated Hyperbranched Polymer on the Morphology of PS and PMMA Foams
We studied the influence of fluorinated hyperbranched polymer on the foam morphologies of PS and PMMA foams created via the batch foaming process using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a physical foaming agent. A small percentage of the fluorinated hyperbranched polymer brought a significant increase of cell number density and a marked decrease of the cell size of PS and PMMA. This is due to the enhanced nucleation brought by the well-dispersed fluorinated hyper branched polymer in the matrix, which has good affinity to CO2.
Peelable Seal Films With Enhanced Moisture Barrier Properties For Flexible Packaging Applications
Most cereal and cracker packages are designed to have the seal layer peel apart while being opened. Unfortunately, opening these packages often results in catastrophic failure of the film and spillage of the contents. In this study, various types of peelable seal layers were investigated. In addition, a new high moisture barrier sHDPE was evaluated.
New Peel Seal System for Flexible Medical Device Packaging Applications
Peelable flexible medical device packaging films are typically heat sealed to a breathable spunbonded polyolefin substrate or medical grade paper used in order to allow for ETO sterilization. A newly developed uncoated nylon reinforced paper provides an alternative to materials traditionally used for lidding. This paper serves to demonstrate the successful use of a mixture design of experiments in the development of a new peel/seal system.
Mechanical Behavior and Structure Variation of PCL/HA Composite under Different Strain and Strain Rates
The structure-mechanical property correlation of the injection molding PCL/HA composite was explored by studying their structural and morphological variations under different strain rates and tensile strain. It was showed that the strain-hardening behavior of PCL/HA composites were influenced by the tensile parameters. The crystallinity and orientation increased with the increased of strain rates.
Chemical Resistant TPE Material with Adhesion to Engineering Plastics
In an effort to address to the growing demand for soft, chemical resistant materials in over-molding applications, KRAIBURG TPE has developed a series of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) materials, called COPEC?. The performance and properties of COPEC? combine the benefit of easy processing and chemical resistance compared to alternative materials. A comparative study has been conducted in the course of this paper.
A Review of Some Important Mixing Processes for Single-Screw Extruders
The melting process in single-screw extruders produces the first level of mixing and is referred here as primary mixing. Secondary levels of mixing are then provided by common mixing devices. These mixing processes will be reviewed in this paper.
Study of the Curing Kinetics of Biobased Epoxy Resin in the Presence of a Biobased Hardener
Investigation of curing kinetics of a biobased thermoset resin was the aim of this study. The curing reaction involved a combination of a petroleum based epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and a biobased epoxy resin (epoxidized soybean oil) with a biobased curing agent (sebacic acid) and was evaluated using a differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the addition of ESO increased the enthalpy of reaction as well as activation energy. Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Starink methods have been used to analyze the results.
Split Peel Seal System for Flexible Medical Device Packaging
Flexible medical device packaging systems typically include heat sealing a forming web to a breathable lidding substrate material in order to allow for ethylene oxide sterilization. Design for Six Sigma methodology and Stage-Gate Project Management were used in an effort to efficiently and effectively demonstrate the feasibility of developing a multilayer film structure and formulation that provides a ?split? peal seal bond to uncoated nylon reinforced medical grade paper. This peel seal system offers a cost/performance alternative between costly spunbonded polyolefin and paper lidding materials.
Improving the Physical Properties and Versatility of PLA with PHA Copolymer Blends
Blends of 100% biobased, fully biodegradable amorphous polyhydroxyalkanoate (a-PHA) copolymers and polylactic acid (PLA) exhibit good toughness and clarity in injection molding, extruded sheet and blown film. It will be shown that the level of toughness increase and modulus reduction can be tuned by blend composition. Results will also be presented that show that the addition of only 5% a-PHA significantly modifies the behavior of PLA in cutting and trimming typical of thermoforming operations.
Light Weighting in Blow Molding using New Mucell Technology
By working together with Unilever, Mucell has developed the cutting-edge technology of light-weighting of blow molded bottles by 15%
Plastics Recovered from Shredded Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
Our industry leading separation technology enables us to recover styrenic and polyolefin plastics from complex mixed streams such as shredded waste electrical end electronic equipment. Plastic flakes recovered using our process are compounded and sold as pellets suitable for use in injection molding applications. This paper looks at the challenges and benefits of recovering plastics and modifying their properties for use in various applications such as home appliances, office products and electronics.
Microstructural Analysis of Multi-Scale Polymer Composites using Opitcal Microscopy and Entropic Measures
Entropic measures for the characterization of mixing have been used to quantify the concentration and dispersion of additives in a polymer matrix, but have not yet been applied to the dispersion and breakup of ideally discrete structures. This paper introduces measures and considerations to analyze optical micrographs with entropic and statistical measures to quantify the quality mixing and attempt to quantify fiber attrition in polymer composites that contain both micro- and nano-scale additives.
Development of a New Type of Melt Pump
The development of a new type of melt pump for the plastics and chemical industry will be described, including a comparison between theoretical and practical results. The device is based on a twin-screw system rather than intermeshing gears.
FEM Modeling of Rate-Dependent Scratch Behavior of Polymers
Quantitative finite element methods (FEM) modeling has been carried out to describe the scratch-induced deformation in amorphous polymers at various scratching speeds. The FEM model takes into account rate and pressure dependent mechanical and frictional behavior of polymers in modeling the scratch behavior. The result shows the applicability and universality of the proposed numerical framework in describing the scratch behavior of ductile amorphous polymers. Usefulness of the present numerical modeling for designing scratch resistant polymers is discussed.
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