The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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LATENT ACID CATALYSTS FOR THERMOSET PROCESS CONTROL IN ADVANCED COMPOSITES
Bac2 has developed a storage stable | molding material | incorporating a latent acid catalyst for the compression molding of advanced composite bipolar plates | key components of fuel cell stacks. The latent acid catalyst technology is used to control the reactivity of phenolic resins and furan bio-resins | by-products from plant sources. The process control imparted using the hydroxylamine based latent catalyst has extended the opportunity to use phenolic and furan binders in wider composite and adhesives applications.
MULTIBLOCK POLYESTER ELASTOMERS/ZINC OXIDE COMPOSITES: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
In this study, composites were obtained by introducing the zinc oxide (ZnO) fillers into the block copolymers of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) by melt compounding method. The thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion of composites were investigated as a function of ZnO size and concentration. It was found that addition of ZnO increased thermal stability, while it decreased coefficient of thermal expansion of the composites at low temperatures (55 to 70 °C).
2,5-FURANDICARBOXYLIC ACID; A VERSATILE BUILDING BLOCK FOR A VERY INTERESTING CLASS OF POLYESTERS
Avantium is developing a next generation bioplastics based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), called “YXY building blocks”, which can be produced on the basis of sugars and other, non-food, carbohydrates. Avantium aims to replace oil-based polyesters (such as PET) with Furanics polyesters (such as PEF) in a wide range of applications, including bottles and carpets.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE THERMAL DEGRADATION BEHAVIOUR OF PLLA/MWCNT COMPOSITES BY NANOTUBE PURIFICATION
The thermal degradation behaviour of poly (L-lactide) nanocomposites containing both as-received (MWCNT) and purified multi wall carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNT) was evaluated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Composites with carbon nanotube contents of 0, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5, 4 and 5 wt. % were prepared. The thermal degradation process was analyzed in the light of Kissinger and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) models revealing a lowering of the activation energy (E) due to iron and aluminium residues present in carbon nanotubes.
SILICONE MODIFIED BIOBASED COATINGS FROM SOYBEAN OIL FOR WATER RESISTANT PAPERS
The silylation chemistry of biobased vegetable oils using alkoxy silanes has been studied and patented . The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of the newly developed silylated soyabean oil formulation as a water-proof coating on paper. Paper coated with the silylated oil was tested for water resistance by measuring Cobb test. Results showed upto 95% improvement in water-proofing compared to an uncoated, unmodified paper.
NATURAL GAS AS MAIN ENERGY SOURCE FOR POLYMER PLASTICIZING WITH A SPEZIAL DESIGNED HEAT EXCHANGER
The plasticizing process is one of the most energy intensive parts in polymer processing. Reducing energy cost is only possible by changing the principle of plasticizing. Therefore a new plasticizing system is developed, based on the primary energy carrier natural gas as main energy source. Natural gas based heaters and a special designed heat exchanger are the key technologies for this project. In addition to the concept, the layout of a demonstrator is described.
Computational study of velocity field in Maddock Kneader with CFD method
This paper is an attempt to predict the flow analysis in the Maddock kneader using CFD (Computational-Fluid- Dynamics) method.The effects of three channel of the kneader have been take in to account in three dimensional flow analysis.It has been demonstrated that such computational method can provide a great insight into visualization of the flow field in this kneader.Among the variable the barrier flight was found to play a significant role on enhancing the mixing performance of the Maddock kneader by means of shear rate distribution in the channel.
A new Concept to Reduce Odor and Emissions in Polyolefin Compounds
Polyethylene and Polypropylene are the two most used plastics in the world. Continued development in the industry has resulted in this leading position. Due to this progress, plastics are entering more and more applications where standard materials like wood or metal are traditionally used. However polyolefins are known for having undesirable odors and emissions. To combat this, a new BYK additive concept which allows plastics processors to reduce undesirable VOC and odor in their compounding process has been developed.
MATERIAL COST REDUCTION FOR LARGE AREA AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MOLDING
Automobile industry is introducing many variants for their customers. This puts lot of pressure to plastic molders due to JIT concept. Attempts need to be made to commonize the materials to shorten the delivery time to accommodate JIT concept. These paper attempts to demonstrate speedy deliveries with lower cost of production.
Hydrophobic Thermoplastic Polyurethanes
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) that are used in a variety of medical applications (1). TPUs exhibit low temperature flexibility, excellent abrasion resistance, high tensile strength and good processing characteristics. The softest TPUs historically used in medical applications exhibit a Shore Durometer above 70A. A medical grade TPU with a Shore Durometer of 62A will be presented. This softness is achieved without the use of plasticizers as is often the case with many other soft TPEs.
A NEW BETA NUCLEANT MASTERBATCH FOR MINERAL FILLED AND UNFILLED POLYPROPYLENE APPLICATIONS
We have developed a unique, highly selective beta nucleant masterbatch that produces high levels of beta crystallinity, and high crystallization temperatures (Tc values). This masterbatch can also be used in polypropylene that already contains other additives which nucleate the alpha crystallinity, such as talc filled PP. The ability to beta nucleate talc filled PP offers the possibility of using beta nucleation to achieve both high stiffness and high impact strength in talc reinforced PP.
A NEW CLOSED LOOP MOLD TEMPERATURE CONTROL TECHNIQUE BY MEANS OF ONLINE THERMOGRAPHY
In injection molding, the precise control of the mold temperature distribution is a crucial prerequisite for the quality of the final products. A new approach to achieve an excellent repeat accuracy of the mold temperature is to use infrared images of demolded parts to realize a closed loop control. Without the necessity for changes in the mold the automatic control can help to improve the quality, to keep cycle times short and to avoid scrap.
Hybrid Composite Front Seat Backrest
A car seat backrest was developed by Faurecia and BASF with a new multi-material technology that combines the use of metal, injected polyamide and continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The paper describes the architecture of the seat, the choice of the materials, and the numerical and experimental validation of the structure.
USING DMLS TECHNOLOGY FOR CONFORMAL COOLING IN THERMOPLASTICS INJECTION TOOLS
Thermal assets are fundamental in the thermoplastics injection toolings. DMLS (Digital Metal Laser Sintering) is one option to solve problems of injection molding thermal assets using an industrial procedure to introduce conformal cooling in injection tools. Conformal cooling is a special shaped regulation circuitry ideally installed in the injection tools.
A STUDY ON EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON COLOURS DURING COMPOUNDING OF PLASTICS
The historical production data of SABIC IP, Cobourg, was used to determine effects on colours of compounded plastics, of using extruders of different configurations, incorporating minute variations in pigment compositions and using different grades of resins. The colours had been measured in terms of CIE L*,a*,b* values using a spectrophotometer. The measured L*,a*,b* values were then analyzed and compared to the target values using statistical methods. The differences in the observed trends are discussed.
TRENDS AND NEEDS IN AUTOMOTIVE MATCHED BY ECO+ SOLUTIONS FROM DSM
An overview is given of the various drivers, needs and trends in the automotive industry and how these are matched by various new plastic solutions, which in the end all significantly increase the sustainability of various car components and of the complete cars in total.
PHYSICAL FOAMING OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) – PROCESSING AND PROPERTIES
We describe the steps necessary to establish a stable extrusion process of physical foaming of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with carbon dioxide. The low melt strength and poor thermal stability of PLA plays a role in optimizing processing conditions. Up to 10 wt% supercritical CO2 was added. The effect of a chain extender was also tested. Low density, microcellular foams with density down to 20-30 kg/m3 were obtained for three different PLA grades. Foams were characterized by density, cell structure, crystallinity and mechanical compression properties.
HOW INDUCTIVE HEATING CAN IMPROVE PLASTIC INJECTION
Currently, in the thermoplastic injection industry, there are several processes allowing heat cycling within the mould. Although they have their own characteristics, their purpose is the same. There are many advantages to be taken into consideration whilst injecting hot thermoplastic onto a heated tool, such as: no welding lines, no sink marks, no paint necessary and the possibility to easily inject engineered materials.
Dispersion and Mixing Characteristics of High Volume and High Torque Twin Screw Extruders
Twin screw extruders with large volume and high torque are a widely embraced equipment in the compounding industry. The paper presents a specific research on the residence time distribution and energy input for these machines. It shows the result of the machine technology in terms of various processes, such as production of color masterbatches, technical compounds and filler concentrates. Furthermore, the paper deals with various questions such as process window, throughput increase and how flexible extrusion lines can be.
Analysis of the h-Convergence Method of Finite Elements of Injection-Molding-Simulation Results
The h-convergence of finite element method was used to compare simulation results from two software programs (MPI-Moldflow and Moldex3D). The parameters studied were injection (fill) time and pressure, cycle time, part weight, shrinkage, etc. Some differences were found between the two software programs, and with some of the experimental results.
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