The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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As a toughening agent, poly(ehtene-co-octene) elastomer (POE) could raise the notched impact strength of polypropylene(PP), especially in low temperatures. Ethylene-octene/ polypropylene blends were widely used in many domains. An Intumescent flame retardant and SiO2 were introduced into ethylene-octene/ polypropylene blends as flame retardant and its synergistic agent. The flame retardancy of the new system was estimated with the UL94 test, cone calorimeter test, of which contained heat release rate test and smoke release rate test, and Thermogravimetric property was also investigated. According to the results of flammability tests, the SiO2 showed synergistic effect apparently when its content reached 1%(weight percent of the whole system, the same below).
Fiber glass reinforced engineering plastics are increasingly important construction materials in transportation, electrical and other field applications. With the use of fiber glass reinforcements, certain material properties such as stiffness, strength and temperature stability are significantly improved. Combined with the base plastics, attractive material properties are obtained making them suitable for very demanding applications. Traditional performance attributes such as mechanical and environmental properties, reductions in total part cost as well as lightweight benefits allow these materials to provide answers to more complex applications, while meeting lightweight, recyclability, food contact and other requirements. It is essential to use the right fiber glass product with the right sizing specific to the application. Sizing provides a powerful solution for many processes and performance attributes of short fiber compounds and allows the final product to meet a variety of additional requirements. In this paper, the latest developments in glass fiber reinforcement will be reviewed, focusing on some of the most important engineering plastics such as polyamide, polyester and others. It will be demonstrated how very small amounts of glass fiber sizing can be very effective in realizing performance attributes over a wide range of requirements. In addition, examples will show how glass fiber reinforcements can greatly enhance the performance of certain biopolymers.
Polymer rheology is a very sensitive indicator of polymer long chain branching, and therefore can be used as a tool to determine polymer structures. This paper is thus focused on the study of the relationship between polymer linear viscoelastic properties and polymer structures using both rheological experiments as well as theoretical modeling methods applied to both model polymers and commercial polymers. In this work, the “hierarchical model” was employed to predict their rheological behaviors as well as to identify the impurities in the materials using the “analytical rheology” concept. After validating the tube model theory successfully on the model polymer melts, we tried to access the validity of the modeling predictions for commercial polyolefins.
The American phrase ‘garbage in, garbage out’ (GIGO for short) succinctly describes a problem often faced by plastics extrusion processors worldwide: No matter how well an extruder extrudes, its output will not be on-spec if the input blend is off-spec. When formulation problems do arise, the on-line proportioning system draws initial troubleshooting focus. But the problem itself (or its underlying cause) may lie elsewhere, farther upstream. This presentation systematically addresses the major process operations prior to extrusion (and beyond to include the materials themselves) in an effort to indentify and avoid the various pitfalls that may plague reliably accurate formulation.
This study is purposed to develop a thermoplastic elastomer via dynamic vulcanization made of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). Rubber parts were mixed at room temperature by using two roll mill, then fed in twin screw extruder with thermoplastic parts to occur dynamic vulcanization for pre-cured stage and compression molding for post-cured stage. This research was emphasized on the contents of ENR, PVDF and curing agent including the addition of PLA that affected on the properties of the dynamically vulcanized blends in comparison to the ternary ones. Mechanical properties including tensile strength and hardness were observed. Oil swelling test was studied by using 4 fuel oil types which are gasohol 91, gasohol 95, E20 and E85 at room temperature. It was found that increasing thermoplastic and DBPH contents have enhanced the tensile strength, young’s modulus and oil swelling resistance. Addition of PLA gave similar results as non-additional ones in term of oil swelling resistance.
The paper describes the crystallization and melting behavior of poly (ether ketone), PEK , prepared by Gharda Chemicals Ltd, India and compared with PEK supplied by Victrex Plc, UK. The routes of synthesis of the two polymers are different. Gharda Chemicals synthesizes PEK using cheap chlorine based monomers whereas Victrex Plc, synthesizes PEK using expensive fluorine based monomers. Crystallization of PEK was studied under non-isothermal conditions with differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallization parameters were evaluated with standard equations and the results were interpreted on the basis of nucleation, crystallisation, and activation energy of crystallization. The behavior of Gharda PEK and Victrex PEK was found to be comparable.
The wall slip and melt fracture behaviour of several commercial polylactides (PLAs) have been investigated. PLAs with molecular weights greater than a certain value were found to slip, with the slip velocity to increase with decrease of molecular weight. The onset of melt fracture for the high molecular weight PLAs was found to occur at around 0.2 to 0.3 MPa, depending on the geometrical characteristics of the dies. Addition of 0.5wt% of a poly(?- caprolactone) (PCL) into the PLA that exhibits melt fracture was found to be effective in eliminating and delaying the onset of melt fracture to higher shear rates.
This paper provides an overview of the current and potential regulation of the hazards of combustible dust (CD) by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the influence of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards and U.S. Chemical Safety Board (CSB) investigations on OSHA enforcement and rulemaking activities. This paper also presents the results of recent laboratory testing performed to determine the explosibility and other combustibility characteristics1 of samples of a variety of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin grades provided by resin producers. Explosibility testing was performed on samples of PVC dispersion resins, PVC copolymer resins, PVC suspension resins, and PVC dust particles sampled from a baghouse serving a PVC suspension resin production line. All test results fell into Class St 1, described as a weak explosion risk, when evaluated in a 20 liter test chamber. Because PVC resins by themselves do not have a known history of incidents where explosions occurred, this suggested the possibility that the test results from the 20 liter chamber test vessel reflected a false positive (or “overdriven”) situation caused by the ignition of the PVC particles as they passed through the flame of the ignition source rather than through the self-propagating deflagration that represents explosibility. As-received suspension resin samples from producers were retested for explosibility in a 1 cubic meter test chamber and the results indicated no explosion risk, falling into Class St 0. This suggests that, at least for the tested suspension resins, the test results from the 20 liter chamber test vessel reflected a false positive (or “overdriven”) situation and that the samples were not explosible. This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE ANTEC on April 2, 2012.
A totally new solution was developed to centre the die in regard to the mandrel of an annular die. The tilting technology overcomes most of the drawbacks of the existing conventional centering solutions. The new tilting technology can be easily retrofitted to existing heads for pipes | for blown films and for the extrusion blow molding process. Tilting dies enable to further reduce remaining eccentric thickness differences in the extruded products. So they help to improve the quality of the products while in the same time the cost of the production is reduced.
This paper’s goal is to explain how to achieve the optimum molding conditions that minimize the effect of stress cracking without removing the causes of degradation during service use. Analyzing failure of HDPE caulking cartridges: due to premature initiation of cracking and brittleness at the cartridge wall.
Bac2 has developed a storage stable | molding material | incorporating a latent acid catalyst for the compression molding of advanced composite bipolar plates | key components of fuel cell stacks. The latent acid catalyst technology is used to control the reactivity of phenolic resins and furan bio-resins | by-products from plant sources. The process control imparted using the hydroxylamine based latent catalyst has extended the opportunity to use phenolic and furan binders in wider composite and adhesives applications.
In this study, composites were obtained by introducing the zinc oxide (ZnO) fillers into the block copolymers of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) by melt compounding method. The thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion of composites were investigated as a function of ZnO size and concentration. It was found that addition of ZnO increased thermal stability, while it decreased coefficient of thermal expansion of the composites at low temperatures (55 to 70 °C).
Avantium is developing a next generation bioplastics based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), called “YXY building blocks”, which can be produced on the basis of sugars and other, non-food, carbohydrates. Avantium aims to replace oil-based polyesters (such as PET) with Furanics polyesters (such as PEF) in a wide range of applications, including bottles and carpets.
The silylation chemistry of biobased vegetable oils using alkoxy silanes has been studied and patented . The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of the newly developed silylated soyabean oil formulation as a water-proof coating on paper. Paper coated with the silylated oil was tested for water resistance by measuring Cobb test. Results showed upto 95% improvement in water-proofing compared to an uncoated, unmodified paper.
The plasticizing process is one of the most energy intensive parts in polymer processing. Reducing energy cost is only possible by changing the principle of plasticizing. Therefore a new plasticizing system is developed, based on the primary energy carrier natural gas as main energy source. Natural gas based heaters and a special designed heat exchanger are the key technologies for this project. In addition to the concept, the layout of a demonstrator is described.
Polyethylene and Polypropylene are the two most used plastics in the world. Continued development in the industry has resulted in this leading position. Due to this progress, plastics are entering more and more applications where standard materials like wood or metal are traditionally used. However polyolefins are known for having undesirable odors and emissions. To combat this, a new BYK additive concept which allows plastics processors to reduce undesirable VOC and odor in their compounding process has been developed.
Automobile industry is introducing many variants for their customers. This puts lot of pressure to plastic molders due to JIT concept. Attempts need to be made to commonize the materials to shorten the delivery time to accommodate JIT concept. These paper attempts to demonstrate speedy deliveries with lower cost of production.
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) that are used in a variety of medical applications (1). TPUs exhibit low temperature flexibility, excellent abrasion resistance, high tensile strength and good processing characteristics. The softest TPUs historically used in medical applications exhibit a Shore Durometer above 70A. A medical grade TPU with a Shore Durometer of 62A will be presented. This softness is achieved without the use of plasticizers as is often the case with many other soft TPEs.
We have developed a unique, highly selective beta nucleant masterbatch that produces high levels of beta crystallinity, and high crystallization temperatures (Tc values). This masterbatch can also be used in polypropylene that already contains other additives which nucleate the alpha crystallinity, such as talc filled PP. The ability to beta nucleate talc filled PP offers the possibility of using beta nucleation to achieve both high stiffness and high impact strength in talc reinforced PP.
In injection molding, the precise control of the mold temperature distribution is a crucial prerequisite for the quality of the final products. A new approach to achieve an excellent repeat accuracy of the mold temperature is to use infrared images of demolded parts to realize a closed loop control. Without the necessity for changes in the mold the automatic control can help to improve the quality, to keep cycle times short and to avoid scrap.
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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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