The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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SHEAR & EXTENSIONAL RHEOLOGY OF C18-CNT/LDPE NANOCOMPOSITES
Nanocomposites of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and C18 modified multi wall carbon nanotubes (C18-CNT) were prepared by melt blending. Previous research has shown that addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) increase the dynamic viscosity and reduce the extensional viscosity with increasing loading. This research work shows that C-18 modification of CNTs helps to keep low values of dynamic viscosity, maintain extensional viscosity and does not increase strain hardening even at 5.0 weight % loading.
SELLING IN A BRUTAL ECONOMY: A HUGE OPPORTUNITY AND HOW TO CAPITALIZE ON IT
Sales are off during these difficult times. This paper will give you insight as to what's happening today and why you should consider getting into social media, PLUS things you can do today, over the next 30 days and over the next few months, to build sales.
OPEN CELL MICROCELLULAR FOAMS OF POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) BASED BLENDS WITH SEMI-INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS
Interpenetrating polymer network structures can be used to control cell density and averaged cell size of poly-LD-lactic acid foams. Polymer systems with and without cross-linking agent were used as templates for environmentally benign batch foaming processes in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. The foamed samples were characterized in terms of cell density, averaged cell size, and open cell content (OCC).
USING HYPOTHESIS SETTING TO OPTIMIZE THE TROUBLESHOOTING PROCESS FOR SINGLE-SCREW PLASTICATORS
The goal of all troubleshooting operations is to restore the process to its original performance as quickly as possible. This paper describes a process that is based on developing hypotheses using verified data. Next, the hypotheses are tested using properly developed experiments. Once the root cause of the problem is identified, the best technical solution is implemented. Three case studies are presented.
PROCESS DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROJECTILE INJECTION TECHNIQUE (PIT)
The projectile injection technique is a new powerful process variant of the well established fluid injection technique for the production of hollow shaped polymer parts. For suitable part designs the PIT allows to increase the economical efficiency and process capability significantly. First research results show that it is possible to reproducibly form hollow shaped geometries independent from the rheological properties of the used polymers.
INFRARED WELDING OF ENGINEERING PLASTICS VIA SHORT-WAVELENGTH IR EMITTERS
To demonstrate the feasibility of infrared welding of engineering thermoplastics, studies on PA66 and PBT were conducted. The weldability of engineering thermoplastics is demonstrated in the investigations carried out. Important process parameters such as pressure control, change-over times and tolerances in positioning the IR emitter were identified. It is remarkable, that engineering plastics (PBT & PA66) that are similar in use have a totally different melting behavior. The melting process has to be adapted accurately to meet the specific requirements of the material.
FREE-RADICAL INTERMEDIATES IN THE NONOXIDATIVE THERMAL DEHYDROCHLORINATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)
Kinetic analyses based on resonance delocalization energies are used to rule out the Arlman and Winkler-Stromberg mechanisms for the growth of conjugated polyenes during the thermolysis of poly(vinyl chloride) under nonoxidizing conditions. Possible sources of radicals during the thermolysis are described, and the radicals that cause the greatest reduction in thermal stability are concluded to be those that result from the reaction of polyenes with HCl. The acceleration of dehydrochlorination by these radicals is discussed.
HEAT RESISTANT POLYLACTIC ACID WITH GOOD CLARITY
A heat resistant polylactic acid (PLA) is obtained by directly modifying regular PLA through extrusion process. The heat resistant PLA does not contain any inorganic filler and the total amount of additives is less than 5wt.%. The heat distortion temperature (HDT)???of modified PLA is more than 120oC. The modified PLA exhibits much higher crystallization rate than neat PLA. Meanwhile the heat resistant PLA still keeps good clarity and high impact strength. The heat resistant products of PLA can be directly molded through injection molding machine.
NANOPOROUS POLYCARBONATE FILM WITH HIGH ASPECT RATIO PREPARED BY ION TRACK ETCHING TECHNIQUE
Polycarbonate (PC) films with nanopores of a highly regulated size and shape were successfully prepared by ion track etching technique. The pores penetrated the films with a thickness of up to 100m, and the aspect ratio of the pores was nearly a thousand, which is outstanding result among those reported to date. Optimized etching conditions led to the effective etching of the ion tracks, and the addition of surfactant into the etching solution also heavily influenced the constitution of the pores.
MATERIAL COST REDUCTION FOR LARGE AREA AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MOLDING
Advances in material feeding and molding equipment enable auto component makers to use tailor made masterbatches to mold large area components along with specially designed polypropylene resins. This paper discusses and compares properties of compound made by traditional way and masterbatches blended by tumble mixing with polypropylene resins. This approach will help automotive industry to achieve cost reduction
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MORPHOLOGY EVOLUTION OF CRYSTALLIZATION IN RAPID THERMAL RESPONSE MOLDED PARTS
Compared with conventional injection molding (CIM) associated with the constant temperature of mold, Rapid Thermal Response Molding (RTRM) often has a rapid heating and cooling system and the molded part will experience a different thermal and mechanical history. As a result, the microstructure of RTRM part, especially the crystallization morphology for the semi-crystalline polymer, is different from that of CIM. In this paper, the crystallization morphology of RTRM part is simulated numerically using a non-isothermal crystallization model.
PREDICTING THE NEAR-EQUILIBRIUM SOLUBILITIES OF OILS IN OLEFIN BLOCK COPOLYMERS
INFUSE Olefin Block Copolymers (OBCs) are a family of new materials that are finding increased utility in soft compounds. Oil loading is considered a primary variable when tuning the hardness of such compounds, and as such, we will discuss the near-equilibrium oil solubility in OBCs as a function of the viscosities, specific gravities and refractive indices of process oils.
A NEW CLOSED LOOP MOLD TEMPERATURE CONTROL TECHNIQUE BY MEANS OF ONLINE THERMOGRAPHY
In injection molding, the precise control of the mold temperature distribution is a crucial prerequisite for the quality of the final products. A new approach to achieve an excellent repeat accuracy of the mold temperature is to use infrared images of demolded parts to realize a closed loop control. Without the necessity for changes in the mold the automatic control can help to improve the quality, to keep cycle times short and to avoid scrap.
CHOOSING A SPRAY APPLICATOR AND FLUID DELIVERY SYSTEM
This paper will help choose a spray applicator and fluid delivery system for a coating process. Each type of applicator will be explained along with the fluid delivery system necessary for the applicator. The strengths and weakness of each atomizing method will be used to guide the reader to choose the atomizer that best suits their coating needs.
HYDROLYSIS RESISTANT - HIGH IMPACT POLYETHERIMIDE RESIN BLENDS
Injection moldable hydrolytically stable transparent thermoplastic Polyetherimide resin blends with high impact and thermal resistance have been developed for healthcare applications. The two-phase resin blends are capable of withstanding 2,500 autoclave cycles at 134 C and 50 ppm morpholine while maintaining clarity and ductility. Injection molding of the new steam resistant blends as well as their rheological and material properties are compared to polyetherimide.
ESSENTIALS IN DESIGN- WHAT MAKES A DESIGN SUCCESSFUL?
The topic of what makes a design successful will be critically addressed by the author based on a macroscopic discussion of the entire design process. Product design methodology will be discussed based influences of personal perceptions and analytical thinking to the application of creativity for solving complex problems. Development phases from initial specifications, through concept development and engineering details will be reviewed. Examples will be cited throughout the paper to substantiate and clarify many of the critical comments.
INFRARED-REFLECTIVE ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS
The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum may be used for a variety of purposes in engineering thermoplastics. This paper will explain strategies to develop materials having tailored infrared properties. Inorganic colorants were combined to meet military specifications for near-infrared (NIR) reflective camouflage colors. Opaque colors can be formulated to match under visible illumination and offer analytical detection in the infrared for convenient authentication. Heat storage can be controlled in ASA alloys in dark colors with excellent weatherability.
PROGRESS TOWARD MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PIGMENT PRODUCTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
The production of organic pigments is quickly moving from the United States and Europe to China, India and other developing countries. The environmental impact of this trend and creative efforts being undertaken by emerging pigment producers to reduce pollution and conserve natural resources will be explored.
PROPERTIES OF POLY (PROPYLENE CARBONATE) PRODUCED VIA SK ENERGY'S GREENPOL TECHNOLOGY
Polypropylene carbonate (PPC) is an amorphous polymer made by alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide. SK Energy developed its own proprietary technology with a highly active catalyst for this polymerization and has begun to produce PPC in its continuous process type pilot plant since late 2008 with a trade name GreenPolTM. In this paper, we are describing the typical properties of PPC such as general physical properties, barrier properties, thermal and UV stability, and smoke density along with some rheological properties.
FABRICATION OF SOLUBLE AND HIGHLY CONDUCTIVE PANI:CSA FLEXIBLE ELECTRODE FOR ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS
A flexible and transparent polymeric electrode was prepared by spin coating of polyaniline doped with camphor sulfonic acid (PANI:CSA) on a flexible film for polymeric organic solar cells. Synthesized PANI emeraldine base (EB) having a high molecular weight was doped CSA with 6:4 molar ratio in m-cresol. For obtaining better properties, two concepts are considered to achieve improvement both soluble and conductivity matters in our study.
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