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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
FAILURE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC CRIMP FITTING ASSEMBLIES
Dale Edwards, Donald Duvall, Anand Shah, May 2011
This paper covers a failure analysis of a cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) hot and cold water plumbing system that utilized plastic insert fittings that were fastened with stainless steel clamp rings. The failed fittings exhibited features that led several different investigators to associate the failures with fatigue and slow crack growth. Our examination of the fractures indicated that the failures were due to high stress that caused crazing and subsequent fast fracture of the fittings. Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) may also have been involved as a contributor to the failures.
EFFECT OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS AND DIE DESIGN ON DIE DROOL PHENOMENON FOR HDPE POLYMER MELT
Martin Zatloukal, Jan Musil, May 2011
In this work, the effect of processing conditions and die design on die drool phenomenon for HDPE polymer melt has been investigated. It has been revealed that the thermally induced degradation occurring inside the processing equipment may lead to HDPE melt viscosity/elasticity enhancement, which promotes unwanted material accumulation at the end of the extrusion die. It has been found that for particular processing conditions, shaped die, flared die or the use of hard chrome instead of stainless steel can reduce die drool phenomenon for HDPE.
HYPER-ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS OF LIQUID SILICONE RUBBERS
Ryan Prunty, Ian Reeves, May 2011
The purpose of this project is to develop hyper-elastic data for various liquid silicone rubbers (LSR). This will include designing a mold and test fixtures for molding and testing various LSRƒ??s. The goal is to collect data for Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. There is generally no published data on tensile, compression, dynamic shear or biaxial strength to be used in CAE software at this time. After verifying the collected data with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software, the results are as followed.
THE THREE DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF INJECTION-COMPRESSION MOLDING PROCESS
Sejin Han, Xiaoshi Jin, May 2011
In this paper, the injection-compression molding process for thermoplastic materials is analyzed using a three dimensional simulation program. Injection-compression process is often used to produce parts with relatively small warpage at a low clamp force. An example case will be used to test the program. The program can be used to compare regular injection molded parts and injection-compression molded parts in terms of injection pressure, clamp force and dimensional stability.
AN INNOVATIVE ROTARY TOOL TECHNOLOGY FOR RAPID HEAT CYCLE MOLDING
Marco Fiorotto, Giovanni Lucchetta, May 2011
A rotary tool technology was developed in order to reduce the cycle time of the RHCM process. The equipment consists of a hot molding cavity, a rotary plate with two cores conditioned at the standard processing temperature and a cold dummy cavity. The polymer is injected between the hot cavity and the core in the first station. Then the mold is opened and the part is trasfered to the second station. The mold is closed and the part is packed and cooled by the cold cavity. To test the proposed technology, a rotary mold for a TV frame was realized.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF DENSITY GRADED FOAMS: TENSILE PROPERTIES
Mohammad Hasan, Denis Rodrigue, May 2011
The tensile behavior of functionally graded (FG) foam plates were studied in this work. In order to analyze the mechanical properties of the samples, a finite-element method was used. The plate was divided into an arbitrary number of homogenous plates with perfect bonding throughout thickness. Then, the numerical analysis was used to describe the tensile properties of FG foams. The results show very good agreement with experimental data.
NOVEL NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID MODEL FOR POLYMER MELTS
Martin Zatloukal, May 2011
In this work, novel generalized Newtonian law (in which viscosity is given by the specific function of three principal invariants of the deformation rate tensor and its absolute value) has been proposed and tested. It has been found that the proposed model provides correct behavior in steady shear and uniaxial/planar/equibiaxial extensional viscosities for polymer melts.
EFFECT OF NATURAL FIBER SURFACE TREATMENT ON THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE AND NYLON 11 COMPOSITES
Smith Thitithanasarn, Yew Leong, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2011
In this study, polyamide 11 (PA11) was reinforced with bagasse fiber. These fibers were treated with flexible epoxy for improved thermal resistance. The thermal degradation resistance of the fibers was improved by epoxy treatment although the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by flexural test and tensile test. The bagasse fibers improve the thermal and mechanical properties of PA11.
MELT AMINATION OF MALEATED POLYPROPYLENE BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION
Shuihan Zhu, Costas Tzoganakis, May 2011
Maleic anhydride (MA) grafted polypropylenes (MAPP) are reacted with aliphatic diamines in a twin-screw extruder. The polymer feed rate (FR), screw speed (SS), and the molar ratio of MA to diamine (MR) are the three main factors considered in a two-level design of experiments (DOE) for the reactions between two MAPPs and two diamines. The residual MA content in the products is used in order to evaluate the effects of the processing parameters. It is found that feed rate has the most pronounced effect on the reaction conversion.
THE USE AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-BASED/BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS IN FOOD PACKAGING
Christopher Thellen, Jo Ann Ratto, May 2011
Food packaging from bio-based and biodegradable polymeric materials is a relevant topic in today's market with a global emphasis toward sustainability. Physical properties of these natural and synthetic polymers, along with biodegradation rates in the marine environment, have been examined and compared to one another. Major food packaging requirements such as gas barrier, moisture sensitivity, mechanical strength, and service temperature are the focus areas for this research.
CREATING HIGHER VALUE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Bruce Story, May 2011
Companies view value from intellectual property in two ways: 1. Value Creation through protecting proprietary technology that sustains growth and higher profit margins and 2. Value Extraction through licensing royalties and IP enforcement awards and settlements To achieve value effectively, IP-savvy companies have learned to create business-aligned IP strategies. The IP strategy must be integral to the business strategy to create maximum value. Intellectual Asset Management processes are used to implement the IP strategy.
INVESTIGATING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXPANDED POLYPROPYLENE BEAD PRODUCTS
Nemat Hossieny, Mohammadreza, Chul B. Park, May 2011
Expanded polypropylene (EPP) bead foam products are prepared using the steam-chest molding method. It was shown that 3.9 bar is the most promising steam pressure to get better mechanical properties. The density and tensile property profile across the molded sample were measured. It was observed that the high pressure and temperature steam softens the beads on the surface causing them to squeeze and compact together. This leads to increase in the density and tensile property at the outer surface of the molded part as compared to the central part.
HOW GREEN POLYMERS FIT IN YOUR BUSINESS AND WHERE THEY MAY NOT
Roger Jones, May 2011
Green polymers are being brought to market in order to capitalize on a perceived demand from environmentally conscious consumers. Plastics industry processors and users need to know, however, just what are the particular characteristics of different green polymers and which specific end use demands they fulfill? Are they broad-based products or a series of niche specialties? This paper will address the relative characteristics of current green polymers from point of view of end use market needs, and how best to meet these needs, in terms of economics, performance, and utility.
MORPHOLOGY AND FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE-EXFOLIATED GRAPHENE NANOCOMPOSITES
Sudheer Bandla, Jay Hanan, May 2011
Polyethylene Terephthalate Exfoliated Graphene nanocomposites, of 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% nanoplatelet weight fractions were injection molded. Dispersion studies show that the graphene nanoplatelets were dispersed but not exfoliated in to the PET matrix. An exponential increase in the Young's modulus of the nanocomposites was observed. Break strain decreased with increase in nanoplatelets wt%, because of the voids that evolved during the processing and the interaction between PET and the graphene.
THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BLENDS WITH POLYPROPYLENE
Gregory Anderson, May 2011
Polypropylene blends with thermoplastic starch (TPS) have demonstrated significant potential in the bioplastics field. The polymers are improved by achieving higher biocontent and lower green house gas emissions. The TPS is finely dispersed by means of a tandem extruder with plasticizer, water, heat, and shear, and then melt blended with the polymer to produce a co-continuous morphology of TPS and polymer. TPS blends produced in this method lead to improved retention of physical properties over conventional methods. The TPS method is presented as well as morphology, GHG emissions, and properties.
THERMOSET NANOCOMPOSITES FROM EPOXIDIZED LINSEED OIL FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS
Khozema Jafferji, Daniel Schmidt, Emmanuelle Reynaud, May 2011
In this study, a bio-based epoxy thermoset was made from highly functional epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) using a polyethyleneimine (PEI) crosslinking agent. Following optimization of cure conditions and the stoichiometric ratio of ELO to PEI, the compatibility of this system with several commercial montmorillonite and hydrotalcite layered nanofillers was studied. The hydrotalcites were observed to enhance the homogeneity of the ELO-PEI system, whereas the montmorillonites showed settling and produced inhomogeneous materials in all cases.
CONTINUOUS POLYMERIZATION USING A TWIN-SCREW COMPOUNDER
Christopher Richards, Paul Rothweiler, John Spevacek, May 2011
Continuously blending materials in a twin-screw compounder is well understood and practiced. Reacting monomers to form polymers, and grafting polymers has been performed, but is not as wide-spread in industry. The same types of reactions which are most-often performed in a batch process can be produced in a continuous process and provide a number of benefits. We will review the types of chemistries that lend themselves to continuous polymerization, the work we have performed, and the perceived benefits.
PERSONAL CARE & BEAUTY PACKAGING COLOR TRENDS FOR 2012/2013
Doreen Becker, May 2011
As we live in interesting times, interesting color trends are a direct reflection of the instabilities, uncertainties and the rapid rate of change in our current world. These new colors for 2012/2013 are almost completely opposite from what we saw last year and reflect the consumer's view as a response. The color trends will be presented as four different seasons and are obtained from an independent source for Americhem who has created and styled color packaging examples and mood boards that capture these trends.
EPOXY POLYMERS TOUGHENED BY SELF-ASSEMBLING BLOCK COPOLYMERS
Ray Pearson, May 2011
In this work we will exam the use of diblock copolymers to toughen a ductile epoxy resin. The advantage of the diblock copolymers is that they are lower in molecular weight and thus reduce the viscosity peanalty often observe when using self-assembling triblock copolymers. Preliminary results suggest that such diblock copolymers are very effective toughening agents at low concentrations. Toughening mechanisms will be revealed using both electron and optical microscopy.
A STUDY ON EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON COLOURS DURING COMPOUNDING OF PLASTICS
Musharaf Rabbani, Jamal Alsadi, Ghaus Rizvi, Shahid Ahmed, Daniel Ross, May 2011
The historical production data of SABIC IP, Cobourg, was used to determine effects on colours of compounded plastics, of using extruders of different configurations, incorporating minute variations in pigment compositions and using different grades of resins. The colours had been measured in terms of CIE L*,a*,b* values using a spectrophotometer. The measured L*,a*,b* values were then analyzed and compared to the target values using statistical methods. The differences in the observed trends are discussed.


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