SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
SECOND GENERATION BIO-FOAMS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Romeo Stanciu, Hamdy Khalil, Jack Dai, Ricardo DeGenova, Tim Abraham, May 2011
The use of seed oils derived polyols in high end polyurethane applications has been limited in the past by the reduced compatibility and reactivity. Flexible foams with up to 25 % substitution of the petroleum-based polyols with renewable component were produced and characterized, based on a new generation of plant oil based polyol. The technology brings significant enhancement in foam elastic properties and improved processing characteristics, allowing for a potentially higher penetration in automotive seating applications.
BIMODAL POLYSTYRENE/PARTICLE FOAM BY EXTRUSION FOAMING
Cailiang Zhang, Bin Zhu, L. James Lee, May 2011
Extrusion foaming using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as the blowing agent is an economically and environmentally benign process. However, it is difficult to control the foam density and maintain the thermal insulation performance. In this study, the extrusion foaming process of bimodal polystyrene foams was investigated by using CO2 as the blowing agent and water as the co-blowing agent. Compared to the extruded foam without water as co-blowing agent, the bimodal foams exhibit better thermal insulation property and compressive performance.
SELF-NUCLEATED CRYSTALLIZATION OF A BRANCHED POLYPROPYLENE
Dhwaihi Alotaibi, Ankit Patel, Horst Winter, May 2011
Long chain branched polypropylene (LCBPP) crystallizes rapidly and with high nucleation density. The origin of this fast crystallization process of is not well understood. It has been attributed to its complicated molecular architecture. In this research, we explore isothermal crystallization of LCBPP through rheological, thermal, and optical measurements. The time resolved mechanical spectroscopy technique was used to predict the liquid-to-solid transition (gel point) of LCBPP.
SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL EPOXY RESIN BASED COATINGS
Jaspreet Singh, Jude Iroh, May 2011
The influence of polymeric modifiers such as polyurea and polymethylhydrosiloxane on the properties of epoxy ester coatings was investigated. The corrosion resistance of the hybrid coatings was measured by direct current polarization method, DCP.The dynamic mechanical property of the coatings was determined by using dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. The electrochemical and thermo-mechanical performance of hybrid coatings was compared with those for the neat epoxy ester coating.
PREDICTION OF DEGRADATION OF POLYMER TUBES USED IN SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER COMPONENTS
Gyanender Singh, SusanMantell, Jane Davidson, May 2011
For polyolefin tubes exposed to chlorinated hot water, lifetime is estimated by a model of the depletion of antioxidant through diffusion and reaction with chlorine ions. A case study for typical tube geometries used in solar hot water applications at 50C is presented. Characteristic time scales demonstrate that the dominant mechanism for antioxidant depletion is the reaction with chlorine ions that diffuse into the polymer tube.
ACOUSTIC STRESS MEASUREMENT IN BIAXIALLY CONSTRAINED MEMBRANES
Andrew Detwiler, Alan Lesser, May 2011
The growth of center cracks in biaxially confined membranes is monitored as a function of solvent evaporation. In a complimentary study, acoustic and membrane inflation techniques, applied to uncracked membranes, are used to calculate the stresses that cause crack propagation. By comparing the stresses induced in uncracked membranes with crack growth in cracked membranes we are able to calculate values of the stress intensity factor in biaxially constrained membranes with application to industrial coatings.
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES WITH COPPER NANOWIRE AND CARBON NANOTUBES: HYBRID MATERIALS EXHIBITING LOW ELECTRICAL PERCOLATION THRESHOLDS, HIGH ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, AND HIGH EMI SHIELDING
Genaro Gelves, Joyce Chau, Celine Bellehumeur, Uttandaraman Sundararaj, May 2011
Hybrid nanocomposites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and copper nanowires in polystyrene were prepared by miscible mixing and precipitation method. Extremely low electrical percolation thresholds in MWNT/PS and CuNW/PS nanocomposites were observed at 0.052 and 0.67 vol. percent, respectively. Electrically conductive polymer nanocomposites exhibiting high Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding effectiveness are reported.
EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF USED MATERIALS FOR PLASTIC RECYCLE
Hiroyuki Nishimura, May 2011
This paper describes the evaluation of mechanical test results of compounded used polyethylene (PE) pipes and plastic materials for recycle. A compounding technology of used PE pipes for gas distribution and waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles using a compatibilizer was firstly studied. Then the other combinations of used plastic materials and new resins were also investigated for material uses and high-performance polymer alloys.
RESPONSIVE HYDROGELS PRODUCED VIA ORGANIC SOL-GEL CHEMISTRY FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Smruti Patil, Lisa Clarizia, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Daniel Schmidt, May 2011
We report the synthesis of novel polyurea networks produced via organic sol-gel chemistry, through the combination of an aliphatic triisocyanate with amine-functional polyether and poly(ethyleneimine) segments. Network formation is rapid and requires no catalyst. The resultant materials exhibit pH responsive swelling and show compatibility with human cells. As such, these materials have potential utility in cell culture as a means of stabilizing pH and delivering nutrients.
NANOCOMPOSITE MULTILAYER FILMS OF ETHYLENE CO-VINYL ALCOHOL WITH KAOLINFOR HIGH BARRIER FOOD PACKAGING
Jo Ann Ratto, Sarah Schirmer, Danielle Froio, May 2011
Nanocomposite films were investigated to improve oxygen barrier properties for food packaging applications. Ethylene co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) was used to let-down an EVOH nanocomposite masterbatch to 1, 3 and 5% loadings utilizing kaolin as the nanoparticle. Co-extrusion was used to produce 5-layer blown films consisting of the EVOH/kaolin nanocomposite core layer. Films were characterized before and after retort sterilization for thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties to determine any dependence upon nanoparticle concentration.
BIODEGRADATION OF POLY (HYDROXY BUTANOIC ACID) COPOLYMERS
Xiudong Sun, May 2011
Biodegradable plastics have attracted much attention in the last decade, not only because they can divert waste from landfill, but also because the biodegradable functionality meets the requirement of many applications. Poly (hydroxy butanoic acid) or PHB copolymers is one such class of plastics. This paper will review the biodegradability of these polymers in various environments including soil, fresh water, seawater, compost and anaerobic digesters. Testing methods and variables influencing biodegradation will also be discussed.
BIODEGRADATION OF POLY (HYDROXY BUTANOIC ACID) COPOLYMERS
Xiudong Sun, May 2011
Biodegradable plastics have attracted much attention in the last decade, not only because they can divert waste from landfill, but also because the biodegradable functionality meets the requirement of many applications. Poly (hydroxy butanoic acid) or PHB copolymers is one such class of plastics. This paper will review the biodegradability of these polymers in various environments including soil, fresh water, seawater, compost and anaerobic digesters. Testing methods and variables influencing biodegradation will also be discussed.
EFFECT OF BACKWARD MELT FLOW ON INJECTION-COMPRESSION MOLDED PART THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION
Han-Xiong Huang, Wei-Sheng Guan, May 2011
In this work, the effects of processing factors during injection-compression molding (ICM) on the thickness distribution of the polystyrene (PS) part are experimentally investigated. Moreover, the generalized Hele-Shaw flow simulation is carried out to predict the melt flow within the cavity during ICM, which gives insight into the backward melt flow and assists in interpreting the experimental observations of the part thickness distribution.
EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS FOR HOT WATER APPLICATIONBY INJECTION MOLDING
Masahiro Muto, May 2011
The long glass-fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide and short glass-fiber and long glass-fiber reinforced syndiotactic polystyrene by injection molding were tested to evaluate the long-term performance at the elevated temperature in water and in air. As a result, the tensile strength of PPS and SPS after 7000 hours at 150 degrees C in hot water decreased due to degradation at the interface between a matrix resin and a glass fiber.
THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PURGING OF INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
Wipoo Sriseubsai, May 2011
This research was to study on purging of injection molding machine. The polypropylene was used in this study. The fractional design was used to design the experiments with five main factors and two levels such as processing temperature, injection pressure, screw speed, injection velocity, and suck-back position. Some interactions were shown with the analysis by Minitab. Those factors were effect in purging. The recommend to purge the PP were using high level of screw speed, injection velocity and suck back position while the processing temperature and injection pressure should be in the low level.
STUDY ON THE S/B MULTIBLOCK COPOLYMER SYNTHESIZED BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION----STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE S/B COPOLYMER AND BUBBLE THEORY
Fuzeng Hu, Dafu Wei, Momo Liu, Yong Guan, Shuzhao Li, Anna Zheng, Huining Xiao, May 2011
In this work, styrene/butadiene (S/B) copolymer was synthesized via anionic bulk polymerization using a twin-screw extruder as a reactor and butyl lithium as the initiator. The structure of the copolymer was characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, TEM and DMA. It was found that macromolecule structure of prepared copolymer was composed of a long PS block, several short PS and PB blocks. A bubble theory was proposed to explain this result.
EFFECT OF WALL SLIP ON THE FLOW IN A FLAT DIE FOR SHEET EXTRUSION
Mahesh Gupta, May 2011
Flow in a flat die with coat hanger type of manifold is simulated allowing slip on die walls. Flow in the same die was also simulated by enforcing the no-slip condition on the walls. With slip on the die walls, the pressure drop, shear rate, stress, as well as temperature increase in the die, all were smaller than the corresponding values with no-slip condition on the walls. Due to its high computational efficiency, the software employed in this work can be effectively used to design extrusion dies for fluids exhibiting slip on die walls.
GREEN MANDATES OPENING UP A NEW SALES CHANNEL AND GROWTH POTENTIAL FOR MATERIALS COMPANIES
Susan Ward, May 2011
Audience members will learn the following: › Overview of the six green mandates and the opportunities they create for materials companies › Discuss which technologies are currently winning government contracts and why › Identify where the money is being spent currently and trends for future spending › Review best practices in how materials companies can access to those funds to grow their business
DETERMINING OPTIMUM VENT SIZES FOR INJECTION MOLDS
Suhas Kalkarni, Timothy Curnutt, May 2011
A mold was designed and built to study the optimum size of the vents in injection molds. Results demonstrated that vent sizes were dictated by the part design in the vent area. The higher the local shear rate, the lower is the viscosity of the polymer, limiting the vent depths. The injection phase of the molding cycle is the high shear phase and the pack and hold phases are the low shear phases. Vent depths can therefore vary depending on their location. A method to estimate the dimensions of a vent in a future work is proposed.
STRUCTURE-PROPERTIES RELATIONSHIP IN SEGMENTED POLYURETHANE/SILICA NANOPARTICLE COMPOSITES
Matthew Burke, James Sands, John La Scala, Frederick, Christopher Li, May 2011
Segmented polyurethanes (SPUs) have been synthesized possessing 25, 35 and 45 wt% hard segment. We have added 12 nm silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) during SPU synthesis and after with less than 5wt% loading. Drastic effects on morphology and properties were observed. Covalently attached SiNPs enhanced elongation to break and tensile strength until a critical concentration while blended composites exhibited decreased mechanical robustness. Composite structure and properties were examined.


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