SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TO PREDICT SHELF-LIFE
Scott Steele, Mark Rule, May 2011
The use of performance modeling is becoming more and more critical in the packaging industry as lightweighting efforts continue to be at the forefront. The primary driver for reducing the amount of material used in packaging is cost reduction. It is critical to not compromise the shelf life of the product. This paper will explain the theory of permeation as it is applied to food and beverage applications and document how the mathematics have been incorporated into an industry standard software application titled M-Rule Container Performance Models.
RAPID RESTORATION OF RAIL ROAD TIMBER BRIDGESUSING POLYMER COMPOSITES
P.V. Vijay, GangaRao Hota, Ruifeng Liang, Mark Skidmore, May 2011
Damaged piles of eleven timber railroad bridges on South Branch Valley Railroad (SBVR) lines in Moorefield, WV were rapidly rehabilitated and restored with the use of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites. Specifically, field rehabilitation involved repairing of 57 piles using GFRP composite wraps, phenolic formaldehyde resins, and resin soaked wood sawdust as a filler material in the pile core. Following the restoration of timber piles, Non-Destructive Evaluations (NDE) were carried out to assess wrap bonding and core integrity.
INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE MEAL BAGS
Matthew Burke, Gregory Pigeon, May 2011
This investigation was focused on alternative meal bags for use in military ration packaging, more specifically the Meal Ready-to-Eat (MRETM). Samples were obtained from manufacturers for testing of the barrier and mechanical properties. The newly developed meal bags were compared to existing meal bags to find any significant differences in performance.
A NEW BETA NUCLEANT MASTERBATCH FOR MINERAL FILLED AND UNFILLED POLYPROPYLENE APPLICATIONS
Philip Jacoby, May 2011
We have developed a unique, highly selective beta nucleant masterbatch that produces very high rates of crystallization, with very high Tc values. These attributes allow this masterbatch to be used in polypropylene systems that already contain other additives which nucleate the alpha crystal form of polypropylene, such as talc filled PP. The ability to beta nucleate talc filled PP now opens up the possibility of using beta nucleation to achieve both high stiffness and high impact strength in a mineral filled PP.
THE CHALLENGES OF CHOOSING THE RIGHT POLYMERIC MATERIAL FOR TODAY MEDICAL DEVICES
Len Czuba, May 2011
Selecting the right polymer materials to make a new medical device can be challenging. Besides the physical / functional testing needed, chemical and biological testing is also required. A well designed part made with the right polymeric materials will be able to pass regulatory scrutiny and provide life saving healthcare to users.
THE IMPORTANCE OF DISCRETE DATA ANALYSIS IN ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING PRODUCT QAULITY
Dan Weissmann, May 2011
Today electronic vision system can cull out many defective products while still on the production line and preventing them from reaching the customer. However, without quantifiable data no real assessment of the seriousness of the issues, defining causes and formulating remedies can be undertaken. New technologies and instruments have been developed specifically for the blow molding industry to generate and analyze sufficient number of samples to statistically provide such capabilities.
PROPERTIES COMPARISON BETWEEN EXTRUDED PVC/VAc FOAMS, AND PVC FOAMS, FILLED WITH COFFEE HUSK
Diego Dominguez, Jorge Medina, May 2011
Extrusion of rigid polyvinyl chloride/vinyl acetate (PVC/VAc) copolymer has not been discussed in detail in literature. In this study, PVC/VAc was extruded using coffee husk as filler. Moreover, azodicarbonamide was used as chemical blowing agent to make foams. Properties comparison was made against PVC/coffee husk foams. Lower processing temperature of PVC/VAc, in comparison with PVC, leaded to higher specific mechanical properties as consequence of better morphology due to few volatiles released from natural fibers.
IMPROVING THE POROSITY OF POLYPROPYLENE/POLYSULFONE MEMBRANES
Vicki Flaris, May 2011
Compatibilized polypropylene/polysulfone membranes were made using two environmentally-friendly processes. One way was through uniaxially stretching and another through biaxially stretching films. This paper will compare the improvements in mechanical properties obtained by both methods as well as compare interfacial tension measurements. Understanding the chemistry and location of the functional polyolefins is critical to explaining these improvements.
MECHANISM BEHIND A ROBUST SOFTTOUCH COATING
Robert Shengkui Hu, May 2011
A robust softtouch coatings system was designed. The mechanism leading to its robust physical properties will be discussed. This coating eliminated the usual performance defects associated with a conventional softtouch products such as unperdicted performance failures associated with application variations, tendency to become sticky after a certain period under the elements etc.
FATIGUE IMPROVEMENTS IN TOUGHENED EPOXY SYSTEMS
George Jacob, Nikhil, Ha Pham, Theophanous Theophanis, May 2011
Epoxy composites offer high performance and proven reliability in many demanding applications including components for aerospace and wind turbine blades. While in operation, these components are subjected to repeated cyclic loadings that result in material fatigue. For example, wind turbine blades are subjected to significant stresses from their movement, wind and other environmental factors such as temperature cycling and humidity. The expected life of a composite structure is based partially on the resistance of the materials utilized to fatigue failures.
LASER LIGHT TRANSMISSION THROUGH THERMOPLASTICS AS A FUNCTION OF THICKNESS AND LASER INCIDENCE ANGLE: EXPERIMENTAL
Elizabeth Azkikannickal, Phil Bates, Gene Zak, May 2011
This paper presents an experimental technique for measurement of the total transmission of laser light incident on thermoplastics as a function of the laser angle of incidence. The laser angle of incidence refers to the angle between the laser beam and the normal to the transparent part. The primary advantage of the set-up is that it allows for most, if not all, of the transmitted light to be captured and measured. Results from transmission tests on nylon 6 indicate that the transmission decreases with increasing angle of incidence particularly above 30.
EFFECT OF AGING ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF A BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIDE-CAPROLACTONE) COPOLYMER
Jone Munoz, Jose-Ramon Sarasua, May 2011
Poly(L-lactide/æ-caprolactone) (PLCL) was physically aged at 36§C and 40% of relative humidity (RH) to study the evolution of its structure and mechanical properties with time. Samples with an initial amorphous PLCL matrix, obtained by fast quenching from the melt were characterized before and during aging. The changes in structure and mechanical properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (WAXS) and tensile tests. As a result of aging, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) crystals were formed within the multiblock copolymer prompting to an increase in stiffness and to a loss of its elastomer-thermoplastic behavior of PLCL.
INITIAL INVESTAGATION INTO THE USE OF SILICON DIOXIDE AS A FILLER IN ROTATIONAL MOULDING OF POLYETHYLENE
John Kissick, Gerry McNally, Alan Clarke, Paul Hanna, May 2011
Presented in this paper are the preliminary results from an experimental study on the use of rock, fines* which is mainly silicon dioxide as a filler in the rotationally moulded polyethylene products. The rock fines are a waste product from the Quarrying industry. Additive levels of up to 40% by weight were studied. Samples were made with and without a compatibilizer. It was found that acceptable parts were produced at these levels. The mechanical properties of the parts were tested and showed an increase in tensile modulus but a decrease in impact properties.
DISPERSION MORPHOLOGY OF ORGANOCLAY IN ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE/POLYAMIDE 6 /ORGANOCLAY TERNARY NANOCOMPOSITES
Wei Yan, Shuhao Qin, Jianbing Guo, Minmin Zhang, Jie Yu, May 2011
In this article, polyamide 6(PA6)/Organoclay masterbatch were prepared by melt mixing, and then acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS)/polyamide 6(PA6)(70/30,w/w) nanocomposites were prepared by the melt mixing of PA6, ABS and organoclay. The effect of organoclay platelets on dispersion of ABS/PA6/organoclay ternary nanocomposites had been investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphology analysis revealed that organoclay platelets were selectively dispersed and exfoliated in PA6 phase, but some were located in interface of PA6 and ABS phase.
DISPERSION MORPHOLOGY OF ORGANOCLAY IN ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE/POLYAMIDE 6 /ORGANOCLAY Ternary Nanocomposites
Wei Yan, Shuhao Qin, Jianbing Guo, Minmin Zhang, Jie Yu, May 2011
In this article, polyamide 6(PA6)/Organoclay masterbatch were prepared by melt mixing, and then acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS)/polyamide 6(PA6)(70/30,w/w) nanocomposites were prepared by the melt mixing of PA6, ABS and organoclay. The effect of organoclay platelets on dispersion of ABS/PA6/organoclay ternary nanocomposites had been investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphology analysis revealed that organoclay platelets were selectively dispersed and exfoliated in PA6 phase, but some were located in interface of PA6 and ABS phase.
RHEOLOGICAL MORPHOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP IN IMMISCIBLE AND REACTIVELY COMPATIBILIZED SAN/EPDM BLENDS
Mona Taheri, Jalil Morshedian, Hossein Ali Khonakdar, May 2011
In uncompatibilized SAN/EPDM blend a coarse morphology is formed. Viscosity of the components drops below that of individual components. In reactive blends formation of graft at the interface causes fine droplet morphology and viscosity increases. Favis equation shows at 17 wt% of graft, the size of EPDM is minimum. The relaxation spectra of the uncompatibilized blends show a combination of phases and an additional relaxation time. The interfacial tension shows minimum value at 1 phr initiator.The droplet morphology is changed to composite in two step blending. A higher apparent volume fraction of EPDM obtains by Kerner equation for composite morphology.
EXTERIOR UV CURABLE TOPCOAT FOR PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION APPLICATIONS
Jennfier Smith, May 2011
Because of the growing environmental concerns with chrome plating, finishers have been requesting greener alternatives. UV coatings for multi-purpose decoration have been used for several years. However, these coatings do not have the required durability to replace chrome plating. Red Spot has recently developed and launched a UV-curable topcoat for PVD that provides performance characteristics needed to pass the OEMs toughest requirements. This paper addresses the current chrome plating process, challenges associated with developing durable coatings for PVD, an explanation of material application, a list of advantages that the UV/PVD decorative process encompasses, and targeted end applications.
RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BRANCHED POLYMER FENE MODELS
Zhiyu Min, Wei Cao, May 2011
FENE bead-spring chain model for branched polymer molecules in a Newtonian solvent is employed to describe the bead-bead interaction within a molecule. Brownian dynamics simulation is used to capture the steady state and transient rheological behavior of branched polymer. The simulations include examination of the effects of viscosity depending on length of the branching chain, spring parameter, and shear rate. The results of shear flow simulation show that the shear viscosity value increases with the increasing length of branch chain, and displays shear-thinning. Moreover, a large difference on the rheological response to different spring parameter is observed in this study.
A COMMERCIAL AND NEWLY PATENTED ADVANCED NON-TOXIC POLYMERIC ANTIMICROBIAL ADDITIVE FOR PLASTIC PRODUCTS INCLUDING MASTER-BATCHES AND THIN FILMS
Gerry Getman, May 2011
BIOSAFE Inc. has developed and commercialized a broad spectrum polymeric proprietary antimicrobial additive poly (trihydroxysilyl) propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (HM 4100). The uniqueness of this structure and functionality provides several methods to incorporate the antimicrobial into different materials. BIOSAFE has received EPA approval for HM 4100. The antimicrobial has proven to be very effective in commercial plastics such as LDPE, nylon and polyurethanes.The antimicrobial is available in master batch form such as polyurethane, nylon and polyolefins for ease of incorporation into various plastic materials. Typical antimicrobial performance observed is a 4 log reduction as determined by ASTM 2149.
BIODEGRADATION OF COMPOSTABLE PLASTIC SNACK BAGS WITH METALLIZED COATING PER ASTM D-5338 TEST METHOD
Joseph Greene, May 2011
Biodegradable and compostable plastic materials that are used as snack bags demonstrated biodegradation in a laboratory compost environment per ASTM D-5338 test method. PLA-based compostable plastic, Kraft paper and cellulose paper degraded at least 90% in 120 days and met the degradation time requirement in the ASTM D-5338 standard. LDPE bag did not meet the degradation requirement in the ASTM standards. PLA-based snack bag met the phytotoxicity requirement of ASTM D-6400 for healthy plant response in the compost soil. Lastly, PLA-based degraded samples and other compostable degraded samples did not leave residuals of lead or Chromium in the compost soil.


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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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