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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
EVOLUTION OF CARBON BLACK GRADES FROM RUBBER APPLICATIONS TO SPECIALTY PLASTIC APPLICATIONS
Daniel Callahan, May 2011
The different end use requirements of carbon black in rubber and plastics applications are discussed in this paper. Although the larger volume of carbon black is used in rubber applications, the critical requirements of these products are much different than the needs in plastics applications such as molding and fiber. It is recommended to evaluate the end use product requirements and manufacturing process when choosing a carbon black. Carbon black suppliers have developed specialty grades of carbon black to meet the needs of the plastics market.
SIMULATION OF MICROPELLETIZING MECHANISMS
William Aquite, Moritz Engerer, Martin Launhardt, Tim Osswald, Natalie Rudolph, May 2011
A newly developed technique allows production of pellets with a spherical shape and size in the micrometer-scale. This is achieved by extruding a polymer melt through a capillary and stretching it with a hot air stream. This work presents the first approach to simulate this process. The deformation, presence of Rayleigh instabilities and primary breakup of a fluid thread that is continuously flowing from a channel is simulated using the OpenFOAM fluid dynamics package.
EFFECT OF HYBRID COMPATIBILIZERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTY OF TERNARY BLEND WITH POLYPROPYLENE, POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND TPO
Hyun-sup Lee, Seung-hyuk Kim, Jong-duk Kim, May 2011
In this study, ternary blend included with Polypropylene, Poly (lactic acid) and Polyolefin Elastomer was prepared using melt blending technique. In order to overcome the poor compatibility of among PP, PLA and TPO, several sorts of compatibilizers were tested. In addition to that, we evaluated the annealing effect of injection molded ternary blend. As a result, we could improve the thermal and mechanical properties of ternary blend by adding hybrid compatibilizers with 3 wt%, respectively.
FOCAL LENGTH CONTROL OF INJECTION-MOLDED PLASTIC LENSES VIA MODEL FREE OPTIMIZATION
Xiangsong Kong, Zhijang Shao, Xi Chen, May 2011
Optical quality is the vital concern of injection-molded plastic optical lenses. Focal length is a key quality attribute of a lens to be controlled. A systematic model-free optimization (MFO) method is proposed to control the focal length. Both the gradient-free and gradient-based algorithms are developed. The effectiveness of the MFO method has been demonstrated through experiments. Comparisions with the model-based optimization (MBO) method are also conducted.
RHEOLOGICAL STUDIES ON A NOVEL LIQUID CRYSTALLINE EPOXY THERMOSET
Pihui Pi, Weicheng Wang, Yinling Liu, Zhi-qi Cai, Xiufang Wen, Jiang Cheng, Zhuoru Yang, May 2011
Liquid crystalline epoxy thermosets were prepared by adding 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbiphenyl-4,4'-diyl bis(4-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)benzoate) (M1) into diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)/ 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM) blends. Rheological tests with constant temperature and time tests under constant mechanical shear load conditions were performed by using rheometry instrument.
GASES STORAGE IN SUPPORTED CLATHRATES
Weixing Wang, May 2011
Gas clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds formed of hydrogen-bonded H2O cages, encapsulating small molecules such as methane, hydrogen or carbon dioxide. In the search for viable gas storage media, clathrates may offer an alternative to micro-porous materials such as zeolites, active carbons and metal-organic frameworks. However, a barrier must first be overcome: Slow kinetics of enclathration (diffusion of gas into bulk systems can be of the order of days). Here we present a general strategy to greatly increase the rate of enclathration by means of trapping water in hydrophobic nanoparticle cage, gel, or porous polymer.
INVESTIGATION ON WARPAGE BEHAVIOR OF DVD-DISK IN INJECTION COMPRESSION MOLDING
Shia-Chung Chen, Guan-Hua Lee, Chia-Yen Tseng, TzuChau Chen, Hsien-Sen Chiu, Chih-Chung Hsu, May 2011
In this study, the Injection Compression Molding (ICM) process was simulated with a DVD-disk model using the Moldex3D-ICM module. An ICM experiment was also conducted to verify the simulation results. The effects of the process parameters such as compression force, delay time and switch time on warpage behavior are investigated. The experimental results show that a high compression force causes low deflection, while a longer delay time or switch time induces higher deflection.
GEOMETRIC NONLINEARITY IN 3D WARPAGE SIMULATION OF INJECTION MOLDED PLASTICS
Zhiliang Fan, David Astbury, Haipeng Wang, Chris Friedl, May 2011
Three-dimensional(3D) warpage simulation of polymer injection molded components is well developed and widely used in industry. Although a simple linear analysis is a good representation of reality for most warpage cases, it can lead to totally wrong warpage predictions in some special cases. In this paper, we extend the 3D warpage solution to account for geometric nonlinearity. Two typical large deflection examples are presented: one is the post-buckling of a tray model, and the other is the large deflection warpage of a two-shot over-molded part.
COMPOSITES FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS: FIRE, SMOKE, AND TOXICITY MATERIAL TESTING AND REQUIREMENTS
Michael Lee, May 2011
Composite use aboard naval vessels has increased as militaries strive to reduce acquisition and maintenance costs as well as improve the structural and operational performance of naval craft. However, strict performance and safety requirements have hindered the use of composites in naval vessels. Fire, Smoke, and Toxicity (FST) requirements have made using composites aboard naval vessels a challenging application. This paper presents the FST requirements and a high level overview of replacing steel with composites.
HYDROPHOBIC THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES
Anthony Walder, Donald Meltzer, Daphne Robinson, May 2011
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) that are used in a variety of medical applications. TPUs exhibit low temperature flexibility, excellent abrasion resistance, high tensile strength and good processing characteristics. The softest TPUs historically used in medical applications exhibit a Shore Durometer above 70A. A medical grade TPU with a Shore Durometer of 62A will be presented. This softness is achieved without the use of plasticizers as is often the case with many other soft TPEs.
TRANSPARENT FLAME RETARDANT PEN/PET ALLOY FOR DIGITAL TV FRAME
In Kim, Manwar Hussain, Philjoong Yoon, May 2011
The paper relates to a unique flame retardant (FR) composition in which polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) are in the form of polymer blend by low shear melt extrusion process. The composition provides excellent flame retardant with good anti-dipping property, especially is able to mold transparent articles such as next generation TV frames, computer, video game console, and appliance housing applications
PERVASIVE INNOVATION: TAKING INNOVATION DEEP AND WIDE ACROSS AND THROUGH THE ORGANIZATION
Bonnie Bachman, Stephen Bozzone, May 2011
One of the fundamental tenets of management is that human capital can provide an essential competitive advantage for a business. Concurrent innovation is a process for managing new product development cycles, from the ideation stage to implementation by using parallel streams of innovation and collaboration across boundaries.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE EJECTION FORCES FOR POLYMER RESINS
Alias Mohd, Colin Hindle, May 2011
The development and manufacture of the tool for injection molding is a complex task which demands highly skilled and experienced operator. This paper is to analyze the ejection force for different selected polymer resins which is having a series of surface roughness. The research was carried out on a cylinder shaped molding with variations in wall thicknesses. The result reveals that PA6 required high ejection force due to surface texture generated compared with HIPS and ABS.
STUDY ON EXTERNALLY WRAPPED COILS INDUCTION HEATING AND ITS APPLICATION ON RAPID MOLD SURFACE HEATING
Shia-Chung Chen, Jen-An Chang, Yu-Tseng Lin, Wen-Yang Shen, May 2011
The purpose of this study is to use externally wrapped coil induction heating to determine the practicality of its application in mold temperature control. A simulation was performed using the ANSYS software by the integration of both thermal and electromagnetic analysis modules. By experiment, the heating efficiency of coils in series was found to be 8.26C/s, while for parallel coils, it was 1.88C/s. Coils in series offers a much faster heating process. Both the simulation and experimental results are quite similar.
HIGH FLOW GLASS FIBER FILLED AROMATIC POLYAMIDE RESINS
Anirban Ganguly, Susanta Mitra, Reema Sinha, Anton Kumanan, Anne Bolvari, May 2011
Novel idea of using hyperbranched polymers - dendritic aliphatic polyesters (DAP) as flow promoters in highly glass fiber reinforced polyamides (GF-PA) system is depicted in this paper. Different concentrations and types of DAPs is employed and these are found to be effective in modifying flow from 10% to 160% with the at as low as 0.5 to 3 weight % concentration for GF-PA without affecting the enabling mechanical and thermal properties.
UV-CURE COATINGS ON PLASTICS ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS
Vladimir Shteynberg, May 2011
The first UV coating was introduced to US Market more then 35 years ago sometimes in the early 70th of the last century. Since then UV coatings steadily grew in North America consumption from modest 1.3M gallons per year to 290M gal of projected sales in 2010. Growth in UV coating started with Inks and Overprint Varnishes following the Wood coatings and finally with advancement in technology for radiation cure coating for metals and plastics started to emerge into the market place.
ONE DIMENSIONAL MELTING IN SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDERS
Gregory Campbell, May 2011
For special operating conditions and resins, the melting process for single-screw extruders can occur via a very non-traditional mechanism. For this process, melting occurs almost exclusively at the solid bed-melt film interface between the solid bed and the barrel wall. The newly molten material then infiltrates the solid bed such that a melt pool does not form on the pushing side of the channel. This paper describes the mechanism and provides a model for the melting process.
FIELD FAILURE MECHANISMS IN HDPE POTABLE WATER PIPE
Donald Duvall, Dale Edwards, May 2011
High density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe has been widely used in potable water water applications for several decades. In some locales HDPE pipes have experienced premature failures that have been traced back to a variety of causes. A review of the failure mechanisms observed will be presented along with a forensic analysis of some field failures.
LIGHTWEIGHT CONSTRUCTION POTENTIAL IN THE POWERTRAIN - TRANSMISSION HOUSING PRODUCED BY THE PLASTIC/METAL HYBRID METHOD
Hans Heim, Tatjana Geminger, Jonas Weber, May 2011
In the automotive industry, the use of plastics in the powertrain is essential for lightweight construction and thus for meeting CO2 emission targets. The present technology of light alloy die-casting used to manufacture transmission housings offers little further savings potential. Additional weight savings can, however, be achieved by using a hybrid process (metal/plastic composite). Various levels of this material hybridisation" will be examined here."
COMPATIBILITY OF COATED FABRICS USED IN COLLAPSIBLE FUEL STORAGE TANKS WITH BIODIESEL FUELS
James Sloan, D. Deschepper, Dave Flanagan, May 2011
We evaluate the effect of three different biofuels on the properties of three currently used storage container materials. These consist of two urethane coated fabrics and one nitrile coated fabric. In all of our experiments, standard diesel fuel was used for comparison and the resulting permeation rates were found to be greater than the biofuels evaluated in this study.


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