SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BLENDS WITH POLYPROPYLENE
Gregory Anderson, May 2011
Polypropylene blends with thermoplastic starch (TPS) have demonstrated significant potential in the bioplastics field. The polymers are improved by achieving higher biocontent and lower green house gas emissions. The TPS is finely dispersed by means of a tandem extruder with plasticizer, water, heat, and shear, and then melt blended with the polymer to produce a co-continuous morphology of TPS and polymer. TPS blends produced in this method lead to improved retention of physical properties over conventional methods. The TPS method is presented as well as morphology, GHG emissions, and properties.
THERMOSET NANOCOMPOSITES FROM EPOXIDIZED LINSEED OIL FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS
Khozema Jafferji, Daniel Schmidt, Emmanuelle Reynaud, May 2011
In this study, a bio-based epoxy thermoset was made from highly functional epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) using a polyethyleneimine (PEI) crosslinking agent. Following optimization of cure conditions and the stoichiometric ratio of ELO to PEI, the compatibility of this system with several commercial montmorillonite and hydrotalcite layered nanofillers was studied. The hydrotalcites were observed to enhance the homogeneity of the ELO-PEI system, whereas the montmorillonites showed settling and produced inhomogeneous materials in all cases.
CONTINUOUS POLYMERIZATION USING A TWIN-SCREW COMPOUNDER
Christopher Richards, Paul Rothweiler, John Spevacek, May 2011
Continuously blending materials in a twin-screw compounder is well understood and practiced. Reacting monomers to form polymers, and grafting polymers has been performed, but is not as wide-spread in industry. The same types of reactions which are most-often performed in a batch process can be produced in a continuous process and provide a number of benefits. We will review the types of chemistries that lend themselves to continuous polymerization, the work we have performed, and the perceived benefits.
PERSONAL CARE & BEAUTY PACKAGING COLOR TRENDS FOR 2012/2013
Doreen Becker, May 2011
As we live in interesting times, interesting color trends are a direct reflection of the instabilities, uncertainties and the rapid rate of change in our current world. These new colors for 2012/2013 are almost completely opposite from what we saw last year and reflect the consumer's view as a response. The color trends will be presented as four different seasons and are obtained from an independent source for Americhem who has created and styled color packaging examples and mood boards that capture these trends.
EPOXY POLYMERS TOUGHENED BY SELF-ASSEMBLING BLOCK COPOLYMERS
Ray Pearson, May 2011
In this work we will exam the use of diblock copolymers to toughen a ductile epoxy resin. The advantage of the diblock copolymers is that they are lower in molecular weight and thus reduce the viscosity peanalty often observe when using self-assembling triblock copolymers. Preliminary results suggest that such diblock copolymers are very effective toughening agents at low concentrations. Toughening mechanisms will be revealed using both electron and optical microscopy.
A STUDY ON EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON COLOURS DURING COMPOUNDING OF PLASTICS
Musharaf Rabbani, Jamal Alsadi, Ghaus Rizvi, Shahid Ahmed, Daniel Ross, May 2011
The historical production data of SABIC IP, Cobourg, was used to determine effects on colours of compounded plastics, of using extruders of different configurations, incorporating minute variations in pigment compositions and using different grades of resins. The colours had been measured in terms of CIE L*,a*,b* values using a spectrophotometer. The measured L*,a*,b* values were then analyzed and compared to the target values using statistical methods. The differences in the observed trends are discussed.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECYCLED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE BRIDGES
Jennifer Lynch, Thomas Nosker, May 2011
Reinforced thermoplastic composite lumber (RTCL) sourced from recycled materials is an emerging technology available for heavily loaded infrastructure applications. RTCL materials offer a sustainable alternative and many advantages over traditional construction materials, like wood and steel. Research, development, and experimental projects over the past 15 years, have culminated in several RTCL high load capacity military installations. RTCL advantages and high load capacity infrastructure applications are reviewed in this work.
EPOXY SYNTACTIC FOAMS FOR USE AS PLUG ASSISTS IN HEAVY GAUGE THERMOFORMING
Kathleen Boivin, May 2011
Traditionally, heavy gauge thermoformers have used plugs/pushers made of wood and felt covered wood to improve material distribution and quality of parts. However, newer materials, especially multilayer structures, can be difficult to form with traditional plug/pusher materials. The performance of epoxy syntactic foams as plug assist materials for heavy gauge thermoforming was evaluated and compared to that of wood.
ONLINE ULTRASONIC FILM CASTING OF LLDPE AND LLDPE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Setareh Niknezhad, Avraam Isayev, May 2011
One step process for ultrasonic compounding and film casting consisting of an ultrasonic extruder followed by a cast film machine was developed. Cast films of LLDPE and 90/10 LLDPE/Clay 20A nanocomposites were prepared at different draw down ratios and amplitudes using. The die pressure and ultrasonic power consumption were measured. X-ray patterns, thermal, and gas permeability properties of cast films were measured. The mechanical properties of the prepared films in the machine and transverse directions were studied.
RECENT PROCEDURES INTRODUCED TO CHALLENGE PATENT GRANTS AT THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE
Beth Filip, Steven Grossman, May 2011
Over the past 30 years, Congress has become increasingly aware of the desire by third parties to participate in post grant review of patents. One of the more recent avenues introduced to address the desire of the public to participate in the patent review process was the institution of inter partes reexamination in 1999. While not initially utilized, inter partes reexamination has emerged as an alternative means for third parties to obtain post grant review of an issued patent.
ADVACEMENTS IN MARKING LASERS
Jake Wieloch, May 2011
Since the turn of the century there have been a number of large advances made in laser technology. To really appreciate the advances, you have to look at the history of lasers. The first laser was produced in 1960. This laser was a ruby laser, which is very similar to the modern day lamp pumped Neodymium YAG (Nd:Yag) laser. It used a ruby crystal optically pumped by flashes of high intensity white light to produce a laser beam. This concept is still used today, 50 years later, in lamp pumped lasers.
ELECTRONICALLY TIMED GEAR PUMPS
Daniel Smith, May 2011
The advent of gear pumps in the extrusion process has added control and stability not available before Extrusion Gear Pumps were introduced. While effective in a wide range of processes, there are some areas that have been problematic because of abrasive and/or corrosive fillers, or because of the corrosive nature of the polymer itself. Recently a new type of control system has been applied that allows electronic adjustment of gear tooth position and modulation of the motor drive frequency to eliminate pulsations.
FLEXIBLE COMPOSITES WITH KNITTED REINFORCEMENTS
Burak Bekisli, Herman Nied, May 2011
Flexible composites formed by reinforcing elastomeric polymers with knitted fabrics are investigated both experimentally and numerically. Performed tests confirm that energy absorption and stretch/forming capabilities of these unique materials are superior, compared to traditional composites. A multi-level, hierarchical finite element methodology to predict the large deformation behavior of these materials is developed. The method provides a powerful design tool which can help optimizing the deformation characteristics of the material by carefully tailoring the knit patterns.
STUDY ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CROSSLINKED EVA FOAMS
Ali Rizvi, Nan Chan, Chul B. Park, May 2011
In this paper, the mechanical properties of crosslinked Ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) foams are discussed. An extensive range of mechanical tests with varied conditions were carried out. SEM results revealed the effect of different processing conditions on the foam morphology. The effect of cell density and the foam expansion ratio were then correlated with the mechanical properties of the foam.
THE EFFECT OF SURFACTANT ON THE FOAMING OF POLYSTYRENE
R.K.M. Chu, Yanting Guo, Siu Ning Sunny Leung, Nanqiao, Chul B. Park, May 2011
This paper presents an experimental study on the foaming of polystyrene in a batch-foaming apparatus under three control factors: surfactant content, temperature, and saturation pressure. A one-way ANOVA test was conducted to identify the significance of each factor on cellular properties of the foam specimens. Results showed that the surfactant content and saturation pressure possessed contributions onto the cell density of foams, whereas the temperature and saturation pressure posed noticeable influence on the expansion ratio of foams.
TRITICALE STARCH BASED BIOPLASTICS
Hingbo Li, Nathalie Legros, Christian Belanger, May 2011
Triticale is being developed and aimed as an industrial crop and biorefinery feedstock for the Canadian manufacturing industry within the CTBI networking. In this paper the potential of triticale starch for the TPS/polymer blend fabrication was explored in terms of the starch morphology, crystallization structure, and the TPS (thermoplastic starch) rheology properties. The possibility of using triticale to make 100% biobased blown film was investigated using a small lab-scale film blown line. Film thickness of 25 um was obtained successfully for the triticale starch based PLA/TPS blends.
RESIDENCE STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN TWIN SCREW EXTRUDERS
David Bigio, William Pappas, Harry Brown, Beserat Debebe, William Dunham, May 2011
An experiment has been created to directly relate the stress distribution history (RSD) with the Residence distribution. Stress beads are used to determine the percentage of material that experiences a certain amount of stress at each location on the residence distribution. This experiment directly relates stress data as a function of the residence distribution and will be recorded for a range of specific throughputs. A comparison of a mixing section comprised of narrow versus wide kneading blocks is performed to demonstrate the power of the approach.
PREPARATION OF FLAME-RETARDANT POLYOLEFIN FOAM USING A PHOSPHOROUS COMPOUND
Chung Park, May 2011
Highly expanded polyolefin foam was made flame-retardant with the use of an environmentally friendly phosphorous flame retardant. An aqueous solution of a derivative of carboxylic acid of phenylphosphonic acid was externally applied to already-made partially-open-celled foam to achieve desired flame-retardant foam. An effective flame retardant level as low as 0.1 pars per one hundred parts of resin provided self-extinguishing foam. The compound could also be directly fed in the extrusion process. This finding opens an avenue to achieving a low-cost thermal insulation material from polypropylene.
CONSEQUENCES OF A HALOGEN-FREE COLOR PALETTE
Roger Reinicker, Tad Finnegan, May 2011
Halogens are key components of many of the organic color compounds used in plastics, providing numerous needed benefits, especially heat stability during processing. Yet, despite the ubiquitous presence of halogens in nature, there have been requests for creating a palette of colors that are halogen-free. This paper will examine color space, looking at the halogen containing colorants and possible suitable alternates. It will attempt to characterize the problems and tradeoffs involved in creating, from existing chemistries, a new core group of halogen-free organic colors.
INFLUENCE OF CROSSLINKING ON THE FOAMING BEHAVIOR OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE (EVA) USING CARBON DIOXIDE AS THE PHYSICAL BLOWING AGENT
Nan Chen, Ali Rizvi, May 2011
This paper investigates the foaming behavior of Ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA). A foaming chamber was designed to prepare foam samples using carbon dioxide as the physical blowing agent. The amount of crosslinking agent used in preparing the crosslinked EVA was correlated with the foam morphology. It was found that an optimum degree of crosslinking lead to high quality EVA foams with high expansion ratios. Extensional viscosity data were measured to describe the observed phenomena.


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