SPE Library


The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

SOME EFFECTS OF BOUNDED INTERFACIAL GAPS ON THE STRENGTH OF CONTOUR LASER WELDED JOINTS
Daniel Watt, Stephanie Masse, Bobbye Baylis, May 2011

The present study examines the effects of bounded voids of different sizes and shapes on the strength and leakage of contour welds. Bounded voids are holes that are situated on the laser beam path, but whose melt flow is constrained from leaving the faying surface. The most significant result is that divot clusters can lead to quite high porosity in the interface, but even with that porosity, both high hydraulic burst test strengths and hermetic seals can be achieved.

STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF RARE EARTH METAL TRIܻ?ATES AS INITIATORS IN THE CATIONIC CURING OF DGEBA/PA SYSTEMS
Zhi-qi Cai, Xin Dong, Xiaofei Wang, Pihui Pi, Xiufang Wen, Jiang Cheng, Zhuoru, May 2011

A new class of cationic initiators, lanthanide triflates, has been studied in the cationic curing of DGEBA/PA mixtures. The reaction mechanism of the cationic curing of DGEBA/PA mixtures has been studied. The kinetics of this process has been evaluated by the Differential Scanning Calorimentry (DSC).The crosslinking degree is predicted from time and temperature of curing via the Gel-curve.

PRACTICAL PLASMA SURFACE PRE-TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGHER PROCESSING EFFICIENCIES
Rory Wolf, May 2011

As new state-of-the-art flexible packaging technology is installed in its target markets and with processing costs under pressure to enable these technologies to ramp-up in 2011, surface pre-treatment technologies must become a key enabler relative to higher processing speed, wider widths, and requirements on inks and coatings to transfer and adhere to substrates at these speeds and widths. This paper presents evidence of new flexible packaging print performance opportunities using a new, revolutionary atmospheric plasma treatment (APT) technology.

ANALYSIS OF SHOCK RESPONSE OF SANDWICH COMPOSITES
Ali Goodaizi, May 2011

Sandwich composites are being aggressively pursued as structural materials by various defense and commercial industries. These include navy, air force, army, automotive and sporting industries to name a few. The present work describes the compression and release response of a glass-fiber-reinforced polyester composite (GRP) under shock loading to 20 GPa. Shock experiments in GRP were performed at Sandia National Laboratories and the US Army Research Laboratory. GRP is a heterogeneous material.

PPE MACROMONOMERS. IX. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS OF TRIALLYL ISOCYANURATE RESINS
Edward Peters, Scott Fisher, Hua Guo, May 2011

Triallyl isocyanurate is a crosslinking agent in thermosets. By itself it is too brittle for practical uses. Several attempts to improve the properties of TAIC resins were unsuccessfully. PPE macromonomers have been reported to broadly enhanced performance of thermoset materials. Methacrylate-terminated PPE macromonomer was used to successfully enhance the performance of TAIC resins. The high Tg, increased toughness, low dielectric properties, low moisture absorption, and low density suggest utility in electronics.

INTERACTIONS OF STEARIC ACID WITH SELECT TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS
Sandra Davis, Richard Maynard, Philipp Niedenzu, Austin Reid, William Sedar, May 2011

The propensity of titanium dioxide to adsorb/desorb stearic acid can be evaluated through the adsorption isotherms. Heats of adsorption/desorption and quantities adsorbed/desorbed for stearic acid over a defined concentration range were measured via flow microcalorimetry for a variety of titanium dioxide pigments. The adsorption data were fitted to both a Langmuir and a modified form of the Freundlich adsorption model to obtain both capacity factors and intensity of adsorption parameters.

CHALLENGES IN TEACHING E-LEARNING COURSES FOR PLASTICS ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
Brian Young, May 2011

Many universities offer online or E-learning courses. Engineering Technology courses are typically more applied or hands-on and do not lend themselves to an easy transition to E-learning. There are some techniques that can ease the transition to successfully teaching engineering technology in the online arena.

ADHESIVE IN-LINE DEGREE OF CURE MONITORING
Anne Forcum, John Lafond, Christine Marotta, May 2011

A new light cure adhesive technology has been developed to confirm your adhesive has cured in your product assembly. This technology can be integrated into your production line for rapid, 100% part inspection. Unlike recent color changing adhesives which only indicate exposure to light, this technology provides you a quantifiable measurement of the degree of cure achieved. These light cure adhesives are cure on demand and achieve full cure in just a few seconds. Manufacturers and assemblers of products can now be assured their bonded assemblies are fully cured.

NATURAL FIBRE PULPING AND REFINING USING EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGY
Kamik Tarverdi, Wendy Xia, Jim Song, May 2011

A study on structural and mechanical properties of natural fibres using co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder for refining fibres is reported. Using low-cost raw materials for the preparation of bio-based and biodegradable composites for many industrial applications. A range of techniques used to characterise these materials will be discussed, including morphology, DSC, SEM, other experimental techniques like mechanical property evaluations will also be discussed.

AN EFFICIENT SEARCH METHOD TO OPTIMIZE GATE LOCATION IN PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING
Ming Zhai, Haiwen Wang, May 2011

A flow resistance search scheme (FR) was proposed to find the optimum gate location in injection molding. A search direction associated with flow resistance was developed based on the physical nature of mold-filling process. By moving gate along the direction with maximum flow resistance, the filling time could be reduced and uniform flow pattern was achieved. This methodology is as efficient as quasi-Newton method (QN), but it is favorable because it can be applied to part with complex geometry.

PET - POLYETHERIMIDE BLENDS
Robert Gallucci, Mark Sanner, May 2011

Blends of polyetherimide (PEI) with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were re-examined. Previous blends with high (>25%) PEI content and those with very low (<10%) PEI shows a single Tg giving clear films indicative of a miscible blend. The samples stayed clear on heating and did not crystallize or phase separate. Use of lower Mw PEI:PET resins opened the window of miscibility allowing clear blends to be formed with as much as 50% PET. These clear yellow resins have high strength, 145-160C Tg, good practical toughness and high flow. PEI addition is an excellent route to upgrade PET performence.

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF BARRELING AT CUT-ENDS OF PE PIPES AND ITS EFFECT ON ELECTROFUSION JOINTS
Andrea Guevara-Morales, Patrick Leevers, May 2011

When a thermoplastic pipe is cut to length, residual stresses set up during cooling are released causing local bending, giving the end of the pipe a barrel shape that can be inconvenient in electrofusion joints. This paper investigates the development of barreling in terms of residual stresses through a comprehensive simulation of the post-extrusion cooling process. The model is validated with experimental data and the effect of barreling on electrofusion joints is discussed in terms of common procedures and standards.

SHEAR & EXTENSIONAL RHEOLOGY OF C18-CNT/LDPE NANOCOMPOSITES
Ibnelwaleed, Sarfraz Abbasi, May 2011

Nanocomposites of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and C18 modified multi wall carbon nanotubes (C18-CNT) were prepared by melt blending. Previous research has shown that addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) increase the dynamic viscosity and reduce the extensional viscosity with increasing loading. This research work shows that C-18 modification of CNTs helps to keep low values of dynamic viscosity, maintain extensional viscosity and does not increase strain hardening even at 5.0 weight % loading.

SELLING IN A BRUTAL ECONOMY: A HUGE OPPORTUNITY AND HOW TO CAPITALIZE ON IT
Martin Pottle, May 2011

Sales are off during these difficult times. This paper will give you insight as to what's happening today and why you should consider getting into social media, PLUS things you can do today, over the next 30 days and over the next few months, to build sales.

OPEN CELL MICROCELLULAR FOAMS OF POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) BASED BLENDS WITH SEMI-INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS
Masahiro Ohshima, May 2011

Interpenetrating polymer network structures can be used to control cell density and averaged cell size of poly-LD-lactic acid foams. Polymer systems with and without cross-linking agent were used as templates for environmentally benign batch foaming processes in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. The foamed samples were characterized in terms of cell density, averaged cell size, and open cell content (OCC).

USING HYPOTHESIS SETTING TO OPTIMIZE THE TROUBLESHOOTING PROCESS FOR SINGLE-SCREW PLASTICATORS
Mark Spalding, Gregory Campbell, May 2011

The goal of all troubleshooting operations is to restore the process to its original performance as quickly as possible. This paper describes a process that is based on developing hypotheses using verified data. Next, the hypotheses are tested using properly developed experiments. Once the root cause of the problem is identified, the best technical solution is implemented. Three case studies are presented.

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROJECTILE INJECTION TECHNIQUE (PIT)
Christian Hopmann, Walter Michaeli, Moritz Grundler, Oliver Gronlund, Andreas Neuss, May 2011

The projectile injection technique is a new powerful process variant of the well established fluid injection technique for the production of hollow shaped polymer parts. For suitable part designs the PIT allows to increase the economical efficiency and process capability significantly. First research results show that it is possible to reproducibly form hollow shaped geometries independent from the rheological properties of the used polymers.

FREE-RADICAL INTERMEDIATES IN THE NONOXIDATIVE THERMAL DEHYDROCHLORINATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)
William Starnes, May 2011

Kinetic analyses based on resonance delocalization energies are used to rule out the Arlman and Winkler-Stromberg mechanisms for the growth of conjugated polyenes during the thermolysis of poly(vinyl chloride) under nonoxidizing conditions. Possible sources of radicals during the thermolysis are described, and the radicals that cause the greatest reduction in thermal stability are concluded to be those that result from the reaction of polyenes with HCl. The acceleration of dehydrochlorination by these radicals is discussed.

HEAT RESISTANT POLYLACTIC ACID WITH GOOD CLARITY
Zhaobin Tang, Chuanzhi Zhang, Lingling Gao, Jin Zhu, May 2011

A heat resistant polylactic acid (PLA) is obtained by directly modifying regular PLA through extrusion process. The heat resistant PLA does not contain any inorganic filler and the total amount of additives is less than 5wt.%. The heat distortion temperature (HDT)???of modified PLA is more than 120oC. The modified PLA exhibits much higher crystallization rate than neat PLA. Meanwhile the heat resistant PLA still keeps good clarity and high impact strength. The heat resistant products of PLA can be directly molded through injection molding machine.

MATERIAL COST REDUCTION FOR LARGE AREA AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MOLDING
Yatish Vasudeo, K. Patel, D Sule, May 2011

Advances in material feeding and molding equipment enable auto component makers to use tailor made masterbatches to mold large area components along with specially designed polypropylene resins. This paper discusses and compares properties of compound made by traditional way and masterbatches blended by tumble mixing with polypropylene resins. This approach will help automotive industry to achieve cost reduction










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