SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
ULTRASONIC CUTTING OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) FILMS
Julius Vogel, David Grewell, May 2011
Ultrasonic cutting systems are employed with materials that are difficult to cut with standard mechanical systems. The cutting knife/edge typically vibrates at a frequency of 20-60 kHz, heating the substrate during the cutting and simultaneously sealing the cut edges. Polylactic acid (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic material derived from starch and sugar, is relatively brittle compared to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which has similar mechanical properties. This brittleness is problematic during mechanical cutting, which produces micro-cracks that further embrittle the material.
FAN GATE DESIGN TO IMPROVE PACKING CONTROL
David Smith, Anthony McWilliams, May 2011
A study was performed to determine the effects that three different fan gate designs had in thoroughly packing out an injection molded five-sided box with ribs. Part weight and the identification of sinks and voids on the part will be the means of interpreting the effectiveness of each gate. The materials that were used to conduct the experiment were PC, ABS, POM, and PP.
PHOTODEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENES WITH CLARIFYING AGENT
Jana Navratilova, Roman Cermak, Petr Mlejnek, May 2011
The work compared the effect of ñ-nucleating/clarifying agent based on 1,3;2,4-bis(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene)sorbitol on the photodegradation in two polypropylenes. One of them was nucleated directly by producer while the second in the laboratory. For comparison, neat PP was studied as well. The samples were irradiated by UV-light and then examined using several methods. The results showed that the addition of ñ-nucleating agent influenced only slightly the process of photodegradation. However, significant differences in structure among the materials were observed.
IMPROVED DIALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR CORE-SHELL PULLULAN-POLYCAPROLACTONE (PCL) NANOSPHERES LOADED WITH HYDROPHOBIC CIPROFLOXACIN
Sally Shady, Daniel Schmidt, Steve McCarthy, May 2011
Drug delivery vehicles in the form of nanospheres improve solubility, bioavailability and biodistribution of many pharmaceutical drugs. However, low encapsulation efficiency is a limitation that currently challenges many drug carriers. The dialysis method can be used as a technique to address this problem and enhance the apparent purity and consistency of the nanospheres being prepared. This research introduces a dialysis technique that retains 30 to 40 times more drugs of nanospheres being prepared.
INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF MODIFIERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INJECTION MOLDED LIQUID SILICONE RUBBERS
Sidney Carson, May 2011
The effects on mechanical properties of blending different levels by weight of talc, silica, and glass fibers in Liquid Silicone Rubber systems was investigated. Specifically, tensile strength, hardness, elongation, and compression set behavior was measured for unblended resin and each level of additive. A material property characterization was developed from these measurements. It was determined that talc and silica had better dispersion and both modifying and reinforcing effects, while the glass had none
INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY OF SILICONE
Nicole Larson, Kyle Pyke, May 2011
Liberty Orchards is a company that makes some very sticky candies that make processing difficult. The current process requires refrigerating the candy slabs overnight and cutting the next day. By making a mold for casting the candy, the two processes would be eliminated, reducing the cycle time and the cost per part. Previous research has shown that silicone is a possible material choice. The project looked at various elastomers and fluoroadditives to reduce the surface energy of silicone. The different formulations have been tested based on the contact angle goniometer, tensiometer, water resistance, and SEM.
FAILURE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC CRIMP FITTING ASSEMBLIES
Dale Edwards, Donald Duvall, Anand Shah, May 2011
This paper covers a failure analysis of a cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) hot and cold water plumbing system that utilized plastic insert fittings that were fastened with stainless steel clamp rings. The failed fittings exhibited features that led several different investigators to associate the failures with fatigue and slow crack growth. Our examination of the fractures indicated that the failures were due to high stress that caused crazing and subsequent fast fracture of the fittings. Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) may also have been involved as a contributor to the failures.
EFFECT OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS AND DIE DESIGN ON DIE DROOL PHENOMENON FOR HDPE POLYMER MELT
Martin Zatloukal, Jan Musil, May 2011
In this work, the effect of processing conditions and die design on die drool phenomenon for HDPE polymer melt has been investigated. It has been revealed that the thermally induced degradation occurring inside the processing equipment may lead to HDPE melt viscosity/elasticity enhancement, which promotes unwanted material accumulation at the end of the extrusion die. It has been found that for particular processing conditions, shaped die, flared die or the use of hard chrome instead of stainless steel can reduce die drool phenomenon for HDPE.
HYPER-ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS OF LIQUID SILICONE RUBBERS
Ryan Prunty, Ian Reeves, May 2011
The purpose of this project is to develop hyper-elastic data for various liquid silicone rubbers (LSR). This will include designing a mold and test fixtures for molding and testing various LSRƒ??s. The goal is to collect data for Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. There is generally no published data on tensile, compression, dynamic shear or biaxial strength to be used in CAE software at this time. After verifying the collected data with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software, the results are as followed.
THE THREE DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF INJECTION-COMPRESSION MOLDING PROCESS
Sejin Han, Xiaoshi Jin, May 2011
In this paper, the injection-compression molding process for thermoplastic materials is analyzed using a three dimensional simulation program. Injection-compression process is often used to produce parts with relatively small warpage at a low clamp force. An example case will be used to test the program. The program can be used to compare regular injection molded parts and injection-compression molded parts in terms of injection pressure, clamp force and dimensional stability.
AN INNOVATIVE ROTARY TOOL TECHNOLOGY FOR RAPID HEAT CYCLE MOLDING
Marco Fiorotto, Giovanni Lucchetta, May 2011
A rotary tool technology was developed in order to reduce the cycle time of the RHCM process. The equipment consists of a hot molding cavity, a rotary plate with two cores conditioned at the standard processing temperature and a cold dummy cavity. The polymer is injected between the hot cavity and the core in the first station. Then the mold is opened and the part is trasfered to the second station. The mold is closed and the part is packed and cooled by the cold cavity. To test the proposed technology, a rotary mold for a TV frame was realized.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF DENSITY GRADED FOAMS: TENSILE PROPERTIES
Mohammad Hasan, Denis Rodrigue, May 2011
The tensile behavior of functionally graded (FG) foam plates were studied in this work. In order to analyze the mechanical properties of the samples, a finite-element method was used. The plate was divided into an arbitrary number of homogenous plates with perfect bonding throughout thickness. Then, the numerical analysis was used to describe the tensile properties of FG foams. The results show very good agreement with experimental data.
NOVEL NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID MODEL FOR POLYMER MELTS
Martin Zatloukal, May 2011
In this work, novel generalized Newtonian law (in which viscosity is given by the specific function of three principal invariants of the deformation rate tensor and its absolute value) has been proposed and tested. It has been found that the proposed model provides correct behavior in steady shear and uniaxial/planar/equibiaxial extensional viscosities for polymer melts.
EFFECT OF NATURAL FIBER SURFACE TREATMENT ON THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE AND NYLON 11 COMPOSITES
Smith Thitithanasarn, Yew Leong, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2011
In this study, polyamide 11 (PA11) was reinforced with bagasse fiber. These fibers were treated with flexible epoxy for improved thermal resistance. The thermal degradation resistance of the fibers was improved by epoxy treatment although the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by flexural test and tensile test. The bagasse fibers improve the thermal and mechanical properties of PA11.
MELT AMINATION OF MALEATED POLYPROPYLENE BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION
Shuihan Zhu, Costas Tzoganakis, May 2011
Maleic anhydride (MA) grafted polypropylenes (MAPP) are reacted with aliphatic diamines in a twin-screw extruder. The polymer feed rate (FR), screw speed (SS), and the molar ratio of MA to diamine (MR) are the three main factors considered in a two-level design of experiments (DOE) for the reactions between two MAPPs and two diamines. The residual MA content in the products is used in order to evaluate the effects of the processing parameters. It is found that feed rate has the most pronounced effect on the reaction conversion.
THE USE AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-BASED/BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS IN FOOD PACKAGING
Christopher Thellen, Jo Ann Ratto, May 2011
Food packaging from bio-based and biodegradable polymeric materials is a relevant topic in today's market with a global emphasis toward sustainability. Physical properties of these natural and synthetic polymers, along with biodegradation rates in the marine environment, have been examined and compared to one another. Major food packaging requirements such as gas barrier, moisture sensitivity, mechanical strength, and service temperature are the focus areas for this research.
CREATING HIGHER VALUE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Bruce Story, May 2011
Companies view value from intellectual property in two ways: 1. Value Creation through protecting proprietary technology that sustains growth and higher profit margins and 2. Value Extraction through licensing royalties and IP enforcement awards and settlements To achieve value effectively, IP-savvy companies have learned to create business-aligned IP strategies. The IP strategy must be integral to the business strategy to create maximum value. Intellectual Asset Management processes are used to implement the IP strategy.
INVESTIGATING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXPANDED POLYPROPYLENE BEAD PRODUCTS
Nemat Hossieny, Mohammadreza, Chul B. Park, May 2011
Expanded polypropylene (EPP) bead foam products are prepared using the steam-chest molding method. It was shown that 3.9 bar is the most promising steam pressure to get better mechanical properties. The density and tensile property profile across the molded sample were measured. It was observed that the high pressure and temperature steam softens the beads on the surface causing them to squeeze and compact together. This leads to increase in the density and tensile property at the outer surface of the molded part as compared to the central part.
HOW GREEN POLYMERS FIT IN YOUR BUSINESS AND WHERE THEY MAY NOT
Roger Jones, May 2011
Green polymers are being brought to market in order to capitalize on a perceived demand from environmentally conscious consumers. Plastics industry processors and users need to know, however, just what are the particular characteristics of different green polymers and which specific end use demands they fulfill? Are they broad-based products or a series of niche specialties? This paper will address the relative characteristics of current green polymers from point of view of end use market needs, and how best to meet these needs, in terms of economics, performance, and utility.
MORPHOLOGY AND FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE-EXFOLIATED GRAPHENE NANOCOMPOSITES
Sudheer Bandla, Jay Hanan, May 2011
Polyethylene Terephthalate Exfoliated Graphene nanocomposites, of 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% nanoplatelet weight fractions were injection molded. Dispersion studies show that the graphene nanoplatelets were dispersed but not exfoliated in to the PET matrix. An exponential increase in the Young's modulus of the nanocomposites was observed. Break strain decreased with increase in nanoplatelets wt%, because of the voids that evolved during the processing and the interaction between PET and the graphene.


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