The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) is a novel thermoplastic matrix material for composites. Besides its low viscosity (0,02 Pas) and superior mechanical properties CBT has some other advantages over conventional matrix materials. During its polymerization no by-product is being made and it is easy to recycle. But processing of CBT is complicated and may results in a brittle material. Polycaprolactone (PCL) as an additive for CBT will also be introduced to increase toughness. In this paper the proper amount of PCL is determined to obtain a ductile material and a method is described how to fabricate prepregs and composites.
Ilhyun Kim | Youngjian Zhao | Byoung-Ho Choi, November 2011
In this study, the effect of various misalignments of the circular notched bar (CNB) specimens on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of pipe grade polyethylene is investigated by three dimensional numerical analyses. The effect of the asymmetric crack growth of the misaligned CNB specimens on the lifetime to failure is also addressed. Two types of misalignments of the CNB specimen, i.e., (a) a concentric misalignments (Case I) and (b) an angular misalignments (Case II), are considered using finite element analysis. It is observed that as the misalignments increase, the asymmetric crack growth is accelerated so that the time to reach the critical SIF decreases. Therefore, it can be understood that the lifetime to failure of CNB specimens can vary noticeably once the CNB specimen is misaligned initially. Considering results from this study, the fatigue crack growth behavior including the estimation of the lifetime of CNB specimens should addressed by considering the misalignment effects.
The present work attempts to implement reactive compatibilisation of blends of recycled engineering plastics, more particularly the case of recycled PA66 contaminated by recycled PA6. Low molecular weight, high Tg Styrene-Maleic Anhydride copolymers were tested as chain extenders / compatibilizers. It appeared that the addition of 2% by weight of SMA to an incompatible system of recycled PA6 and PA66 improved both ductility and impact performance by factors of at least 10 and 1.5 respectively. Moreover, high Tg SMA improved performances at elevated temperature, partly due to its ability to effectively crosslink but also because of its inherent heat resistance.
Manoranjan Prusty | Martin Baumert | Martin Völker | Tobias Nachtigaeller | Susanne Gruber | Dietmar See | Wolfgang Seib | Harald Kroeger | Walter Rau | Hans-peter Beringer | Willy Bert Hoven Nievelstein, November 2011
New Ultramid® Endure from BASF is the first of its kind
PA66 based polymer which has excellent heat ageing
resistance,welding strength after heat ageing and good
processing properties. Ultramid® Endure can withstand
continuous use over 3000 hours at 220°C and temperature
peaks upto 240°C. The excellent heat ageing properties of
Ultramid® Endure allows it to be used for applications
such as resonator, charge air lines etc.
Poly(o-aminophenol) (POAP) films were deactivated and then reactivated, and dependences of the different charge-transport and charge-transfer parameters on the degree of deactivation (c) were obtained by employing Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. These dependences were extracted when the polymer contacts an electroactive solution and a mediation reaction occurs at the polymerelectrolyte interface. While some parameters, such as interfacial metal-film and film-solution resistances (Rmf, Refs, Rifs), the high-frequency capacitance (CH) and the redox capacitance (Cp) exhibit a continuous variation without hysteresis between deactivation and reactivation processes within the whole c range, others, such as electron and ion diffusion coefficients (De, Di), show hysteresis between consecutive deactivation and reactivation processes. On the basis of these findings it was considered that while some parameters of the polymer only depend on the amount of redox active sites, others (De and Di) depend on both the quantity and distribution of redox active sites.
André J.P. van Zyl | Robert D. van de Grampel | Theo L. Hoeks, November 2011
With the progression of technology, increasing
pressure is put on engineering plastics companies to fulfill
strict design criteria of equipment manufacturers.
Therefore novel materials are needed to address specific
needs. The most common method to manipulate material
performance is by either blending or an additive approach.
Although relatively cost-effective and requiring low
technological input, these methods are not always desired
due to the potential incompatibility of blends and/or nonpermanence
of additives. In this paper a copolycarbonate
approach will be discussed to address specific consumer
needs. More specifically the tailoring of properties from a
molecular perspective will be discussed and examples
showed of how copolycarbonates can be used to capture
Frank Yepez Castillo | Brian P. Grady | Daniel E. Resasco, November 2011
Multi-walled carbon nanotube/high density polyethylene composites with varying amounts of carbon nanotubes were processed in an extruder fitted with a low-shear adaptor. This equipment allowed annealing of the melt for various amounts of time under low shear before it was passed through a slit die. The effect this treatment had on the electrical and mechanical properties of the composites was investigated. Results obtained from extruded samples were compared to the mechanical and electrical properties of samples that had been mixed in a micro-compounder and compression molded. Differences in the crystallinity and the orientation of extruded samples were also assessed.
Zhenwen Zhou | Alexander Chudnovsky, November 2011
A number of water utilities in various states of USA have reported a persistent premature failure of polybutylene (PB) tubing in water distribution system. Failure analysis of PB system and a methodology of reliability analysis of PB tubing in potable water application are presented in this paper. The reliability analysis allows predicting future failures. Thus, the proposed methodology is validated by comparison of failure prediction with actually reported field failures in selected water districts from Maryland, Georgia and Ohio. The proposed methodology also allows a rational replacement planning by considering the effect of preventive replacement program on the reduction of emergence replacements. Understanding of main PB failure mechanisms in potable water application important for proper interpretation statistics is also discussed.
Haiying Zhang | Zhenwen Zhou | Alexander Chudnovsky, November 2011
A new method of evaluating the polyethylene (PE) pipe lifetime in brittle failure has been recently proposed. It consists of an extrapolation of the failure time in the Pennsylvania notch test to arbitrary PE pipes at various loads and temperatures. This paper presents a detailed review of the theoretical and experimental basis of the new lifetime prediction method and discusses its limitations. An experimental examination of the proposed method applied to a commercial high-density PE is reported. The results suggest that the proposed method overestimate the lifetime at room temperature by 30 ~ 40 times. It is inadequate for extrapolation of brittle fracture time of PE from 80°C to room temperature. Such limitation is related to the changes in failure mechanism and kinetics of crack growth taking place at some intermediate temperature. An alternative method for PE pipes lifetime prediction based on a combination of testing and modeling is discussed.
Alexander Chudnovsky | Zhenwen Zhou | Haiying Zhang | Kalyan Sehanobish, November 2011
There are three major modes of polyolefin pipes failure: ductile, stress driven brittle and degradation assisted brittle fractures. The ductile failure results from material instability on macro-scale. It appears as a ballooning resulting from large-scale strain localization (stretching and thinning) similar to that observed in cold drawing in uniaxial tension (necking). The brittle fracture is manifested in cracking with no large deformation on macro-scale. However, there is a localized crazing in front of the crack, which consists of micro fibers and membranes. It also results from cold drawing, but on micro-scale. This paper presents analysis of cold drawing as time dependent phase transition referred to as “delayed necking”. The connections between ductile and brittle polyolefin pipes failure from one side and delayed necking on another are discussed.
Caroline Abler | Jérôme Crépin-Leblond | Frédéric Jouffret | Saied H. Kochesfahani, November 2011
The effect of talcs on PolyLactic Acid (PLA) performance
has been studied with a focus on properties of fully
crystallized PLA. The results show that talc could be used
as an effective nucleation agent to improve mechanical
properties of PLA including stiffness, heat deflection
temperature and impact strength. It is also shown in two
PLA formulations that Luzenac High Aspect Ratio talc
(HAR®) in combination with plasticizers and impact
modifiers could further improve crystallization speed and
impact properties through modifying the amorphous phase
of PolyLactic Acid.
Frode Grytten | Mariusz Blochowiak | Einar L. Hinrichsen | Terje Tofteberg | Magnus Bengtsson | Susanne Nilsson, November 2011
This paper presents a new method to determine
residual stress profiles in cables and other axisymmetric
objects using digital image correlation and inverse
modeling. 3D digital image correlation with two cameras
and stereo-vision was used to determine full-field
displacements resulting from cutting a slit in a disk made
from cable insulation. These displacements were
compared to predicted displacements in a finite element
analysis of the cutting. Differences between nodal
displacements and the corresponding measured
displacements were used to construct a cost function
which was iteratively minimized by changing the residual
stress field used as initial condition in the finite element
C.Y. Yue | S. Roy | R.K. Jena | Z.Y. Wang | Y.C. Lam, November 2011
Cyclic olefin copolymers (COC/TOPAS) are commonly employed for making microfluidic devices. Several issues need to be addressed before this can be realized. A reliable technique for micro-replicating COC is required. Good sealing and high bond strength between COC inter-layers without destroying channel integrity is necessary. The intrinsically hydrophobic surface has to be rendered hydrophilic to facilitate flow and electrophoretic separation. Here we report the production of high fidelity microdevices by hot-embossing. Thermal seals with high bond strengths for bonding below the glass transition temperature Tg, photografting using suitable hydrophilic monomers to give good surface wettability and hemocompatibility are outlined.
Fabian Rios | Samuel Kenig | Amos Ophir, November 2011
Design of experiments (DOE) is a systematic method based on designed experimental rums used to evaluate the effects of selected variables on the final product properties. The method is especially useful when materials are expensive and/or scarce and only small quantities are available for experimentation, such as with carbon nanotubes (CNT). The effects of injection molding on the properties of Polycarbonate and Polybutylene Terephthalate multi-wall CNT composites were studied using DOE. Results demonstrated that although only a small number of experimental runs were used, a significant effect of the injection molding parameters on the properties of the nanocomposites was detected.
Aitor Larrañaga | Susana Petisco | Raul Villanueva | Jagoba J. Iturri | Sergio Moya | Emilio
Meaurio | Jose-Ramon Sarasua, November 2011
The physicochemical properties of plasma
polymerized films were investigated by means of X-Ray
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform
infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), ellipsometry and
Water Contact Angle. Three different monomers (acrylic
acid, ε-caprolactone and lactic acid) were polymerized in
a Plasma Polymerization System for different times (7, 15
and 30 min) and power conditions (80 and 120 W). While
plasma polymerized acrylic acid and ε-caprolactone
shared a strong similarity with the conventional polymers,
lactic acid did not bear any resemblance to the
The papers from the most recent IOM3
conference, PVC 2011, are used as the basis
for this paper.
The PVC market is reviewed on the basis
of Europe’s environmental challenges with
management options being reshaped by global
The cost competitiveness of PVC
products, energy saving from using PVC
products and increasing recognition of our
sustainable development progress can only
serve our industry well into the future.
The Voluntary Commitments of the past
ten years (Vinyl 2010) and the next ten years
(VinylPlus) are reviewed.
Examples of educational initiatives in the
UK to improve perceptions are also
S. K. Joshi | M. G. H. Zaidi | A. Tiwari | P. L. Sah | S. Alam, November 2011
Mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy have
been modified through blending of diglycidylether
of bisphenol A (0.1 mol) with polydimethylsiloxane
(PDMS) at concentration ranging 1.0 to
3.0 phr of resin at 1400 psi and 90±10C for 1hr in
supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), followed by
curing with triethylenetetramine (10 phr) at
40±10C.The formation of synthesized epoxy
silicone blends (ESBs) has been ascertained
through ultraviolet –visible (Uv-vis), Fourier
transformed infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction
(XRD) spectra and microscopy. With PDMS
concentration, the compressive, tensile strength,
Rockwell hardness (R scale), fringe values and
crystallinity of ESBs were decreased with
simultaneous increase in their impact strength,
resistance against wear and thermal stability.
Key words: Supercritical carbon dioxide, Polymer
blends, Spectra, Morphology, Mechanical and
Thin wall injection moulding is a difficult process. High viscosity polymeric material is injected into a mould by high speed and high pressure. A special instrumented injection mould was designed for the investigation of the cavity filling of injection mould. Rheological measurement can be carried out with different wall thickness slit die inserts. The pressure can be measured during the filling, the packing and the cooling stages as well. The pressure drop during the filling can be used for determination the flow properties of the material. The measured cavity pressure of the injection cycle is proper for the validation if thin wall injection moulding simulation. The filling of the dies was simulated by Moldex3D software.
M.G.H.Zaidi | A.Thakur | T. Agarwal | G.B.Pant | S. Alam | R. Singh, November 2011
Chemical oxidative copolymerization of pyrrole with
thiophene was conducted using ferric chloride initiator at 90
°C, 1200 psi over 24 hours in supercritical carbon dioxide
(scCO2). Polymerizations were conducted with different
concentration ratios of pyrrole to thiophene 1:0, 0:1, 1:1 and
1:2 in a 100 mL high-pressure batch reactor. Polymerization
yield which was up to 56.7 % in homopolymerizations was
found to decrease in copolymerizations at molar ratio of
pyrrole to thiophene 1:1 .The polymers were characterized
by ultraviolet visible (Uv-vis), Fourier transformed infrared
(FT-IR) spectra, elemental analysis, gel permeation
chromatography (GPC), simultaneous thermogravimetricdifferential
thermal analysis-differential thermogravimetry
(TG-DTA-DTG), electrical conductivity and atomic force
Key words: Supercritical carbon dioxide, Polymerization,
Polypyrrole, Polythiophene, Copolymers, Characterization.
Reema Sinha | Sangita Nandi | Arun Sikder | Radha Kamalakaran | Susanta Mitra | Ed Kung, November 2011
In the present study, the friction and wear properties of two high temperature resistant polymers, an amorphous polyetherimide (PEI) and a crystalline polyetheretherketone (PEEK), have been investigated at specific combinations of high pressure, velocity and temperature against smooth steel counterparts. The effects of internal lubricant, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and PTFE with short fiber reinforcements (carbon fiber) are outlined. The tests were performed on a thrustwasher testing machine under dry sliding conditions. Different analytical techniques were employed to study the correlation between the transfer layer and wear properties. Lubricated and lubricated-reinforced compounds showed excellent wear properties compared to pristine resins throughout all PV conditions.
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Society of Plastics Engineers
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