The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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THE APPLICATION OF DENDRIMER IN ULTRAHIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE PROCESSING
In this paper, poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer, its lauryl quaternary ammonium salt and steary quaternary ammonium salt were used for blending modification of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene. The effects of modifiers on viscosity reduction, crystalline properties were investigated by torque rheometer, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, etc. The results showed that three modifiers could decrease the melt viscosity of UHMWPE, which could be further explained from the view of distanglement.
ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION OF PP/EPDM BLEND: ULTRASONIC PREPARATION METHOD AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS.
Electron beam crosslinked PP/EPDM prepared by melt compounding has been developed. To improve the compatibility of blend, high intensity ultrasound is imposed during processing. The tensile strength increase continuously with increasing irradiation dose and elongation at break is decreased with radiation. Moreover, as compatibility of blend is enhanced, Youngƒ??s modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break also increased. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that thermal stability of PP/EPDM blend is enhanced with irradiation dose and improvement of compatibility. The improvement in the properties of blend is attributed to the enhanced compatibility and the formation of radiation induced crosslinking.
DEVELOPMENT OF REACTIVE BLEND WITH SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE
A reactive extrusion process for immiscible PP/PS blend with peroxide and multifunctional agent in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. Supercritical carbon dioxide was used in reactive extrusion to assist the diffusion of agent into polymer matrix. The PP/PS blends were investigated by rheological measurement, scanning electron microscopy and thermal property. The results indicate that complex viscosity and storage modulus of blend are increased by adding peroxide and multifunctional agent. Moreover, analysis of the products revealed that the use of supercritical carbon dioxide led to improved compatibility.
THE STUDY ON GRAPHENE OXIDE AS A HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEATION AGENT IN SUPERCRITIAL CARBON DIOXIDE FOAMING
Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by oxidation of graphite using the Hummers method, and was modified by isocyanate to obtain dispersed GO sheets in dimethylformamide. Polystyrene (PS)/GO composites were prepared by solution blending, and their morphologies and properties were characterized. The addition of GO increased the glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal stability of the composites compared with PS. Foams of PS and PS/GO composites were prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide foaming. The composite foams exhibited slightly higher cell density and smaller cell size compared with the PS foam, indicating the GO sheets can act as heterogeneous nucleation agents.
FEED ENHANCEMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW BULK DENSITY MATERIAL INTO CO-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW COMPOUNDING EXTRUDERS
Effectively feeding low bulk density material into a co-rotating twin-screw has always been challenging. With the introduction of even finer particle size fillers as well as new generations of reactor resins, the issue has become even more problematic. Unit operations within the compounding process where material is more susceptible to fluidization are: transfer from storage vessel to feeders, from feeder to twin-screw and within the feed zone conveying section of the extruder. This paper will review a new Feed Enhancement Technology (FET) that provides significant improvement for the introduction of fine particle / low bulk density materials into the extruder.
INTEGRATIVE SIMULATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PARTS BY TAKING INTO ACCOUNT MOLECULAR ORIENTATION
The mechanical properties of thermoplastic parts are greatly influenced by the inner properties of the material in these parts. In order to take into account their effects an integrative simulation approach has been developed at the Institute of Plastics Processing at RWTH Aachen University. This approach until now has been focused on the local distribution of the microstructure and crystallinity depending on the processing conditions. This paper deals with the enhancement of the simulation approach that leads to a consideration of the anisotropic effects of molecular orientation in thermoplastic parts.
A STUDY OF INJECTION MOLDING OF THE BARREL FOR THE OPTICAL LENSES
A study of the barrel for the optical lenses based on the design of experiments is presented. The barrel provides an installation space for lenses to assembly. Therefore the optical characteristic of the mini projector is dominated directly by the lenses and the barrel. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the part thickness on the warpage by commercial software and investigated the influences of the molding conditions on the part quality experimentally. The study provides a systematical way to predict in which area a defect lies and determine the optimal injection velocity and holding pressure through statistical experiments.
STUDY ON PREPARATION OF PP/PA6/OMMT NANOCOMPOSITES AND BATCH FOAMING PROCESS CONDITIONS WITH VIBRATION FORCE FIELD
The composites of polypropylene/polyamide-6nano-organ-montmorillonite (PP/PA6/OMMT) with superior comprehensive properties were prepared using PP-g-MAH as compatibilizer prepared by dicumyl peroxide/benzoyl peroxide. It was shown that the addition of PP-g-MAH and OMMT nanoparticles improved impact strength and tensile strength as well as melt strength. Microcellular batch foaming equipment with Supercritical CO2 was used to study the foaming conditions of composites including foaming temperature, rotor rate and vibration force. The results presented improved microstructures, uniformed distribution, and the enhanced density resulting from employing vibration force field to shear stress force field.
SIMULATION ON THE PART WARPAGE AND PHOTOELASTIC STRESS WHEN MOLDING DISCONTINUOUS-THICKNESS-VARIATION PARTS COMBINED WITH DIFFERENTIAL MOLD COOLING
Discontinuous-Thickness-Variation (DTV) is used to interrupt the continuous shrinkage locally to minimize warpage. Matching of DTV with various mold temperature differences between the mold core and cavity sides was performed. The combined effect can be quantitatively described by a design guide chart. Case studies also verify its effectiveness. Simulations were conducted to calculate the neutral axis shift and the frozen layer thickness difference due to the unbalanced cooling. The analysis indicates that variation in thickness will pull the deviated neutral axis and photo-elastic stress due to unbalanced cooling back to the center line, leading to a significant part warpage reduction.
SYNTHESIS OF THE SILICA PARTICLES GRAFTED WITH POLY(IONIC LIQUID) AND ITS APPLICATION IN FOAMING OF POLYSTYRENE
Poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (P[MATMA][BF4]), as a novel poly(ionic liquid) for the strong absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2), is grafted to silica particles by using a surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Silica particles modified by P[MATMA][BF4] (SiO2-P[MATMA][BF4]) play as nucleating agents to produce polystyrene (PS) foams using supercritical CO2 as a blowing agent. Compared with amino-functionalized silica particles (SiO2-NH2), SiO2-P[MATMA][BF4] exhibits higher heterogeneous nucleation efficiency in the foaming process. The morphology characterization indicates that PS/SiO2-P[MATMA][BF4] composite foams have higher cell density and smaller cell size than those of pure PS and PS/SiO2-NH2 composite foams.
INVESTIGATION OF THE THROUGHPUT OF A SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDER TAKING INTO ACCOUNT PRESSURE VARIATIONS DURING A STEP CHANGE IN SPEED
Extrusion is used to continuously manufacture endless plastic products such as tubes, profiles etc. An essential aspect during the manufacture of semi-finished products is the products' uniform wall-thickness, whereby the manufacturing costs are decisively influenced. The material output is fundamentally influenced by both changing the operating points and from pressure variations in the extrusion process. On changing the operating point, a steady operating point is to be obtained as rapidly as possible in order to minimise the production of rejects. Moreover, a uniform wall-thickness is to be obtained by means of reducing the pressure variations in the extrusion process.
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN FLAME RETARDANCY OF POLYOLEFINS
Polyolefins are highly flammable and it is very difficult to flame retard them. Relatively high loadings of flame retardants are often used in order to achieve UL-94 V-0 rating in these polymers. ICL-IP has developed new flame retardant systems which allow overcoming many of these limitations. This paper presents results on flame retardant performance and physical properties of number of polyolefins flame retarded with highly efficient bromine based flame retardants, polymeric flame retardants and combination of bromine and mineral flame retardants. New data is also presented on phosphorus-based flame retardants for polyolefin films and sheets.
CONTROL OF TEXTURED IONOMER SURFACES
Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by evaporation of the solvent from a polymer solution cast onto silica. The structure of the particles and aggregates were controlled by the rate of solvent evaporation. The surface morphologies were consistent with spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets. The SPS particles resisted deformation after annealing at 140C for one week. Water droplets stuck to surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees, making them candidates for applications requiring high adhesive forces, such as cleaning robots.
PHENOMENON-ORIENTED PROCESS AND PART OPTIMISATION OF COMPLEX INJECTION MOULDED PARTS WITH THIN-WALLED MOULDED-ON HOLLOW AREAS (GITBLOW), TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE RESIDUAL WALL THICK-NESS DISTRIBUTION
In the GITBlow-process it is possible in a second stage to further inflate the hollow-area produced by gas-injection molding (GIT). In recent years, specific GITBlow-process-pheno-mena relating to the inflation of moulded-on hollow areas have been identified. On the basis of these findings, and with the help of developed methods, it is now possible to draw wide-ranging conclusions about the residual wall-thickness-distribution in the final part. Aim of this paper is to assign these process-phenomena relating to wall-thickness-distribution to their respective influencing parameters. By developing an analysis-methodology, this project sets out to derive and describe part-optimising principles concerning the result-ing wall-thickness-homogeneity.
THE POTENTIAL OF NANO-STRUCTURED FILLER MATERIALS TO IMPROVE THE STIFFNESS/TOUGHNESS BALANCE OF PA 6
While developing new polymers, a high level of stiff and simultaneously tough material behavior is an important goal. This study shows a novel approach to optimize the stiffness/toughness behavior of polyamide 6 (PA 6) by incorporating nano-structured filler materials. For stiffness enhancement of PA 6, an organic modified clay material was used. To compensate for the toughness properties, a nano-structured polyamide 6/polyether block copolymer was used. Following an analysis and optimization of the binary material systems, the knowledge was transferred to develop a ternary material system.
REVISIT YOUR EXISTING PARTS ƒ?? FLOW SIMULATION MAY OFFER SIGNIFICANT COST SAVINGS THAT ARE LURKING BENEATH THE SURFACE
The part cost is one of the most important factors when designing a plastic part. However, there have been many-many parts designed over the years that do not follow fundamental plastic design rules. Parts designed without proper knowledge about plastic design principles, eventually affects the part performance and cost. Not only does the part become costly, but the manufacturing cost also increases significantly. This paper presents an example how a flow simulation helped optimize the design of a part and resulted in significant improvement in performance and reduction in part cost.
MODELLING OF THE AGEING PROCESS ON THERMOPLASTIC SURFACES AFTER TREATMENT WITH AN ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE PLASMA
After treatment with an atmospheric-pressure plasma, thermoplastic surfaces exhibit marked aging phenomena. These become apparent as changes in the surface properties over time. Although these effects are adequately documented in literature, no generally functional relationship yet exists to describe them. Therefore this study was undertaken. Various thermoplastics were treated with an atmospheric-pressure plasma and subsequently kept under constant conditions. At defined intervals, the surface energy was determined with test fluids on the substrate surface. Taking mass transfer mechanisms into account, an initial approach is then described for modelling these thermoplastic surface properties vs. time following treatment with an atmospheric-pressure plasma.
PREPARATION OF A UV-CURED, UV-ABSORBING COATING
Creating UV-cured coating containing UV-absorbing materials is akin to getting a suntan while wearing sunscreen. Despite this contradiction, we did just that. Motivated by concerns over CO2 emissions and economics, we sought to replace a solvent-based, UV-absorbing coating with an equivalent UV-cured formulation. This was ultimately achieved through creative formulation efforts. Besides being solvent-free and non-flammable, the coating is processed with equipment having a significantly smaller footprint than the older equipment. An additional, unexpected benefit of the new formulation was that the viscosity was significantly lower. This allowed for a significant reduction in coat weight, further reducing the overall costs.
MANUFACTURABILITY STUDY OF NANO-ENHANCED FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES (FRPC)
One of the most environmentally friendly energy generation methods is wind power. In order to compete favorably with the cost of traditional energy generation methods, the wingspan needs to increase from current dimensions. For this to occur, taking advantage of new material developments in nano-reinforced composites is essential. The use nanoparticles have shown improvement in mechanical properties of FRPC. Understanding the manufacturability of these processes is critical, especially during VARTM. Understanding the factors affecting the flow through porous media and the inherent material properties, such as permeability and viscosity, of these nano-enhanced FPRC was the objective herein.
THERMOFORMABLE BRIGHT FILM FOR TPO APPLICATIONS
Thermoformable Fluorex Bright Film was developed to emulate the appearance of plated chrome. However, unlike plated chrome, Bright Film is flexible and thermoformable and can be applied to TPO. The film technology is environmentally friendly and cost-effective, and it has practical applications in various manufacturing processes, such as insert injection molding, thick-sheet thermoforming and extrusion lamination processes. Backed by successful weathering and other testing results, Bright Film has been accepted by the marketplace to accommodate or replace chrome plating as a decorative material for both interior and exterior finishes in the automotive and other industries.
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