SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

The SPE Library is just one of the great benefits of being an SPE member! Are you taking advantage of all of your SPE Benefits?

Not an SPE member? Join today!

Use % to separate multiple keywords. 

Search SPE Library

Sort By:  Date Added   Publication Date   Title   Author

Conference Proceedings

Modeling Container Shelf Life & Top Load Performance
Scott W. Steele | Sumit Mukherjee | Mark Rule, November 2011

The use of performance modeling is becoming more and more critical to the packaging industry. This trend is driven both by lightweighting efforts and the need to shorten package development times. The primary driver for reducing the amount of material used in packaging is cost reduction, with environmental positioning an ancillary benefit. However, it is critical to not compromise the shelf life or creep performance of the package, particularly in regions of the world with temperature extremes. This paper will explain key elements necessary for precise modeling of package shelf-life performance. The mathematical models considered are M-RULE® Container Performance Model and Virtual Prototyping™ Software. Some examples of how computer modeling has been applied to optimize package performance will be discussed.

A self-optimising injection moulding process extendable by an incremental cooling system
E.h. W. Michaeli | Ch. Hopmann | A. Rebmann, November 2011

The conventional control of the injection moulding process is based on machine variables, which cannot sufficiently characterise the course of the process. Hence, a system that controls the injection moulding process based on process variables has been developed at the Institute of Plastics Processing at RWTH Aachen University during the last years. The concept of the self-optimising injection moulding process is based on this research. This paper describes the concept of the self-optimising injection moulding process during the holding pressure phase and the idea of an extension by an incremental cooling system using small-sized cooling areas.

Christian Hopmann | E.h. Walter Michaeli | Thomas Baranowski | Barbara Heesel, November 2011

The general aim of the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries” is to overcome the actual contradictions between value- and planning-orientation as well as between scale and scope in production technology. One important aspect of this approach is the development of virtual production systems to increase simulation accuracy and thereby to reduce development times and costs as well as to optimise the utilisation of material. In this paper new developments in the field of the calculation of molecular orientation are described and a validation with different experimental measurements is presented.

T. Ottnad, S. Gepp, F. Irlinger, T. C. Luth, November 2011

Miniaturization and individualization are some of the current and in future ongoing trends in producing business in general and they also are influencing the plastics processing industry. To meet the upcoming challenges a lot of research is being done in the field of micro-extrusion. This work investigates a method to identify the phenomenon of extrudate swelling of micro extruded polypropylene using an optical analyzing method. Experimental data varying the pressure is presented and an optical analysis is explained. The results show the suitability of the method but reveal that some more experiments have to be done in order to formulate clear statements.

Francis Rodrigues, November 2011

The role of slip additives as a crucial contributing agent in product failures due to it’s migration to the surface of plastic films is explored in the context of 5 case studies highlighting different aspects of the complex interrelationships that exist between the base resins, the slip additive present in the base resins, slip agent added by the film processor in the form of masterbatches, the color pigments , processing condition / storage conditions and the products which are subsequently packed inside the flexible pouch or flexible laminates.

Three Dimensional Finite Volume Method Simulation of the Melting Zone in a Single- Screw Extruder
E. h. Walter Michaeli | Christian Hopmann | Sebastian Grammel, November 2011

This paper presents a 3D numerical model to analyze the melting process in a single-screw extruder. The fundamental equations of fluid dynamics are solved using the Finite Volume Method. The software Fluent distributed by ANSYS, Inc. was used for the numerical calculations. The computing domain is a helical-shaped screw channel. The solid bed is modeled as a fluid with a very high viscosity by adjusting the formulation of the Carreau model for temperatures below the melting temperature. The model predicts the melting length, pressure build-up and the velocity and temperature distribution within the channel.

In-Vitro Modeling of Blood Vessels
A. B. Coffey | P.R. Walsh | C. Stanley | N.E. Murphy, November 2011

There has been much research in the biomodeling of human blood vessels. Models of human blood vessels can be used for aids in future research of new medical devices that can be preliminarily tested in an in vitro setting and that could potentially lead to breakthroughs in the medical device industry. There is also the possibility to use such models for the training of surgeons, especially for complex operations, analysis of arterial diseases, and to provide the basis for hemodynamic studies. Within the last two decades accurate models have been fabricated using corrosion casts obtained from cadavers and the lost wax process. Recently, there has been a trend towards replicating the properties of blood vessels more accurately. The use of hydrogels has the potential to achieve this, as it is possible to represent properties such as viscoelasticity, anisotropy, and lubriciousness, all of which have been shown to be present in human blood vessels. The goal of this study is to apply casting methods to a core, which represents similar tortuosity and dimensions to a section of blood vessel, and achieve a low cost model that will represent the dimensional accuracy as well as representing physical properties of blood vessels as accurately as possible. In order to achieve this, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)/poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogels were chosen as a material that has the potential to match the properties of blood vessels. The PVOH/PAA hydrogels were prepared using a freeze/thaw processing technique.

Barrier Coating of Flexible Substrates
W. Michaeli | Ch. Hopmann | P. Awakowicz | K. Bahroun | S. Steves | H. Behm | F. von Fragstein, November 2011

In the presented project a new coating plant for large area microwave (2.45 GHz) excited low pressure plasma coating with substrate bias has been designed, which allows the coating of foils up to a size of 300 * 300 mm². The objective of the research work is to characterize the effects of the process parameters on the properties of plasma-polymerised coatings, particularly regarding their behaviour under strain. Investigations are carried out using a microwave plasma source and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as substrate material. As layer forming monomers for plasma polymer barrier coating of the substrates are used.

Jiying Fan | Elias Nassiopoulos | James Brighton | Alain De Larminat | James Njuguna, November 2011

Recently advances in research and manufacturing techniques of biocomposites have allowed the car manufactures to use bio-composite in various applications. Biocomposites are fast emerging as viable alternative to traditional materials due to their low cost, lightweight, good mechanical performance and biodegradable properties. ECOSHELL project (Development of new light high-performance environmentally benign composites made of bio-materials and bio-resins for electric car application) proposes to achieve a full bio-composite made of high performance natural resins matrices, resulting in the use of totally natural, environment friendly composites, with enhanced strength and bio-degradability characteristics designed for the electric car.

Matthew Gande | Ryan Fenton | Urs Stadler | Sungyeun Choi, November 2011

Silver is a known antimicrobial agent, and has found use in protecting a range of products against bacterial growth. The inherently large surface area of silver nanoparticles allow for a high release rate of silver ions to the environment, where they can be active against a wide range of microbes. Herein, we report a new method of producing silver nanoparticles using a plasma furnace. This process easily allows for the support of the nano-silver material on micron-sized inorganic particles. Silver formed in this manner is more easily dispersed in polymer systems, while maintaining antimicrobial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria.

Proposed UV Rating Method for UV Stabilized Injection Moulding Polyethylene
J. D. Ratzlaff, November 2011

The European injection moulding market is filled with numerous injection moulding resins that claim resistance to ultraviolet light from outdoor exposure. However, few, if any, have actual comparable data that allows a buyer to distinguish the performance of one resin to another. Likewise, if artificial weathering results are given, how does this relate to actual outdoor performance? Can a relation to outdoor performance be translated to geographic variances in weather? This paper gives a summary of several published artificial ultraviolet exposure studies, some known standards with industry acceptance and how the tests relate to outdoor exposure with a concise experiment between two UV test methods. Finally, a proposal is given of standardized ultraviolet resistant testing for the injection moulding world of polyethylene. This includes estimating outdoor performance with the variances of solar radiation based on geography.

Material Handling and Blending Systems for Molding and Extrusion
Keith Larson, November 2011

Molding and extrusion lines rely on the auxiliary equipment that works with them. This equipment supplies the regrind, resin and additives, cools the process, maintains critical temperatures and even monitors the entire operation. Inadequate process cooling, material handling or size reduction equipment can cause many problems, including the following:; Inadequate process cooling can reduce product output; Poor temperature control can cause product quality issues; Material can be contaminated if not handled and stored properly; The output of the line can be reduced, and even interrupted, if the material is not conveyed to the extruder at the required rate; Product quality will suffer if the material is not blended and metered into the extruder throat at the correct ratios; Excess dust caused by poor size reduction equipment can create processing problems. The following auxiliary equipment is crucial to any molding or extrusion process, and needs to be taken into consideration:; Cooling tower system; Chilled water system; Temperature control units; Bulk storage of the raw material; Material conveying system; Blending and feeding equipment; Crystallizing and drying systems; Size reduction systems. This paper will focus on material handling and blending systems – the other areas will be discussed at a later time.

D.J.M. (Linda) Havermans – van Beek | Rudy Deblieck, November 2011

Resistance to slow crack growth is an important material property of polyethylene which determines the application lifetime, especially for utility pipe applications. Usually, the slow crack growth resistance of materials is accessed by time consuming testing methods such as NPT, FNCT, PENT, etc. These methods require often the use of notched samples, the use of specific fluids (e.g. detergents) and elevated temperatures. Here we present the outline and validation of an elegant method to predict slow crack growth resistance in materials in a simple, accurate and fast way. The resistance to slow crack growth is predicted from a simple tensile measurement at 80 C. It will be shown that the slope of the stress-strain curve above the natural draw ratio (i.e. the strain hardening regime) correlates very well with the results obtained by the full notch creep test (FNCT), Notch Pipe Test (NPT) and the stress intensity ranking of the cyclic loaded Cracked Round Bar test (CRB) of the same materials. This strain hardening method is elegant in that it does not require notched specimen and/or detergents. Besides the advantage that the method is easy to implement in laboratories, its main advantage is the dramatic decrease of measurement times from thousands of hours to only a few. This method is very suitable in the development of new grades, but also very valuable as a batch release test for both resin suppliers and pipe converters.

Hans-Peter Heim | Martin Rohleder | Andrzej K. Bledzki, November 2011

This investigation analyses the notched impact strength of microcellular polycarbonate which was produced by injection molding using physical blowing agents. By varying different processing parameters, such as blowing agent concentration or the injection velocity, injection moulded plates were produced and characterized with regard to morphology and the Charpy notched impact strength. A temperature-dependent analysis concerning the correlation between the foam morphology and the notched impact strength was carried out. Additionally investigations were performed to find out if the failure mechanisms, which occur at low temperatures, also function the same when exposed to temperatures higher than 80°C.

Sustainability with Automotive Carbon Fibre Composites: Reclaimed Carbon Fibre — cPBT Thermoplastic Composite
Jackie Rehkopf, September 2011

PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition

Thermoplastic Overmolded Continuous Fiber Structures
Kipp Grumm, Amit Kulkarni, September 2011

PowerPoint Presentation at Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition

Design and Fabrication of a Structural Composite Automotive Underbody
Libby Berger, September 2011

This paper describes the design and fabrication of a structural composite underbody by the Automotive Composites Consortium. This includes material and process development joint methodology and design design of the component manufacture and design scenario and initial fabrication of the underbody.

Properties and Molding of a Fabric SMC for a Structural Composite Automotive Underbody
Libby Berger, September 2011

The glass fabric SMC developed by the Automotive Composites Consortium for a structural composite underbody was compounded molded and characterized for material and thermal properties and NDE techniques evaluated for damage inspection.

Mechanical & Impact Response of Recycled Thermoplastic & Flyash Foam Composites
Uday Vaidya, September 2011

The heavy transport industry has a significant amount of scrap generated in the manufacture of parts such as trailer bodies and structural components. Presently that scrap is landfilled. This paper presents the processing and resulting properties of recycled thermoplastic composites into useful products for reuse in transportation and related applications.

Jin Yan, Kang Peng, Li Xue, September 2011

In this paper the undesirable odor from virgin PP resin was studied using an electronic olfactory system equipped with a set of metal oxide semi-conductor sensors. Odor of PP resin and the effects of heating temperature and heating time on the odor from different grades of PP resin were studied. It was found that the odor of PP resin was detected by the electronic olfactory system. Effects of heating temperature above 50 °C and heating time on the release of the odor were obviously observed and the odor intensity increased with the increase of heating temperature and the extension of heating time.

  Welcome Page

How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.

If you need help with citations, visit www.citationmachine.net