SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PURGING OF INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
Wipoo Sriseubsai, May 2011
This research was to study on purging of injection molding machine. The polypropylene was used in this study. The fractional design was used to design the experiments with five main factors and two levels such as processing temperature, injection pressure, screw speed, injection velocity, and suck-back position. Some interactions were shown with the analysis by Minitab. Those factors were effect in purging. The recommend to purge the PP were using high level of screw speed, injection velocity and suck back position while the processing temperature and injection pressure should be in the low level.
STUDY ON THE S/B MULTIBLOCK COPOLYMER SYNTHESIZED BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION----STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE S/B COPOLYMER AND BUBBLE THEORY
Fuzeng Hu, Dafu Wei, Momo Liu, Yong Guan, Shuzhao Li, Anna Zheng, Huining Xiao, May 2011
In this work, styrene/butadiene (S/B) copolymer was synthesized via anionic bulk polymerization using a twin-screw extruder as a reactor and butyl lithium as the initiator. The structure of the copolymer was characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, TEM and DMA. It was found that macromolecule structure of prepared copolymer was composed of a long PS block, several short PS and PB blocks. A bubble theory was proposed to explain this result.
EFFECT OF WALL SLIP ON THE FLOW IN A FLAT DIE FOR SHEET EXTRUSION
Mahesh Gupta, May 2011
Flow in a flat die with coat hanger type of manifold is simulated allowing slip on die walls. Flow in the same die was also simulated by enforcing the no-slip condition on the walls. With slip on the die walls, the pressure drop, shear rate, stress, as well as temperature increase in the die, all were smaller than the corresponding values with no-slip condition on the walls. Due to its high computational efficiency, the software employed in this work can be effectively used to design extrusion dies for fluids exhibiting slip on die walls.
GREEN MANDATES OPENING UP A NEW SALES CHANNEL AND GROWTH POTENTIAL FOR MATERIALS COMPANIES
Susan Ward, May 2011
Audience members will learn the following: › Overview of the six green mandates and the opportunities they create for materials companies › Discuss which technologies are currently winning government contracts and why › Identify where the money is being spent currently and trends for future spending › Review best practices in how materials companies can access to those funds to grow their business
DETERMINING OPTIMUM VENT SIZES FOR INJECTION MOLDS
Suhas Kalkarni, Timothy Curnutt, May 2011
A mold was designed and built to study the optimum size of the vents in injection molds. Results demonstrated that vent sizes were dictated by the part design in the vent area. The higher the local shear rate, the lower is the viscosity of the polymer, limiting the vent depths. The injection phase of the molding cycle is the high shear phase and the pack and hold phases are the low shear phases. Vent depths can therefore vary depending on their location. A method to estimate the dimensions of a vent in a future work is proposed.
STRUCTURE-PROPERTIES RELATIONSHIP IN SEGMENTED POLYURETHANE/SILICA NANOPARTICLE COMPOSITES
Matthew Burke, James Sands, John La Scala, Frederick, Christopher Li, May 2011
Segmented polyurethanes (SPUs) have been synthesized possessing 25, 35 and 45 wt% hard segment. We have added 12 nm silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) during SPU synthesis and after with less than 5wt% loading. Drastic effects on morphology and properties were observed. Covalently attached SiNPs enhanced elongation to break and tensile strength until a critical concentration while blended composites exhibited decreased mechanical robustness. Composite structure and properties were examined.
USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TO PREDICT SHELF-LIFE
Scott Steele, Mark Rule, May 2011
The use of performance modeling is becoming more and more critical in the packaging industry as lightweighting efforts continue to be at the forefront. The primary driver for reducing the amount of material used in packaging is cost reduction. It is critical to not compromise the shelf life of the product. This paper will explain the theory of permeation as it is applied to food and beverage applications and document how the mathematics have been incorporated into an industry standard software application titled M-Rule Container Performance Models.
RAPID RESTORATION OF RAIL ROAD TIMBER BRIDGESUSING POLYMER COMPOSITES
P.V. Vijay, GangaRao Hota, Ruifeng Liang, Mark Skidmore, May 2011
Damaged piles of eleven timber railroad bridges on South Branch Valley Railroad (SBVR) lines in Moorefield, WV were rapidly rehabilitated and restored with the use of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites. Specifically, field rehabilitation involved repairing of 57 piles using GFRP composite wraps, phenolic formaldehyde resins, and resin soaked wood sawdust as a filler material in the pile core. Following the restoration of timber piles, Non-Destructive Evaluations (NDE) were carried out to assess wrap bonding and core integrity.
INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE MEAL BAGS
Matthew Burke, Gregory Pigeon, May 2011
This investigation was focused on alternative meal bags for use in military ration packaging, more specifically the Meal Ready-to-Eat (MRETM). Samples were obtained from manufacturers for testing of the barrier and mechanical properties. The newly developed meal bags were compared to existing meal bags to find any significant differences in performance.
A NEW BETA NUCLEANT MASTERBATCH FOR MINERAL FILLED AND UNFILLED POLYPROPYLENE APPLICATIONS
Philip Jacoby, May 2011
We have developed a unique, highly selective beta nucleant masterbatch that produces very high rates of crystallization, with very high Tc values. These attributes allow this masterbatch to be used in polypropylene systems that already contain other additives which nucleate the alpha crystal form of polypropylene, such as talc filled PP. The ability to beta nucleate talc filled PP now opens up the possibility of using beta nucleation to achieve both high stiffness and high impact strength in a mineral filled PP.
THE CHALLENGES OF CHOOSING THE RIGHT POLYMERIC MATERIAL FOR TODAY MEDICAL DEVICES
Len Czuba, May 2011
Selecting the right polymer materials to make a new medical device can be challenging. Besides the physical / functional testing needed, chemical and biological testing is also required. A well designed part made with the right polymeric materials will be able to pass regulatory scrutiny and provide life saving healthcare to users.
THE IMPORTANCE OF DISCRETE DATA ANALYSIS IN ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING PRODUCT QAULITY
Dan Weissmann, May 2011
Today electronic vision system can cull out many defective products while still on the production line and preventing them from reaching the customer. However, without quantifiable data no real assessment of the seriousness of the issues, defining causes and formulating remedies can be undertaken. New technologies and instruments have been developed specifically for the blow molding industry to generate and analyze sufficient number of samples to statistically provide such capabilities.
PROPERTIES COMPARISON BETWEEN EXTRUDED PVC/VAc FOAMS, AND PVC FOAMS, FILLED WITH COFFEE HUSK
Diego Dominguez, Jorge Medina, May 2011
Extrusion of rigid polyvinyl chloride/vinyl acetate (PVC/VAc) copolymer has not been discussed in detail in literature. In this study, PVC/VAc was extruded using coffee husk as filler. Moreover, azodicarbonamide was used as chemical blowing agent to make foams. Properties comparison was made against PVC/coffee husk foams. Lower processing temperature of PVC/VAc, in comparison with PVC, leaded to higher specific mechanical properties as consequence of better morphology due to few volatiles released from natural fibers.
IMPROVING THE POROSITY OF POLYPROPYLENE/POLYSULFONE MEMBRANES
Vicki Flaris, May 2011
Compatibilized polypropylene/polysulfone membranes were made using two environmentally-friendly processes. One way was through uniaxially stretching and another through biaxially stretching films. This paper will compare the improvements in mechanical properties obtained by both methods as well as compare interfacial tension measurements. Understanding the chemistry and location of the functional polyolefins is critical to explaining these improvements.
MECHANISM BEHIND A ROBUST SOFTTOUCH COATING
Robert Shengkui Hu, May 2011
A robust softtouch coatings system was designed. The mechanism leading to its robust physical properties will be discussed. This coating eliminated the usual performance defects associated with a conventional softtouch products such as unperdicted performance failures associated with application variations, tendency to become sticky after a certain period under the elements etc.
FATIGUE IMPROVEMENTS IN TOUGHENED EPOXY SYSTEMS
George Jacob, Nikhil, Ha Pham, Theophanous Theophanis, May 2011
Epoxy composites offer high performance and proven reliability in many demanding applications including components for aerospace and wind turbine blades. While in operation, these components are subjected to repeated cyclic loadings that result in material fatigue. For example, wind turbine blades are subjected to significant stresses from their movement, wind and other environmental factors such as temperature cycling and humidity. The expected life of a composite structure is based partially on the resistance of the materials utilized to fatigue failures.
LASER LIGHT TRANSMISSION THROUGH THERMOPLASTICS AS A FUNCTION OF THICKNESS AND LASER INCIDENCE ANGLE: EXPERIMENTAL
Elizabeth Azkikannickal, Phil Bates, Gene Zak, May 2011
This paper presents an experimental technique for measurement of the total transmission of laser light incident on thermoplastics as a function of the laser angle of incidence. The laser angle of incidence refers to the angle between the laser beam and the normal to the transparent part. The primary advantage of the set-up is that it allows for most, if not all, of the transmitted light to be captured and measured. Results from transmission tests on nylon 6 indicate that the transmission decreases with increasing angle of incidence particularly above 30.
EFFECT OF AGING ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF A BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIDE-CAPROLACTONE) COPOLYMER
Jone Munoz, Jose-Ramon Sarasua, May 2011
Poly(L-lactide/æ-caprolactone) (PLCL) was physically aged at 36§C and 40% of relative humidity (RH) to study the evolution of its structure and mechanical properties with time. Samples with an initial amorphous PLCL matrix, obtained by fast quenching from the melt were characterized before and during aging. The changes in structure and mechanical properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray diffraction (WAXS) and tensile tests. As a result of aging, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) crystals were formed within the multiblock copolymer prompting to an increase in stiffness and to a loss of its elastomer-thermoplastic behavior of PLCL.
INITIAL INVESTAGATION INTO THE USE OF SILICON DIOXIDE AS A FILLER IN ROTATIONAL MOULDING OF POLYETHYLENE
John Kissick, Gerry McNally, Alan Clarke, Paul Hanna, May 2011
Presented in this paper are the preliminary results from an experimental study on the use of rock, fines* which is mainly silicon dioxide as a filler in the rotationally moulded polyethylene products. The rock fines are a waste product from the Quarrying industry. Additive levels of up to 40% by weight were studied. Samples were made with and without a compatibilizer. It was found that acceptable parts were produced at these levels. The mechanical properties of the parts were tested and showed an increase in tensile modulus but a decrease in impact properties.
DISPERSION MORPHOLOGY OF ORGANOCLAY IN ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE/POLYAMIDE 6 /ORGANOCLAY TERNARY NANOCOMPOSITES
Wei Yan, Shuhao Qin, Jianbing Guo, Minmin Zhang, Jie Yu, May 2011
In this article, polyamide 6(PA6)/Organoclay masterbatch were prepared by melt mixing, and then acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS)/polyamide 6(PA6)(70/30,w/w) nanocomposites were prepared by the melt mixing of PA6, ABS and organoclay. The effect of organoclay platelets on dispersion of ABS/PA6/organoclay ternary nanocomposites had been investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphology analysis revealed that organoclay platelets were selectively dispersed and exfoliated in PA6 phase, but some were located in interface of PA6 and ABS phase.


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