The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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HYDROLYSIS RESISTANT - HIGH IMPACT POLYETHERIMIDE RESIN BLENDS
Injection moldable hydrolytically stable transparent thermoplastic Polyetherimide resin blends with high impact and thermal resistance have been developed for healthcare applications. The two-phase resin blends are capable of withstanding 2,500 autoclave cycles at 134 C and 50 ppm morpholine while maintaining clarity and ductility. Injection molding of the new steam resistant blends as well as their rheological and material properties are compared to polyetherimide.
ESSENTIALS IN DESIGN- WHAT MAKES A DESIGN SUCCESSFUL?
The topic of what makes a design successful will be critically addressed by the author based on a macroscopic discussion of the entire design process. Product design methodology will be discussed based influences of personal perceptions and analytical thinking to the application of creativity for solving complex problems. Development phases from initial specifications, through concept development and engineering details will be reviewed. Examples will be cited throughout the paper to substantiate and clarify many of the critical comments.
INFRARED-REFLECTIVE ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS
The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum may be used for a variety of purposes in engineering thermoplastics. This paper will explain strategies to develop materials having tailored infrared properties. Inorganic colorants were combined to meet military specifications for near-infrared (NIR) reflective camouflage colors. Opaque colors can be formulated to match under visible illumination and offer analytical detection in the infrared for convenient authentication. Heat storage can be controlled in ASA alloys in dark colors with excellent weatherability.
PROGRESS TOWARD MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PIGMENT PRODUCTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
The production of organic pigments is quickly moving from the United States and Europe to China, India and other developing countries. The environmental impact of this trend and creative efforts being undertaken by emerging pigment producers to reduce pollution and conserve natural resources will be explored.
PROPERTIES OF POLY (PROPYLENE CARBONATE) PRODUCED VIA SK ENERGY'S GREENPOL TECHNOLOGY
Polypropylene carbonate (PPC) is an amorphous polymer made by alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide. SK Energy developed its own proprietary technology with a highly active catalyst for this polymerization and has begun to produce PPC in its continuous process type pilot plant since late 2008 with a trade name GreenPolTM. In this paper, we are describing the typical properties of PPC such as general physical properties, barrier properties, thermal and UV stability, and smoke density along with some rheological properties.
FABRICATION OF SOLUBLE AND HIGHLY CONDUCTIVE PANI:CSA FLEXIBLE ELECTRODE FOR ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS
A flexible and transparent polymeric electrode was prepared by spin coating of polyaniline doped with camphor sulfonic acid (PANI:CSA) on a flexible film for polymeric organic solar cells. Synthesized PANI emeraldine base (EB) having a high molecular weight was doped CSA with 6:4 molar ratio in m-cresol. For obtaining better properties, two concepts are considered to achieve improvement both soluble and conductivity matters in our study.
STUDY OF THE TAGUCHI METHOD ON THE EJECTING FORCE OF THE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
In combination with the analysis of Computer Aided Engineering and the Taguchi Method, this paper discussed the effect of various factors in the design of the ejection mechanism regarding the ejection force required for the de-molding of plastic products, and proposed a design method that optimized the design of ejection system parameters. Moreover, the factors affecting the ejection force were discussed in order to provide a reference basis for the design of the ejection mechanism.
OPTIMAL DESIGN FOR A HOT RUNNER NOZZLE COOLING SYSTEM
This study employed CAE analysis and the Taguchi Method to discuss the factors and level planning, and conducted experiments on the influences on the cooling efficiency. CAE software was utilized to simulate the cooling results of the experiment. Using the Taguchi Method, a set of cooling parameters was obtained to understand how to keep the nozzle temperature within a suitable range and establish a complete optimization method.
CAVITY PEAK PRESSURE CONTROL DURING PACKING USING MODELPREDICTIVE CONTROL THEORY
Cavity pressure control in the injection molding process is key in ensuring good product quality. A model predictive control algorithm is used to design a gain scheduling controller to control cavity pressure during the packing portion of the injection cycle. The affects of hydraulic pressure on peak cavity pressure during the packing stage and the identification of the onset of packing in an injection cycle are investigated. Simulations are conducted to verify the controllers performance.
EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL USE OF A GRAFTED STYRENE BUTADIENE STYRENE AS A MULTIFUNCTIONAL DRUG ELUTING MATERIAL FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
The focus of this project was the development of polymeric coating systems which may be used for drug delivery in cardiovascular situations. This project centers on the transformation of the molecular structure of a thermoplastic elastomer namely styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) by the addition of a polymeric side group (N-vinyl -2- pyrrolidone). The samples were analyzed by ATR-FTIR, DMTA, white light profilometry, SEM, goniometry, and drug dissolution.
SCRATCH VISIBILITY: ERICHSEN DELTA L AND ASTM/ISO ASSESSMENTS OF TPO RESINS
Automotive parts are constantly subjected to harsh environmental abuse but still must meet consumer's aesthetic scrutiny. Surface durability is especially important and scratch resistance has been an area of interest for design experts and polymer engineers. Two significant approaches to measuring this phenomenon have emerged: Erichsen Delta L and ASTM/ISO progressive load test. This paper will compare assessments obtained from the two methodologies.
OPTIMIZATION OF RELEASE COATING SYSTEMS
Mold release agents, also called release coatings or mold lubricants frequently hold the key to the success of a molding operation. Often, however, the choice of the type of release coating is an afterthought. As many know, the wrong release agent can lead to increased downtime, increased reject rate and overall lower efficiency. Early matching of the proper release coating system with your particular material and molding process will reduce start-up problems and contribute to a more trouble-free process.
UV-INITIATED REACTIVE EXTRUSION OF POLYPROPYLENE
A new reactive extrusion (REX) process for the production of controlled-rheology polypropylene (CRPP) has been developed using benzophonene (BP) as a photo-initiator and an ultraviolet (UV) lamp. Experiments have been carried out in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder and the effects of initiator concentration, polymer flow rate and reaction temperature have been studied. The CRPP products have been characterized through rheological measurements, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
MULTILAYER CYCLIC OLEFIN COPOLYMER PROCESSING STUDY
Multilayer films consisting of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) skin layers and ethylene co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) or nylon core layers were investigated for their barrier and mechanical properties, as high barrier materials for possible use in military rations packaging. Two different grades of EVOH along with a nylon nanocomposite were processed via cast film extrusion, while processing temperature and chill roll configuration was varied. Characterization of the cast multilayer films included oxygen and water vapor permeation testing.
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CREEP DEFORMATION IN THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES
Profiles of thermoplastic composite materials will creep and deform under loads and thermal stresses with duration depending on thermal conditions. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been performed which combines the time and temperature dependencies of the stress relaxation modulus of the materials. This analysis will benefit proof-of-design concepts, extrusion cooling processes and product life predictions.
PRINCIPALS OF THE TWINWELD SYSTEM
The Twinweld laser plastic welding system is a process which utilizes two sources of radiant energy to weld optically clear parts to laser opaque parts at higher speeds and offering higher weld strengths while reducing residual stresses in the finished component. It also has the capability to reduce bridge gaps at the welding interfaces of the two components which may exist prior to welding.
LATERAL STRESS AND BULK DENSITY OF PET RESIN WITH RE-CYCLE
Solids conveying depends on the specific gravity and the lateral stress of the feed resin. Laboratory measurements show that the addition of re-cycle PET flakes to virgin PET pellet resin feed significantly changes its lateral stress and specific gravity. Data for different ratios of re-cycle flake to PET pellets are presented. Also, data for 100% PET pellet feed and 100% PET re-cycle flakes are given for comparison.
WHAT EVERY PLASTICS PROFESSIONAL SHOULD KNOW ABOUT PATENTS AND PATENTING - PART 4: THE NON-OBVIOUSNESS REQUIREMENT FOR PATENTABILITY IN LIGHT OF KSR v. TELEFLEX
This article provides a brief summary of the U.S. Supreme Court Decision in KSR v. Teleflex and how that decision has impacted the guidelines patent examiners are expected to follow in their determination of whether a patent claim is obvious These guidelines were first published in the Federal Register a few months after the Court's decision was released.
PLASTIC PACKAGING: A CURRENT PERSEPCTIVE ON SUSTAINABILITY
Five plastic packaging producers, machine manufacturers, and/or resin manufacturers are studied to conduct case study research to understand the approaches they are taking to use sustainable packaging. This industry view point is conducted to generate information regarding environmental pressures these companies are facing and the strategies they are implementing to be competitive and sustainable.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIBACTERIAL FILM FOR APPLICATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY
In this study, the preparation of Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ZnO nanocomposite and its antibacterial efficiency was analysed. The antibacterial property investigation was performed by colony count tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to investigate the dispersion effect of LDPE-g-MAH copolymer. Two ZnO nanoparticles sizes were studied and their efficiency was first tested in water suspension. The results show that both an increase in mixing temperature and addition of copolymer improve the antibacterial efficiency of the polymer film.
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