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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
INVESTIGATION ON WARPAGE BEHAVIOR OF DVD-DISK IN INJECTION COMPRESSION MOLDING
Shia-Chung Chen, Guan-Hua Lee, Chia-Yen Tseng, TzuChau Chen, Hsien-Sen Chiu, Chih-Chung Hsu, May 2011
In this study, the Injection Compression Molding (ICM) process was simulated with a DVD-disk model using the Moldex3D-ICM module. An ICM experiment was also conducted to verify the simulation results. The effects of the process parameters such as compression force, delay time and switch time on warpage behavior are investigated. The experimental results show that a high compression force causes low deflection, while a longer delay time or switch time induces higher deflection.
GEOMETRIC NONLINEARITY IN 3D WARPAGE SIMULATION OF INJECTION MOLDED PLASTICS
Zhiliang Fan, David Astbury, Haipeng Wang, Chris Friedl, May 2011
Three-dimensional(3D) warpage simulation of polymer injection molded components is well developed and widely used in industry. Although a simple linear analysis is a good representation of reality for most warpage cases, it can lead to totally wrong warpage predictions in some special cases. In this paper, we extend the 3D warpage solution to account for geometric nonlinearity. Two typical large deflection examples are presented: one is the post-buckling of a tray model, and the other is the large deflection warpage of a two-shot over-molded part.
COMPOSITES FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS: FIRE, SMOKE, AND TOXICITY MATERIAL TESTING AND REQUIREMENTS
Michael Lee, May 2011
Composite use aboard naval vessels has increased as militaries strive to reduce acquisition and maintenance costs as well as improve the structural and operational performance of naval craft. However, strict performance and safety requirements have hindered the use of composites in naval vessels. Fire, Smoke, and Toxicity (FST) requirements have made using composites aboard naval vessels a challenging application. This paper presents the FST requirements and a high level overview of replacing steel with composites.
HYDROPHOBIC THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES
Anthony Walder, Donald Meltzer, Daphne Robinson, May 2011
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) that are used in a variety of medical applications. TPUs exhibit low temperature flexibility, excellent abrasion resistance, high tensile strength and good processing characteristics. The softest TPUs historically used in medical applications exhibit a Shore Durometer above 70A. A medical grade TPU with a Shore Durometer of 62A will be presented. This softness is achieved without the use of plasticizers as is often the case with many other soft TPEs.
TRANSPARENT FLAME RETARDANT PEN/PET ALLOY FOR DIGITAL TV FRAME
In Kim, Manwar Hussain, Philjoong Yoon, May 2011
The paper relates to a unique flame retardant (FR) composition in which polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) are in the form of polymer blend by low shear melt extrusion process. The composition provides excellent flame retardant with good anti-dipping property, especially is able to mold transparent articles such as next generation TV frames, computer, video game console, and appliance housing applications
PERVASIVE INNOVATION: TAKING INNOVATION DEEP AND WIDE ACROSS AND THROUGH THE ORGANIZATION
Bonnie Bachman, Stephen Bozzone, May 2011
One of the fundamental tenets of management is that human capital can provide an essential competitive advantage for a business. Concurrent innovation is a process for managing new product development cycles, from the ideation stage to implementation by using parallel streams of innovation and collaboration across boundaries.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE EJECTION FORCES FOR POLYMER RESINS
Alias Mohd, Colin Hindle, May 2011
The development and manufacture of the tool for injection molding is a complex task which demands highly skilled and experienced operator. This paper is to analyze the ejection force for different selected polymer resins which is having a series of surface roughness. The research was carried out on a cylinder shaped molding with variations in wall thicknesses. The result reveals that PA6 required high ejection force due to surface texture generated compared with HIPS and ABS.
STUDY ON EXTERNALLY WRAPPED COILS INDUCTION HEATING AND ITS APPLICATION ON RAPID MOLD SURFACE HEATING
Shia-Chung Chen, Jen-An Chang, Yu-Tseng Lin, Wen-Yang Shen, May 2011
The purpose of this study is to use externally wrapped coil induction heating to determine the practicality of its application in mold temperature control. A simulation was performed using the ANSYS software by the integration of both thermal and electromagnetic analysis modules. By experiment, the heating efficiency of coils in series was found to be 8.26C/s, while for parallel coils, it was 1.88C/s. Coils in series offers a much faster heating process. Both the simulation and experimental results are quite similar.
HIGH FLOW GLASS FIBER FILLED AROMATIC POLYAMIDE RESINS
Anirban Ganguly, Susanta Mitra, Reema Sinha, Anton Kumanan, Anne Bolvari, May 2011
Novel idea of using hyperbranched polymers - dendritic aliphatic polyesters (DAP) as flow promoters in highly glass fiber reinforced polyamides (GF-PA) system is depicted in this paper. Different concentrations and types of DAPs is employed and these are found to be effective in modifying flow from 10% to 160% with the at as low as 0.5 to 3 weight % concentration for GF-PA without affecting the enabling mechanical and thermal properties.
UV-CURE COATINGS ON PLASTICS ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS
Vladimir Shteynberg, May 2011
The first UV coating was introduced to US Market more then 35 years ago sometimes in the early 70th of the last century. Since then UV coatings steadily grew in North America consumption from modest 1.3M gallons per year to 290M gal of projected sales in 2010. Growth in UV coating started with Inks and Overprint Varnishes following the Wood coatings and finally with advancement in technology for radiation cure coating for metals and plastics started to emerge into the market place.
ONE DIMENSIONAL MELTING IN SINGLE-SCREW EXTRUDERS
Gregory Campbell, May 2011
For special operating conditions and resins, the melting process for single-screw extruders can occur via a very non-traditional mechanism. For this process, melting occurs almost exclusively at the solid bed-melt film interface between the solid bed and the barrel wall. The newly molten material then infiltrates the solid bed such that a melt pool does not form on the pushing side of the channel. This paper describes the mechanism and provides a model for the melting process.
FIELD FAILURE MECHANISMS IN HDPE POTABLE WATER PIPE
Donald Duvall, Dale Edwards, May 2011
High density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe has been widely used in potable water water applications for several decades. In some locales HDPE pipes have experienced premature failures that have been traced back to a variety of causes. A review of the failure mechanisms observed will be presented along with a forensic analysis of some field failures.
LIGHTWEIGHT CONSTRUCTION POTENTIAL IN THE POWERTRAIN - TRANSMISSION HOUSING PRODUCED BY THE PLASTIC/METAL HYBRID METHOD
Hans Heim, Tatjana Geminger, Jonas Weber, May 2011
In the automotive industry, the use of plastics in the powertrain is essential for lightweight construction and thus for meeting CO2 emission targets. The present technology of light alloy die-casting used to manufacture transmission housings offers little further savings potential. Additional weight savings can, however, be achieved by using a hybrid process (metal/plastic composite). Various levels of this material hybridisation" will be examined here."
COMPATIBILITY OF COATED FABRICS USED IN COLLAPSIBLE FUEL STORAGE TANKS WITH BIODIESEL FUELS
James Sloan, D. Deschepper, Dave Flanagan, May 2011
We evaluate the effect of three different biofuels on the properties of three currently used storage container materials. These consist of two urethane coated fabrics and one nitrile coated fabric. In all of our experiments, standard diesel fuel was used for comparison and the resulting permeation rates were found to be greater than the biofuels evaluated in this study.
ULTRASONIC CUTTING OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) FILMS
Julius Vogel, David Grewell, May 2011
Ultrasonic cutting systems are employed with materials that are difficult to cut with standard mechanical systems. The cutting knife/edge typically vibrates at a frequency of 20-60 kHz, heating the substrate during the cutting and simultaneously sealing the cut edges. Polylactic acid (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic material derived from starch and sugar, is relatively brittle compared to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which has similar mechanical properties. This brittleness is problematic during mechanical cutting, which produces micro-cracks that further embrittle the material.
FAN GATE DESIGN TO IMPROVE PACKING CONTROL
David Smith, Anthony McWilliams, May 2011
A study was performed to determine the effects that three different fan gate designs had in thoroughly packing out an injection molded five-sided box with ribs. Part weight and the identification of sinks and voids on the part will be the means of interpreting the effectiveness of each gate. The materials that were used to conduct the experiment were PC, ABS, POM, and PP.
PHOTODEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENES WITH CLARIFYING AGENT
Jana Navratilova, Roman Cermak, Petr Mlejnek, May 2011
The work compared the effect of ñ-nucleating/clarifying agent based on 1,3;2,4-bis(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene)sorbitol on the photodegradation in two polypropylenes. One of them was nucleated directly by producer while the second in the laboratory. For comparison, neat PP was studied as well. The samples were irradiated by UV-light and then examined using several methods. The results showed that the addition of ñ-nucleating agent influenced only slightly the process of photodegradation. However, significant differences in structure among the materials were observed.
IMPROVED DIALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR CORE-SHELL PULLULAN-POLYCAPROLACTONE (PCL) NANOSPHERES LOADED WITH HYDROPHOBIC CIPROFLOXACIN
Sally Shady, Daniel Schmidt, Steve McCarthy, May 2011
Drug delivery vehicles in the form of nanospheres improve solubility, bioavailability and biodistribution of many pharmaceutical drugs. However, low encapsulation efficiency is a limitation that currently challenges many drug carriers. The dialysis method can be used as a technique to address this problem and enhance the apparent purity and consistency of the nanospheres being prepared. This research introduces a dialysis technique that retains 30 to 40 times more drugs of nanospheres being prepared.
INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF MODIFIERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INJECTION MOLDED LIQUID SILICONE RUBBERS
Sidney Carson, May 2011
The effects on mechanical properties of blending different levels by weight of talc, silica, and glass fibers in Liquid Silicone Rubber systems was investigated. Specifically, tensile strength, hardness, elongation, and compression set behavior was measured for unblended resin and each level of additive. A material property characterization was developed from these measurements. It was determined that talc and silica had better dispersion and both modifying and reinforcing effects, while the glass had none
INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY OF SILICONE
Nicole Larson, Kyle Pyke, May 2011
Liberty Orchards is a company that makes some very sticky candies that make processing difficult. The current process requires refrigerating the candy slabs overnight and cutting the next day. By making a mold for casting the candy, the two processes would be eliminated, reducing the cycle time and the cost per part. Previous research has shown that silicone is a possible material choice. The project looked at various elastomers and fluoroadditives to reduce the surface energy of silicone. The different formulations have been tested based on the contact angle goniometer, tensiometer, water resistance, and SEM.


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