The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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STUDY OF THE TAGUCHI METHOD ON THE EJECTING FORCE OF THE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
In combination with the analysis of Computer Aided Engineering and the Taguchi Method, this paper discussed the effect of various factors in the design of the ejection mechanism regarding the ejection force required for the de-molding of plastic products, and proposed a design method that optimized the design of ejection system parameters. Moreover, the factors affecting the ejection force were discussed in order to provide a reference basis for the design of the ejection mechanism.
OPTIMAL DESIGN FOR A HOT RUNNER NOZZLE COOLING SYSTEM
This study employed CAE analysis and the Taguchi Method to discuss the factors and level planning, and conducted experiments on the influences on the cooling efficiency. CAE software was utilized to simulate the cooling results of the experiment. Using the Taguchi Method, a set of cooling parameters was obtained to understand how to keep the nozzle temperature within a suitable range and establish a complete optimization method.
CAVITY PEAK PRESSURE CONTROL DURING PACKING USING MODELPREDICTIVE CONTROL THEORY
Cavity pressure control in the injection molding process is key in ensuring good product quality. A model predictive control algorithm is used to design a gain scheduling controller to control cavity pressure during the packing portion of the injection cycle. The affects of hydraulic pressure on peak cavity pressure during the packing stage and the identification of the onset of packing in an injection cycle are investigated. Simulations are conducted to verify the controllers performance.
EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL USE OF A GRAFTED STYRENE BUTADIENE STYRENE AS A MULTIFUNCTIONAL DRUG ELUTING MATERIAL FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
The focus of this project was the development of polymeric coating systems which may be used for drug delivery in cardiovascular situations. This project centers on the transformation of the molecular structure of a thermoplastic elastomer namely styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) by the addition of a polymeric side group (N-vinyl -2- pyrrolidone). The samples were analyzed by ATR-FTIR, DMTA, white light profilometry, SEM, goniometry, and drug dissolution.
SCRATCH VISIBILITY: ERICHSEN DELTA L AND ASTM/ISO ASSESSMENTS OF TPO RESINS
Automotive parts are constantly subjected to harsh environmental abuse but still must meet consumer's aesthetic scrutiny. Surface durability is especially important and scratch resistance has been an area of interest for design experts and polymer engineers. Two significant approaches to measuring this phenomenon have emerged: Erichsen Delta L and ASTM/ISO progressive load test. This paper will compare assessments obtained from the two methodologies.
OPTIMIZATION OF RELEASE COATING SYSTEMS
Mold release agents, also called release coatings or mold lubricants frequently hold the key to the success of a molding operation. Often, however, the choice of the type of release coating is an afterthought. As many know, the wrong release agent can lead to increased downtime, increased reject rate and overall lower efficiency. Early matching of the proper release coating system with your particular material and molding process will reduce start-up problems and contribute to a more trouble-free process.
UV-INITIATED REACTIVE EXTRUSION OF POLYPROPYLENE
A new reactive extrusion (REX) process for the production of controlled-rheology polypropylene (CRPP) has been developed using benzophonene (BP) as a photo-initiator and an ultraviolet (UV) lamp. Experiments have been carried out in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder and the effects of initiator concentration, polymer flow rate and reaction temperature have been studied. The CRPP products have been characterized through rheological measurements, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
MULTILAYER CYCLIC OLEFIN COPOLYMER PROCESSING STUDY
Multilayer films consisting of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) skin layers and ethylene co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) or nylon core layers were investigated for their barrier and mechanical properties, as high barrier materials for possible use in military rations packaging. Two different grades of EVOH along with a nylon nanocomposite were processed via cast film extrusion, while processing temperature and chill roll configuration was varied. Characterization of the cast multilayer films included oxygen and water vapor permeation testing.
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CREEP DEFORMATION IN THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES
Profiles of thermoplastic composite materials will creep and deform under loads and thermal stresses with duration depending on thermal conditions. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been performed which combines the time and temperature dependencies of the stress relaxation modulus of the materials. This analysis will benefit proof-of-design concepts, extrusion cooling processes and product life predictions.
PRINCIPALS OF THE TWINWELD SYSTEM
The Twinweld laser plastic welding system is a process which utilizes two sources of radiant energy to weld optically clear parts to laser opaque parts at higher speeds and offering higher weld strengths while reducing residual stresses in the finished component. It also has the capability to reduce bridge gaps at the welding interfaces of the two components which may exist prior to welding.
LATERAL STRESS AND BULK DENSITY OF PET RESIN WITH RE-CYCLE
Solids conveying depends on the specific gravity and the lateral stress of the feed resin. Laboratory measurements show that the addition of re-cycle PET flakes to virgin PET pellet resin feed significantly changes its lateral stress and specific gravity. Data for different ratios of re-cycle flake to PET pellets are presented. Also, data for 100% PET pellet feed and 100% PET re-cycle flakes are given for comparison.
WHAT EVERY PLASTICS PROFESSIONAL SHOULD KNOW ABOUT PATENTS AND PATENTING - PART 4: THE NON-OBVIOUSNESS REQUIREMENT FOR PATENTABILITY IN LIGHT OF KSR v. TELEFLEX
This article provides a brief summary of the U.S. Supreme Court Decision in KSR v. Teleflex and how that decision has impacted the guidelines patent examiners are expected to follow in their determination of whether a patent claim is obvious These guidelines were first published in the Federal Register a few months after the Court's decision was released.
PLASTIC PACKAGING: A CURRENT PERSEPCTIVE ON SUSTAINABILITY
Five plastic packaging producers, machine manufacturers, and/or resin manufacturers are studied to conduct case study research to understand the approaches they are taking to use sustainable packaging. This industry view point is conducted to generate information regarding environmental pressures these companies are facing and the strategies they are implementing to be competitive and sustainable.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIBACTERIAL FILM FOR APPLICATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY
In this study, the preparation of Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ZnO nanocomposite and its antibacterial efficiency was analysed. The antibacterial property investigation was performed by colony count tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to investigate the dispersion effect of LDPE-g-MAH copolymer. Two ZnO nanoparticles sizes were studied and their efficiency was first tested in water suspension. The results show that both an increase in mixing temperature and addition of copolymer improve the antibacterial efficiency of the polymer film.
EVOLUTION OF CARBON BLACK GRADES FROM RUBBER APPLICATIONS TO SPECIALTY PLASTIC APPLICATIONS
The different end use requirements of carbon black in rubber and plastics applications are discussed in this paper. Although the larger volume of carbon black is used in rubber applications, the critical requirements of these products are much different than the needs in plastics applications such as molding and fiber. It is recommended to evaluate the end use product requirements and manufacturing process when choosing a carbon black. Carbon black suppliers have developed specialty grades of carbon black to meet the needs of the plastics market.
SIMULATION OF MICROPELLETIZING MECHANISMS
A newly developed technique allows production of pellets with a spherical shape and size in the micrometer-scale. This is achieved by extruding a polymer melt through a capillary and stretching it with a hot air stream. This work presents the first approach to simulate this process. The deformation, presence of Rayleigh instabilities and primary breakup of a fluid thread that is continuously flowing from a channel is simulated using the OpenFOAM fluid dynamics package.
EFFECT OF HYBRID COMPATIBILIZERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTY OF TERNARY BLEND WITH POLYPROPYLENE, POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND TPO
In this study, ternary blend included with Polypropylene, Poly (lactic acid) and Polyolefin Elastomer was prepared using melt blending technique. In order to overcome the poor compatibility of among PP, PLA and TPO, several sorts of compatibilizers were tested. In addition to that, we evaluated the annealing effect of injection molded ternary blend. As a result, we could improve the thermal and mechanical properties of ternary blend by adding hybrid compatibilizers with 3 wt%, respectively.
FOCAL LENGTH CONTROL OF INJECTION-MOLDED PLASTIC LENSES VIA MODEL FREE OPTIMIZATION
Optical quality is the vital concern of injection-molded plastic optical lenses. Focal length is a key quality attribute of a lens to be controlled. A systematic model-free optimization (MFO) method is proposed to control the focal length. Both the gradient-free and gradient-based algorithms are developed. The effectiveness of the MFO method has been demonstrated through experiments. Comparisions with the model-based optimization (MBO) method are also conducted.
RHEOLOGICAL STUDIES ON A NOVEL LIQUID CRYSTALLINE EPOXY THERMOSET
Liquid crystalline epoxy thermosets were prepared by adding 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbiphenyl-4,4'-diyl bis(4-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)benzoate) (M1) into diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)/ 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM) blends. Rheological tests with constant temperature and time tests under constant mechanical shear load conditions were performed by using rheometry instrument.
GASES STORAGE IN SUPPORTED CLATHRATES
Gas clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds formed of hydrogen-bonded H2O cages, encapsulating small molecules such as methane, hydrogen or carbon dioxide. In the search for viable gas storage media, clathrates may offer an alternative to micro-porous materials such as zeolites, active carbons and metal-organic frameworks. However, a barrier must first be overcome: Slow kinetics of enclathration (diffusion of gas into bulk systems can be of the order of days). Here we present a general strategy to greatly increase the rate of enclathration by means of trapping water in hydrophobic nanoparticle cage, gel, or porous polymer.
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