The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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MATERIAL COST REDUCTION FOR LARGE AREA AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MOLDING
Automobile industry is introducing many variants for their customers. This puts lot of pressure to plastic molders due to JIT concept. Attempts need to be made to commonize the materials to shorten the delivery time to accommodate JIT concept. These paper attempts to demonstrate speedy deliveries with lower cost of production.
Hydrophobic Thermoplastic Polyurethanes
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) that are used in a variety of medical applications (1). TPUs exhibit low temperature flexibility, excellent abrasion resistance, high tensile strength and good processing characteristics. The softest TPUs historically used in medical applications exhibit a Shore Durometer above 70A. A medical grade TPU with a Shore Durometer of 62A will be presented. This softness is achieved without the use of plasticizers as is often the case with many other soft TPEs.
A NEW BETA NUCLEANT MASTERBATCH FOR MINERAL FILLED AND UNFILLED POLYPROPYLENE APPLICATIONS
We have developed a unique, highly selective beta nucleant masterbatch that produces high levels of beta crystallinity, and high crystallization temperatures (Tc values). This masterbatch can also be used in polypropylene that already contains other additives which nucleate the alpha crystallinity, such as talc filled PP. The ability to beta nucleate talc filled PP offers the possibility of using beta nucleation to achieve both high stiffness and high impact strength in talc reinforced PP.
A NEW CLOSED LOOP MOLD TEMPERATURE CONTROL TECHNIQUE BY MEANS OF ONLINE THERMOGRAPHY
In injection molding, the precise control of the mold temperature distribution is a crucial prerequisite for the quality of the final products. A new approach to achieve an excellent repeat accuracy of the mold temperature is to use infrared images of demolded parts to realize a closed loop control. Without the necessity for changes in the mold the automatic control can help to improve the quality, to keep cycle times short and to avoid scrap.
Hybrid Composite Front Seat Backrest
A car seat backrest was developed by Faurecia and BASF with a new multi-material technology that combines the use of metal, injected polyamide and continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The paper describes the architecture of the seat, the choice of the materials, and the numerical and experimental validation of the structure.
USING DMLS TECHNOLOGY FOR CONFORMAL COOLING IN THERMOPLASTICS INJECTION TOOLS
Thermal assets are fundamental in the thermoplastics injection toolings. DMLS (Digital Metal Laser Sintering) is one option to solve problems of injection molding thermal assets using an industrial procedure to introduce conformal cooling in injection tools. Conformal cooling is a special shaped regulation circuitry ideally installed in the injection tools.
A STUDY ON EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON COLOURS DURING COMPOUNDING OF PLASTICS
The historical production data of SABIC IP, Cobourg, was used to determine effects on colours of compounded plastics, of using extruders of different configurations, incorporating minute variations in pigment compositions and using different grades of resins. The colours had been measured in terms of CIE L*,a*,b* values using a spectrophotometer. The measured L*,a*,b* values were then analyzed and compared to the target values using statistical methods. The differences in the observed trends are discussed.
TRENDS AND NEEDS IN AUTOMOTIVE MATCHED BY ECO+ SOLUTIONS FROM DSM
An overview is given of the various drivers, needs and trends in the automotive industry and how these are matched by various new plastic solutions, which in the end all significantly increase the sustainability of various car components and of the complete cars in total.
PHYSICAL FOAMING OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) – PROCESSING AND PROPERTIES
We describe the steps necessary to establish a stable extrusion process of physical foaming of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with carbon dioxide. The low melt strength and poor thermal stability of PLA plays a role in optimizing processing conditions. Up to 10 wt% supercritical CO2 was added. The effect of a chain extender was also tested. Low density, microcellular foams with density down to 20-30 kg/m3 were obtained for three different PLA grades. Foams were characterized by density, cell structure, crystallinity and mechanical compression properties.
HOW INDUCTIVE HEATING CAN IMPROVE PLASTIC INJECTION
Currently, in the thermoplastic injection industry, there are several processes allowing heat cycling within the mould. Although they have their own characteristics, their purpose is the same. There are many advantages to be taken into consideration whilst injecting hot thermoplastic onto a heated tool, such as: no welding lines, no sink marks, no paint necessary and the possibility to easily inject engineered materials.
Dispersion and Mixing Characteristics of High Volume and High Torque Twin Screw Extruders
Twin screw extruders with large volume and high torque are a widely embraced equipment in the compounding industry. The paper presents a specific research on the residence time distribution and energy input for these machines. It shows the result of the machine technology in terms of various processes, such as production of color masterbatches, technical compounds and filler concentrates. Furthermore, the paper deals with various questions such as process window, throughput increase and how flexible extrusion lines can be.
Analysis of the h-Convergence Method of Finite Elements of Injection-Molding-Simulation Results
The h-convergence of finite element method was used to compare simulation results from two software programs (MPI-Moldflow and Moldex3D). The parameters studied were injection (fill) time and pressure, cycle time, part weight, shrinkage, etc. Some differences were found between the two software programs, and with some of the experimental results.
Strippability in cable extrusion
In cable industry, the ease with which a piece of jacket can be removed (stripped) from insulated multiwires is called strippability. A low stripe force is not only requested by customers and installers but it also makes the cable more flexible. The purpose of this paper is to present a method based on numerical approach to reduce the stripe force for a cable during extrusion. A correlation between the numerical parameter (pressure applied around the wires) and the stripe force measured on samples has been demonstrated afterwards it is used to design future extrusion pressure tooling.
Recycle of Internal and External streams of Polyetherimide Resin
One of the main advantages of polyetherimide (PEI) resin (Ultem* PEI) is its high thermal stability, making it an excellent candidate for using internal industrial recycle, external industrial recycle (sprues, runners, parts) and post-consumer recycle as raw material streams. A 30% glass fibre filled grade has been developed using up to 65% of non-virgin material. Mechanical properties were maintained even at high % usage of recycle. *(Trademark of Sabic Innovative Plastics IP B.V.)
Noryl GTX for thermal breaks
Aluminum has a high thermal conductivity which make them less suitable for window frames unless the inner and outer skin are separated by a thermal break. Currently glass reinforced Polyamide66 is used for this application. Noryl GTX* however has a thermal conductivity, measured on a extruded sample which is clearly below the thermal conductivity of Polyamide. Noryl GTX is also capable to withstand the high powder coating curing temperatures and meets the mechanical requirements for thermal breaks. By the upcoming, more stringent regulations on energy saving using Noryl GTX will help to meet these requirements.
HEAT MANAGEMENT IN THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITES – PARTICLE SIZE EFFECTS
The particle-matrix interface in polymer composites may act as a barrier for heat transport, leading to a particle size and shape-dependent thermal conductivity. In this work, the effect of filler particle size and shape was studied for a model system of poly(butylene terephthalate) and silicon carbide. Within the particle size (0.5-100 μm) and volume (20-50 vol%) ranges studied, no influence on the thermal conductivity was observed. All experimental data could be well described by the Jiajun model.
HIGH FLOW GLASS FIBER FILLED AROMATIC POLYAMIDE RESINS
Novel idea of using hyperbranched polymers - dendritic aliphatic polyesters (DAP) as flow promoters in highly glass fiber reinforced aromatic polyamides (GF-PA) system is depicted in this paper. Different concentrations and types of DAPs are employed and these are found to be effective in modifying flow from 10% to 160% with as low as 0.5 to 3 weight % concentration for GF-PA without affecting the enabling mechanical and thermal properties.
MOLD OPTIMIZATION FOR METAL INSERT INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS
High quality, coupled with high efficiency of the process are two of the most important requirements for goods intended for automotive market. The case study here presented demonstrates how to satisfy quality requirements and increase production efficiency, while reducing production waste. An injection molding process with metal insert has been analyzed. New shape for mold feeding system has been obtained using Hagen-Poiseuille law as guideline and FE model to verify performance of proposed solutions.
THERMOFORMING PEI (POLYETHEREIMIDE) FOAM SHEET
Rigid PEI foam is based on amorphous thermoplastic PEI, with high thermal resistance, good FST performance and broad chemical resistance. Among the application benefits of PEI foam ‘machinability, good bonding to composite skin materials, low moisture uptake’, thermoformability is a unique characteristic. A specific technique has been developed to enable thermoforming of complex 3D-geometries. With the addition of an overmolded decorative layer, finished parts can be created with significantly reduced cycle time versus existing techniques.
“Digital Sampling” Bridging the gap between Virtual Reality and Color Development in Automotive Interiors
Digital Sampling as a solution to speed up Color Development Processes in Automotive Interiors is explored. The implementation of this tool reduces the amount of cycles needed for color approvals by 50% and is applicable to 80% of all interior parts. Virtual Reality Solutions are widely used in Automotive applications. This paper will show the benefits of linking Digital Sampling with Virtual Reality techniques and the resulting impact of realized time and cost savings on the bottom line.
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