The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
A car seat backrest was developed by Faurecia and BASF with a new multi-material technology that combines the use of metal, injected polyamide and continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The paper describes the architecture of the seat, the choice of the materials, and the numerical and experimental validation of the structure.
Thermal assets are fundamental in the thermoplastics injection toolings. DMLS (Digital Metal Laser Sintering) is one option to solve problems of injection molding thermal assets using an industrial procedure to introduce conformal cooling in injection tools. Conformal cooling is a special shaped regulation circuitry ideally installed in the injection tools.
The historical production data of SABIC IP, Cobourg, was used to determine effects on colours of compounded plastics, of using extruders of different configurations, incorporating minute variations in pigment compositions and using different grades of resins. The colours had been measured in terms of CIE L*,a*,b* values using a spectrophotometer. The measured L*,a*,b* values were then analyzed and compared to the target values using statistical methods. The differences in the observed trends are discussed.
An overview is given of the various drivers, needs and trends in the automotive industry and how these are matched by various new plastic solutions, which in the end all significantly increase the sustainability of various car components and of the complete cars in total.
We describe the steps necessary to establish a stable extrusion process of physical foaming of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with carbon dioxide. The low melt strength and poor thermal stability of PLA plays a role in optimizing processing conditions. Up to 10 wt% supercritical CO2 was added. The effect of a chain extender was also tested. Low density, microcellular foams with density down to 20-30 kg/m3 were obtained for three different PLA grades. Foams were characterized by density, cell structure, crystallinity and mechanical compression properties.
Currently, in the thermoplastic injection industry, there are several processes allowing heat cycling within the mould. Although they have their own characteristics, their purpose is the same. There are many advantages to be taken into consideration whilst injecting hot thermoplastic onto a heated tool, such as: no welding lines, no sink marks, no paint necessary and the possibility to easily inject engineered materials.
Twin screw extruders with large volume and high torque are a widely embraced equipment in the compounding industry. The paper presents a specific research on the residence time distribution and energy input for these machines. It shows the result of the machine technology in terms of various processes, such as production of color masterbatches, technical compounds and filler concentrates. Furthermore, the paper deals with various questions such as process window, throughput increase and how flexible extrusion lines can be.
The h-convergence of finite element method was used to compare simulation results from two software programs (MPI-Moldflow and Moldex3D). The parameters studied were injection (fill) time and pressure, cycle time, part weight, shrinkage, etc. Some differences were found between the two software programs, and with some of the experimental results.
One of the main advantages of polyetherimide (PEI) resin (Ultem* PEI) is its high thermal stability, making it an excellent candidate for using internal industrial recycle, external industrial recycle (sprues, runners, parts) and post-consumer recycle as raw material streams. A 30% glass fibre filled grade has been developed using up to 65% of non-virgin material. Mechanical properties were maintained even at high % usage of recycle. *(Trademark of Sabic Innovative Plastics IP B.V.)
The particle-matrix interface in polymer composites may act as a barrier for heat transport, leading to a particle size and shape-dependent thermal conductivity. In this work, the effect of filler particle size and shape was studied for a model system of poly(butylene terephthalate) and silicon carbide. Within the particle size (0.5-100 μm) and volume (20-50 vol%) ranges studied, no influence on the thermal conductivity was observed. All experimental data could be well described by the Jiajun model.
Novel idea of using hyperbranched polymers - dendritic aliphatic polyesters (DAP) as flow promoters in highly glass fiber reinforced aromatic polyamides (GF-PA) system is depicted in this paper. Different concentrations and types of DAPs are employed and these are found to be effective in modifying flow from 10% to 160% with as low as 0.5 to 3 weight % concentration for GF-PA without affecting the enabling mechanical and thermal properties.
High quality, coupled with high efficiency of the process are two of the most important requirements for goods intended for automotive market. The case study here presented demonstrates how to satisfy quality requirements and increase production efficiency, while reducing production waste. An injection molding process with metal insert has been analyzed. New shape for mold feeding system has been obtained using Hagen-Poiseuille law as guideline and FE model to verify performance of proposed solutions.
Rigid PEI foam is based on amorphous thermoplastic PEI, with high thermal resistance, good FST performance and broad chemical resistance. Among the application benefits of PEI foam ‘machinability, good bonding to composite skin materials, low moisture uptake’, thermoformability is a unique characteristic. A specific technique has been developed to enable thermoforming of complex 3D-geometries. With the addition of an overmolded decorative layer, finished parts can be created with significantly reduced cycle time versus existing techniques.
Digital Sampling as a solution to speed up Color Development Processes in Automotive Interiors is explored. The implementation of this tool reduces the amount of cycles needed for color approvals by 50% and is applicable to 80% of all interior parts. Virtual Reality Solutions are widely used in Automotive applications. This paper will show the benefits of linking Digital Sampling with Virtual Reality techniques and the resulting impact of realized time and cost savings on the bottom line.
Rotational molding is a unique process that puts unusual demands on the average polyethylene. This paper looks at the optimum process conditions for different polyethylenes and the sensitivity of impact properties to the oven time and temperature. Process conditions become critical for maintaining impact properties while running multiple types of molds on one spider or varying from standard process conditions with like molds.
The company Merquinsa SL | located in Barcelona | Spain | produces classical polyurethane as well as new (ECO) polyurethane based on several raw materials from renewable sources. This particular study was based on biogenic oil as primary renewable source for TPU. A new family of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) is presented. This new TPU series has application for polyurethane adhesives | polyurethane for extrusion | and injection molding markets. A full range of vegetable plant-based sources derived from bifunctional polyols has been developed. The reaction of these polyols in the TPU formulation allows new TPU with a renewable content ranging from 30% to 90% by weight. Compared to the standard petrochemical-based grades | the new ‘green-TPU’ shows better hydrolytic resistance | and maintain equivalent mechanical properties like first-class thermoplastic polyurethanes. Merquinsa will present the latest results for its ECO-TPU range | based on different renewable raw materials.
Radiation crosslinking has been in use since the seventies for halogen-free and heat-resistant cables and wires | for hot-water pipes or for heat shrinkable tubes, and tyres. During the last decade | the technology has been developed rapidly on plastic moulded parts | not only by the means of Electron Beam (largely used for extruded products) | but also under Gamma rays. It improves considerably the performances of a great number of plastics among those thermoplastics, elastomers and TPE. It reinforces their dimensional stability in chemically aggressive and high temperature conditions. Such modified polymers offer new material potentialities and solutions for various sectors: packaging | automotive | E&E.
Injection Molding (IM) is one of the most important processes for mass-producing plastic products. To help im-prove and facilitate the molding of plastic parts | advanced computer simulation tools have been developed. This paper presents a simulation optimization methodology for IM processes which consider multiple performance measures. It is able to find a set of efficient solutions without having to evaluate a large number of simulations. Its main compo-nents are metamodeling | design of experiments | and Data Envelopment Analysis. The method is illustrated and de-tailed here using a real injection molding case.
With demand for the use of plastics in Medical Devices expected to continue growing | there is also a growing demand for improved control and analysis of related assembly processes. Additionally there is a growing demand to use plastics in MEMS and Micro-fluidics for analytical and drug delivery devices. Therefore manufacturers are increasingly looking for joining technologies that are particulate free and will not occlude miniature channels. These trends have led to the introduction of several new methods to control | monitor and analyze the assembly process as well as led to the use of new plastics joining technologies such as Laser and Infra Red Welding.
The effect of accelerated weathering on the structure and properties of single | metallized and multilayer films used in food packaging was studied | by exposing specimens of the above films to repeated ageing cycles, under the combined action of UV radiation | humidity and heat. Films made of polypropylene (PP) undergo severe chain scission upon irradiation and lose mechanical strength. The metallic coating cannot prevent PP from degradation. PE and PET films show modest decrease of mechanical properties. Multilayer films (PE/EVOH/PE | PE//PET) present a decrease of mechanical properties reflecting degradation of their weak component.
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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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