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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Practical Rheology and its Role in Polymer Processing
Timothy W. Womer, June 2011
Powerpoint Presentation at Polyolefin Conference 2011
Practical Rheology and its Role in Polymer Processing
Timothy W. Wormer, June 2011
Rheology is the science of material flow behavior, which is a very complex and multi-dimensional science. Even though it is complex, it also is quintessential to understand in order to optimize the processing of polymers. Knowing the difference between amorphous and crystalline polymers, what Melt Index really tells, and the effects of melt temperature on melt fracture are all important elements in the understanding of rheology. A simple understanding of what polymer rheology is and how shear and temperature can affect the flow characteristic of a polymer may make a big difference in the P & L of a company.
SOME EFFECTS OF BOUNDED INTERFACIAL GAPS ON THE STRENGTH OF CONTOUR LASER WELDED JOINTS
Daniel Watt, Stephanie Masse, Bobbye Baylis, May 2011
The present study examines the effects of bounded voids of different sizes and shapes on the strength and leakage of contour welds. Bounded voids are holes that are situated on the laser beam path, but whose melt flow is constrained from leaving the faying surface. The most significant result is that divot clusters can lead to quite high porosity in the interface, but even with that porosity, both high hydraulic burst test strengths and hermetic seals can be achieved.
STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF RARE EARTH METAL TRIܻ?ATES AS INITIATORS IN THE CATIONIC CURING OF DGEBA/PA SYSTEMS
Zhi-qi Cai, Xin Dong, Xiaofei Wang, Pihui Pi, Xiufang Wen, Jiang Cheng, Zhuoru, May 2011
A new class of cationic initiators, lanthanide triflates, has been studied in the cationic curing of DGEBA/PA mixtures. The reaction mechanism of the cationic curing of DGEBA/PA mixtures has been studied. The kinetics of this process has been evaluated by the Differential Scanning Calorimentry (DSC).The crosslinking degree is predicted from time and temperature of curing via the Gel-curve.
PRACTICAL PLASMA SURFACE PRE-TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGHER PROCESSING EFFICIENCIES
Rory Wolf, May 2011
As new state-of-the-art flexible packaging technology is installed in its target markets and with processing costs under pressure to enable these technologies to ramp-up in 2011, surface pre-treatment technologies must become a key enabler relative to higher processing speed, wider widths, and requirements on inks and coatings to transfer and adhere to substrates at these speeds and widths. This paper presents evidence of new flexible packaging print performance opportunities using a new, revolutionary atmospheric plasma treatment (APT) technology.
ANALYSIS OF SHOCK RESPONSE OF SANDWICH COMPOSITES
Ali Goodaizi, May 2011
Sandwich composites are being aggressively pursued as structural materials by various defense and commercial industries. These include navy, air force, army, automotive and sporting industries to name a few. The present work describes the compression and release response of a glass-fiber-reinforced polyester composite (GRP) under shock loading to 20 GPa. Shock experiments in GRP were performed at Sandia National Laboratories and the US Army Research Laboratory. GRP is a heterogeneous material.
PPE MACROMONOMERS. IX. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS OF TRIALLYL ISOCYANURATE RESINS
Edward Peters, Scott Fisher, Hua Guo, May 2011
Triallyl isocyanurate is a crosslinking agent in thermosets. By itself it is too brittle for practical uses. Several attempts to improve the properties of TAIC resins were unsuccessfully. PPE macromonomers have been reported to broadly enhanced performance of thermoset materials. Methacrylate-terminated PPE macromonomer was used to successfully enhance the performance of TAIC resins. The high Tg, increased toughness, low dielectric properties, low moisture absorption, and low density suggest utility in electronics.
INTERACTIONS OF STEARIC ACID WITH SELECT TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS
Sandra Davis, Richard Maynard, Philipp Niedenzu, Austin Reid, William Sedar, May 2011
The propensity of titanium dioxide to adsorb/desorb stearic acid can be evaluated through the adsorption isotherms. Heats of adsorption/desorption and quantities adsorbed/desorbed for stearic acid over a defined concentration range were measured via flow microcalorimetry for a variety of titanium dioxide pigments. The adsorption data were fitted to both a Langmuir and a modified form of the Freundlich adsorption model to obtain both capacity factors and intensity of adsorption parameters.
CHALLENGES IN TEACHING E-LEARNING COURSES FOR PLASTICS ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
Brian Young, May 2011
Many universities offer online or E-learning courses. Engineering Technology courses are typically more applied or hands-on and do not lend themselves to an easy transition to E-learning. There are some techniques that can ease the transition to successfully teaching engineering technology in the online arena.
ADHESIVE IN-LINE DEGREE OF CURE MONITORING
Anne Forcum, John Lafond, Christine Marotta, May 2011
A new light cure adhesive technology has been developed to confirm your adhesive has cured in your product assembly. This technology can be integrated into your production line for rapid, 100% part inspection. Unlike recent color changing adhesives which only indicate exposure to light, this technology provides you a quantifiable measurement of the degree of cure achieved. These light cure adhesives are cure on demand and achieve full cure in just a few seconds. Manufacturers and assemblers of products can now be assured their bonded assemblies are fully cured.
NATURAL FIBRE PULPING AND REFINING USING EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGY
Kamik Tarverdi, Wendy Xia, Jim Song, May 2011
A study on structural and mechanical properties of natural fibres using co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder for refining fibres is reported. Using low-cost raw materials for the preparation of bio-based and biodegradable composites for many industrial applications. A range of techniques used to characterise these materials will be discussed, including morphology, DSC, SEM, other experimental techniques like mechanical property evaluations will also be discussed.
A NEW SYSTEMATIC METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE DRUG'S SOLUBILITY IN POLYMER
Min Yang, Peng Wang, Costas Gogos, May 2011
The solubility of a drug in a polymeric excipient dictates the process window of hot-melt extrusion (HME) and product stability during storage. In this study, a new systematic methodology has been developed to experimentally measure the solubility of a model drug in a pharmaceutical grade polymer at different temperatures. A phase diagram was constructed and could be explored to design the HME process. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter was calculated by Tdissolution depression method based on the phase diagram and was used for thermodynamic solubility calculation.
EFFECTS OF PROCESSING PARAMETERS ON COLOUR DURINGCOMPOUNDING
Jamal AlSadi, Musharaf Rabbani, Shahid Ahmed, Ghaus Rizvi, Rick Clarke, Daniel Ross, May 2011
Producing a specific coloured plastic using extrusion compounding requires proper operating conditions. Changes in the operating conditions will affect colour. In present study, the operating conditions were varied in controlled manner to analyze their effect on colour for two different grade plastics. Three process parameters temperature, RPM, and feed rate were varied individually to five different levels while keeping all other parameters constant. Strong interactions were observed between operating conditions and the colour.
AN EFFICIENT SEARCH METHOD TO OPTIMIZE GATE LOCATION IN PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING
Ming Zhai, Haiwen Wang, May 2011
A flow resistance search scheme (FR) was proposed to find the optimum gate location in injection molding. A search direction associated with flow resistance was developed based on the physical nature of mold-filling process. By moving gate along the direction with maximum flow resistance, the filling time could be reduced and uniform flow pattern was achieved. This methodology is as efficient as quasi-Newton method (QN), but it is favorable because it can be applied to part with complex geometry.
WELDING OF FLAME RETARDING PP
Reinhild Hoffschlaq, Voler Schoppner, Jens Kruqmann, May 2011
In this paper hot plate and infrared welding are considered with respect to their attainable strengths and cycle times. In recent years, the use of flame retardant polypropylene has also become more important. Further studies show that the amount of flame retardant has a large effect on the weld strength. The welding factor drops from 0.68 (PP T20) to 0.43 (PP T20 FR). In the first part of the paper, the two welding processes are compared. Based on these results, a second study is then presented which considers the influence of various operating mechanisms of flame retardants on polymers' weldability.
EXAMINATIONS ON THE INFLUENCING FACTORS ON THE FOAMABILITY USING THE PROFOAM PROCESS
Christian Hopmann, Walter Michaeli, Dominik Obeloer, May 2011
Currently, a new foaming process for injection molding is developed at the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) Aachen, Germany. In this process, the plasticizing unit of an injection molding machine is pressurized with a blowing agent. In this paper, the effects of the type of material, its melt temperature, the type of blowing agent and the pressure are examined with regard to the foaming of the part. The influences of these parameters on the foam structure, the part's surface and the possible weight reduction are determined.
MICROFIBERS TO NANOFIBERS
Eugene Joseph, Wade DePolo, May 2011
Melt blowing is an extrusion process that starts with a material in resin form and creates a final web in one step. The microfibers produced in this process are in the 0.5 to 10 micron range in diameter. Applications for this technology include filtration, fluid absorption and sound management . Electrospinning is a process that is used to produce nanofibers, and most of the current work is focused on electrospinning from solutions. The work presented will deal with the structure property behavior of single component and multilayer layer melt blown webs, and melt electrospun submicron fibers and webs.
PRODUCING MICROLAYER BLOWN FILM STRUCTURES USING LAYER MULTIPLICATION AND UNIQUE DIE TECHNOLOGY
Joseph Dooley, Jeff Robacki, Steve Jenkins, Patrick C. Lee, Robert Wrisley, May 2011
Many polymers are extruded through blown film dies to produce monolayer and multilayer films. The most popular style of die in use today to produce blown films is the spiral mandrel die. This type of die can be used effectively for many polymers in structures containing up to approximately 10 layers. This paper will discuss technology in which layer multiplication techniques are combined with unique die geometries to produce microlayer blown film structures with significantly greater numbers of layers.
PET - POLYETHERIMIDE BLENDS
Robert Gallucci, Mark Sanner, May 2011
Blends of polyetherimide (PEI) with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were re-examined. Previous blends with high (>25%) PEI content and those with very low (<10%) PEI shows a single Tg giving clear films indicative of a miscible blend. The samples stayed clear on heating and did not crystallize or phase separate. Use of lower Mw PEI:PET resins opened the window of miscibility allowing clear blends to be formed with as much as 50% PET. These clear yellow resins have high strength, 145-160C Tg, good practical toughness and high flow. PEI addition is an excellent route to upgrade PET performence.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF BARRELING AT CUT-ENDS OF PE PIPES AND ITS EFFECT ON ELECTROFUSION JOINTS
Andrea Guevara-Morales, Patrick Leevers, May 2011
When a thermoplastic pipe is cut to length, residual stresses set up during cooling are released causing local bending, giving the end of the pipe a barrel shape that can be inconvenient in electrofusion joints. This paper investigates the development of barreling in terms of residual stresses through a comprehensive simulation of the post-extrusion cooling process. The model is validated with experimental data and the effect of barreling on electrofusion joints is discussed in terms of common procedures and standards.


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