The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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REINFORCEMENT OF POLYPROPYLENE SPUN FIBERS BY POSS NANOPARTICLES
The molecules of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) containing silanol functionalities interacted by hydrogen bonding with sorbitol nucleating agent and formed low viscosity liquid complex during melt processing and finally turned into cylindrical nanoparticles in spun fibers of isotactic polypropylene (iPP). It was found that at the optimum combination of POSS (typically 2-5 wt%) and sorbitol nucleating agent (typically 1 wt%), iPP compounds can be spun into fibers with 40% reduction in diameter compared to unfilled PP, 60% increase in tensile strength and modulus, and 100% increase in yield stress.
SEMICRYSTALLINE POLYAMIDE ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS BASED ON THE RENEWABLE MONOMER, 1,9-NONANE DIAMINE
A series of poly(1,9-nonamethylene adipamide-co-1,9-nonamethylene terephthalamide) copolymers were produced using melt polymerization and the thermal properties and crystal structure characterized. The results obtained confirmed that the copolymers exhibit isomorphism. As expected, glass transition temperature and the apparent melting temperature increased with increasing terephthalmide content. Using the difference in the apparent melting temperature to the crystallization temperature as a measure of relative crystallization rate, it was observed that crystallization rate decreased as the terephthalamide content of the copolymer was increased from 0 to 50 mole percent but then sharply increased when increased beyond 50 mole percent.
THERMO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND THERMAL DEGRADATION CONTROL OF POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND POLY (LACTIC ACID)/CLAY/WOOD NANOCOMPOSITES
Poly (lactic acid) is an important biopolymer with suitable mechanical properties for construction and packaging applications. The mechanical and thermal properties of PLA can be tailored by compounding reinforcing fillers. PLA nanocomposites based on nanoclay and/or wood flour were prepared by melt extrusion of PLA. Three compatibilizers - maleated polyethylene, maleated polypropylene and maleated poly (lactic acid) were used in PLA/clay/wood nanocomposites. Approaches to control PLA thermal degradation during melt extrusion were examined. Residual catalyst deactivation and molecular weight control by chain extenders were believed to be the most effective and feasible methods.
PVC-CACO3 NANOCOMPOSITES PRODUCED BY IN-SITU COUPLING USING TITANATE COUPLING AGENT IN TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER
This study focused on the effect of titanate coupling agent to the mechanical and fracture properties of PVC nano-CaCO3 composites. The titanate coupling agent is introduced into the PVC nanocomposite through in-situ coupling technique, where the titanate mixed with PVC resin and nano-CaCO3 particles during dry mixing and relies on the high shear force during extrusion to induce coupling reactions and dispersions. This enabled the process to be transferred into existing PVC manufacturing technology. The composites morphology and mechanical properties are examined to understand the effect of titanate coupling agent to the PVC nanoCaCO3 composites.
A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE COMPATIBILITY AND CURING OF DEVULCANIZED RUBBER AND POLYPROPYLENE
The usage of waste tire rubber crumb as a dispersed phase in a thermoplastic matrix has been a topic of study for a long time. Inspite of using compatibilizers the properties achieved using polypropylene (PP) and waste ground rubber tire (GRT) crumb composites remained inferior. Devulcanized rubber (DR) being more relatively similar to virgin rubber is supposed to perform better than GRT and hence should be a better material for commercializing. This paper presents a statistical analysis of compatibility between DR and PP and also studies the effectiveness of a sulphur cure system in compatibilization.
UNDERSTANDING THERMALLY INDUCED WRINKLING IN DECORATIVE FILM LAMINATED SHEETS
The development of wrinkles in decorative film laminates during processing operations like thermoforming was the focused of this paper so that we may understand the driving factors and develop strategies to overcome. A threshold temperature was identified for our film under which no wrinkles formed, related to the stiffness of its different construction layers. Heating rate was also noted by this study to be an important parameter in wrinkling. The effect is believed to be related to the rate of change in stiffness between the different construction layers in relation to building thermal stresses.
FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF AN OLEFIN THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS
This paper discusses the dynamic fatigue properties of an olefin thermoplastic elastomer (TPE-O) and how it compares with flexible PVC (f-PVC) and styrene block copolymers based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE-S). The fatigue properties were investigated measuring the change of hysteresis properties as samples are subject to cyclic loads in air at room temperature. Material elastic features are investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis and compression set methods. The effect of aging on physical properties of materials is also investigated. The advantages of the TPE-O in fatigue resistance are discussed and attributed to its structure and morphology.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A EMBOSS-PATTERNED TPO SHEET CROSSLINKED BY ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION FOR AUTOMOBILE INTERIOR SKIN
The economical male vacuum forming process helps to make parts with emboss patterns price competitive, but emboss pattern loss is greater than that observed with a female vacuum forming process. In this study, we developed a emboss-patterned thermoplastic olefin(TPO) sheet crosslinked by electron beam irradiation, to minimize emboss pattern loss incurred during part forming in the male vacuum process by optimizing electron beam irradiation dose and materials compositon in the sheet and the results indicated the improvement of the retention rate of emboss patterns by three-fold with an electron beam irradiation dose of 80 kGy.
PREVENTING CRACKING FAILURES IN PC, ABS, AND PC/ABS BLENDS IN MEDICAL, PHARMACEUTICAL, AND CONSUMER DEVICE APPLICATIONS
Polycarbonate and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene are materials of choice for many medical, pharmaceutical, and consumer products because of their durability, stability, and high-quality surface finish. As these materials become widely used, failures are occurring more frequently and in situations where generally accepted design approaches and validation testing suggests the materials should perform quite well. This paper will discuss reasons why these failures occur as well as design methodology and life prediction techniques for preventing future failures.
MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF AN EPOXY RESIN REINFORCED WITH DIFFERENT NANOCLAYS
High intensive mixing techniques and/or long ultrasonication periods of time are normally used to prepare epopy clay nanocomposites. However this approach is not practical. In this work epoxy clay nanocomposites were prepared using a combination of short times of ultrasonication and hand mixing, therefore making clay chemistry to govern over possible differences in the composite properties. Several types of nanoclay were used in order to investigate clay chemistry on thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. Flexural test proved to be more sensitive than tensile testing in determining the effect of type and clay content.
PRECISE, HIGH-SPEED, HOT-PLATE WELDING; CONTROL TO THE THIRD POWER
In general, conventional hot-plate welding has not kept pace with technology advancements that other widely used plastics joining technologies have experienced. Extol will describe recent advancements in the hot-plate welding process which provide the capability for high-speed welding with precise force, heat and speed control. Each of these key variables (force, heat, and speed) will be discussed with respect to advances in machine design that facilitated precision control resulting in improving the process. These improvements also contributed to more efficient tool design, process setup, cycle time improvements and process innovations allowing for flexibility in product design and material selection.
A STUDY ON THE MEASUREMENT OF RHEO-OPTICAL BEHAVIOR IN AMORPHOUS TRANSPARENT POLYMERS
In the present study, rheo-optical and mechanical properties of amorphous polymers (PS, PC and COC) widely used in engineering field have been investigated. The storage stress-optical coefficient of polystyrene(PS) showed the sign change as the frequency increased. On the other hand, the sign of stress-optical coefficient over the whole frequency region is always positive with respect to polycarbonate(PC). For COC's of different composition, even though the glass transition temperature can vary, the stress-optical coefficient of COCƒ??s with different composition stays almost constant at two extremes.
THE EFFECT OF ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION ON HDPE/EPDM BLENDS WITH TRIALLYL CYANURATE
Blends formed of 80 wt% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and 20 wt% of ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) have been added with 3 wt% of triallyl cyanurate (TAC). The thermal and mechanical properties were followed up as a function of e-beam irradiation dose. The results obtained that the values of gel contents, decomposition temperature, tensile strength, and impact strength increase with increasing irradiation dose up to 100 or 150 kGy and then decreased. Additionally, the effect of cross-linking agent of TAC was observed in upgrading of various properties.
PRESTRESSED DOUBLE NETWORK HYDROGELS
A new method to prepare and characterize hydrogels is presented. A polyacrylamide-co-bisacrylamide based crosslinked hydrogel is prepared using thermal curing, without use of a catalyst. This paper discusses the kinetic study of these systems and the effect of curing temperature on the mechanical properties. Finally the concept of prestressed double network hydrogels is introduced where the hydrogel is formed by crosslinking in two steps. The first step is in an unstrained state while the second is in a strained state. The formation of these prestressed double networks along with final mechanical behavior as compared to a single network is discussed.
INVESTIGATION OF TEAR PROPERTIES OF POLYETHYLENE BLOWN AND COMPRESSION MOLDED FILMS
In this paper, eleven (11) blown (two sampling angles, i.e. MD and CD) and compression molded polyethylene films were prepared and tested by tensile tests and the Elmendorf tear tests. Tear values were analyzed statistically and the variation of the tear data was investigated based on the observation of the tear samples. The effect of tensile properties in a given direction on tear properties in the opposite direction was investigated. The relationship between tear properties obtained from the compression molded film and the blown film were compared and modeled using the geometric mean of tear values.
BIODEGRADATION OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH AND ITS BLENDS WITH POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND POLYETHYLENE: INFLUENCE OF MORPHOLOGY
The room temperature mineralization of thermoplastic starch (TPS) with a high glycerol content and its blends with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polylactic acid (PLA) were examined under controlled degradation conditions. The biodegradation of native granular starch was also carried out as a reference. These results are correlated with the respective morphologies and continuity behavior of the various blend systems. CO2 evolution was measured to evaluate biodegradation properties during the test. As a whole, these results indicate a good relationship between morphology, phase continuity and biodegradation behaviour.
A NOVEL POLY (LACTIC ACID) BASED WATERBORNE POLYURETHANE
In the past few decades, Bio-plastics of plant origin and biodegradable plastics, and emulsions containing no organic solvent have drawn growing attentions as general environmentally friendly materials. Poly (lactic acid) based polyurethanes self-emulsified in 100% water were synthesized. The particle sizes of some of the emulsions were fine (less than 100nm) and they were stable for 6 months under 5oC storage condition. The low Tg sample showed good biodegradability. In this report, result of the polymerization and the emulsification, and the characteristic of the obtained emulsions were described.
AN EVALUTION OF MIXING QUALITY OF THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MIXING ELEMENTS
One of the most important, yet problematic, issues in the extrusion process is achieving good mixing. Considerable prior efforts have been made to understand different types of mixing elements for single-screw and twin-screw extrusion. However, there is still a lack of good process values or criteria that can be used for design purposes. The focus of this work is to better quantify the mixing behavior, using 3D FEM analysis and in-line melt camera, to develop some design criteria. This study will focus on the Maddock mixer and Stratablend II mixer, comparing design variations on mixing performance.
DESIGN OF INDUCTION HEATING MODULE FOR UNIFORM CAVITY SURFACE HEATING
Previous studies using electromagnetic induction heating for rapid tool heating indicate that the temperature uniformity on cavity surface is not easy to be achieved no matter with surface or insert type induction heating. In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of temperature uniformity on tool cavity surface for different induction heating coil. According to the results of heating experiments, the surface temperature of 10 mm thickness hot work die steel could rise from 50oC to 150oC in 15 seconds and the temperature uniformity of the heated zone reached 94%~95%.
EFFECTS OF ELECTRONIC CONDUCTIVITY ON PHASE INVERSION OF A WATERBORNE NOVOLAC EPOXY IMPREGNATED EMULSION FOR FILTER PAPER
A novel cationic waterborne epoxy emulsion for oil filter paper was synthesized. Hydrophilic groups are introduced into a multifunctional bisphenol-A novolac epoxy resin (NEP) by chemical modification, while maintaining the epoxy groups as much as possible, which is neutralized to form the equably water dispersed epoxy resin. The structure of modified NEP in different rate of ring-opening is characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The emulsion phase inversion process of waterborne bisphenol-A novolac epoxy resin (WNEP) is detected by measuring the electrical conductivity in different ring-opening rates and different neutralization rates.
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