SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Plastics/Composites in Automotive Applications—Defending the Product Performance in Insurance Claim and Litigation Situations
Jackie Rehkopf, September 2010
More and more automotive structural applications are being developed with plastics / composites. Is the industry prepared for claims from our litigious and insurance-fraud fraught society - false or not - that a vehicle or component may have performed better in a crash situation if it had not been made of plastic / composite materials?
Novel Isocyanate-Based Resin Systems with Tunable Reaction Times
Daniel Heberer, Michael Connolly, Nick Limerkens, Eric Huygens, Johan Derllyn, September 2010
Newly developed isocyanate-based resin systems offer a combination of high thermal stability and toughness in a resin system that is easy to process and cure. This novel chemistry can be adapted to achieve low initial viscosity long open times and snap-cure profiles at elevated temperatures. The benefits of these resins lead to applications in a number of composite manufacturing processes.
Technology Development for Automotive Composite Part Production - New Materials and Processes
Frank Henning, September 2010
The presentation will introduce a large network and cluster forming in Germany to provide a strong initiative that increases the use of composites in the automotive industry. Also discussed will be an overview of the technologies that have been selected by industry to be further developed to meet the requirements of the automotive industry.
Leveraging Government Money to Drive Innovation in Materials
Susan Ward, September 2010
With an uncertain economy creativity is necessary to uncover new stable RandD growth opportunities. One possibility may be to explore opportunities with the federal government. In 2009 the U.S. government increased the research and development spend 16% resulting in an unprecedented $171B budget. More than 60% of this funding is through contracts with business universities and non-profits. Whether the initiatives are with medical devices drug delivery alternative energy smart infrastructure applications improved transportation solutions or defense applications materials development is the backbone for maintaining the U.S. technical leadership position. By leveraging some of this funding a company can help mitigate risk in developing new technology products and markets.
Structural Performance Evaluation of Composite-to-Steel Weld Bonded Joint
Bhavesh Shah, September 2010
One of the critical challenges for the structural underbody program was finding a way to attach the composite part to the steel structure in a high-volume automotive manufacturing environment and meet the complex requirements for crash. Weld bonding a combination of adhesive bonding and spot welding was selected as the primary joining method. A novel concept of bonding doubler steel strips to the composite enabled spot welding to the steel structure ensuring the compatibility with the OEM assembly processes. The structural performance of the joint including durability was assessed via analytical and physical testing under various quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. This paper discusses the results of the experiments designed to generate key modeling parameters for finite-element analysis of the joint and presents the correlation between experimental and analytical results.
Methods of Making 3-Dimensional Shaped Composite Structures
Parvinder Walia, September 2010
Shaped composite structures (specifically sandwich panels) are made by the combination of cold forming of thermoplastic foam core and thermoset processing of skins. This combination is ideally suited since the thermoset processing conditions are in a range that keeps the foamed core intact while simultaneously allowing the cold forming to be achieved. This technology affords a unique avenue to create sandwich and other composite structures that have curvilinear shape and 3-dimensionality via a single processing step that uses existing processing technology. Various process embodiments are described in this paper. This work discusses shaped foam composites and methods for manufacturing such composites.
Nano Graphene Platelets (NGPs) and NGP Nanocomposites: A Review
Bor Zang, September 2010
The nanoscale graphene platelet (NGP) or graphene nano-sheet is an emerging class of nano materials and can be a low-cost alternative to CNTs and carbon nano-fibers (CNFs). Graphene’s applications as a nano filler in a composite material and as a functional ingredient in an energy system (supercapacitor battery and fuel cell) are imminent. However the availability of processable graphene sheets in large quantities is essential to the success in exploiting composite and other applications for graphene. This presentation begins by a review of the current processes for producing NGPs and their composites and is followed by a discussion on the new advances in materials processes and applications related to NGPs and their nanocomposites.
Graphene Nanoplatelet Additives for Multifunctional Composite Materials
Lawrence Drzal, September 2010
With the emphasis on alternative energy vehicles the need for materials that are not only structural but possess other desirable properties such as electrical conductivity thermal conductivity and barrier properties is increasingly important. Nanocomposites are opening up “windows of opportunity” to not only increase structural properties but also the non-structural surface electrical thermal and barrier properties. Graphite (graphene) nanoplatelets are a new cost-effective nanomaterial that can be used as an additive to polymers and composites to impart multifunctionality without the need for developing new or alternative processing and manufacturing methods. Examples in thermoset and thermoplastic systems -- with and without macro reinforcing fibers -- will be used to illustrate the potential of this nanomaterial.
Mesoporous Silicate Particles (MSP) for Improving Performance and Productivity in Various Composite and Polymer Formulations
Mike Brooks, September 2010
This presentation focuses on a new silicate mesoporous nanoparticle technology which will bring significant productivity and performance benefits to both thermoset and thermoplastic moldings by increasing mechanical properties of neat resins imparting greater flame retardance and reducing processing cycle times. The particles’ intrinsic porous structure allows polymer chains to link the particles into a 3D network improving both strength and modulus at very-low particle loadings (typically 5.0 to 7.5 wt %). The technology does not require organic surface modification to achieve dispersion in the polymer matrix nor does it require retrofitting of processing equipment or modification in processing methods.
CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRGIN-RPET COMPOSITES
Greg Curtzwiler , Keith L. Vorst , Wyatt Brown , J. Singh, May 2010
Thermoformed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) produce trays (clamshells) produced by a large retail supplier using virgin resin were compared to PET clamshells containing 30, 70, or 100% recycled-PET (RPET). Comparisons were made of functional groups, ultravioletvisible (UV-Vis) light absorption, and thermal properties. An increase in the crystallization temperature was observed as RPET increased when compared to virgin PET. This suggests that the crystallization temperature (Tc) may be used as a quantitative indicator for determining the amount of RPET in a plastic composite.
SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLA/PHBV FOAMS
Esther Richards , Reza Rizvi , Andrew Chow , Hani Naguib, May 2010
This paper examines the effect that blending two biodegradable polymers has on the thermal properties and morphology of the resultant foams blown with carbon dioxide (CO2). Polylactic acid (PLA) Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) and blends of both were foamed and characterized in terms of thermal characteristics relative density cell size and foam morphology. The results indicate that although PLA and PHBV are immiscible the presence of small quantities of PHBV could lead to low density foams with finer more uniform cells.
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PLUG ' ASSIST THERMOFORMING
Hossein Hosseini , Boris V. Berdyshev , Ekaterina M. Kromskaya, May 2010
Plug-assist thermoforming is a well known technique in polymer processing due to its interesting features. The dynamic value of driving-force for the stretching process is determined based on equilibrium equation. This amount of force is required for applying to a plug in order to stretch a sheet. It is used for calculation of the required theoretical work, and power of a plug-assist thermoforming process. By using a non-linear viscoelastic rheological model in the proposed mathematical model, its validity was examined by performing experimental tests on ABS sheets.
ADDITIVE PROCESSING ƒ??NEW MATERIALS FOR FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING
Bettina Wendel , Claus M. Dallner , Ernst Schmachtenberg, May 2010
Additive processes are increasingly used to generate functional components in almost any geometry layer by layer directly from CAD-files without using tools and molds. Within the scope of this paper it is shown how the limited variety of materials can be extended for fused deposition modelling to reach new areas of application and how these new materials are to be manufactured. First functional prototypes could successfully be produced and characterized.
ADDITIVE PROCESSING – NEW MATERIALS FOR FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING
Bettina Wendel , Claus M. Dallner , Ernst Schmachtenberg, May 2010
Additive processes are increasingly used to generate functional components in almost any geometry layer by layer directly from CAD-files without using tools and molds. Within the scope of this paper it is shown how the limited variety of materials can be extended for fused deposition modelling to reach new areas of application and how these new materials are to be manufactured. First functional prototypes could successfully be produced and characterized.
PROCESSING AND PERFORMANCE OF HDPE POLYMER BLENDS INCLUDING POST CONSUMER RECYCLED HDPE
T. Beiss, C. Dallner, E. Schmachtenberg, May 2010
With the rapid increase in the market for recycled polyethylene from various sources, there is an urgent need to quantify the performance of these materials. Blends of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) were prepared to obtain specific mechanical properties and MFI. The results show that the MFIs had significant effect on the rheological, mechanical and phase morphology characteristics of the various blends.
VIBRATION JOINING OF FILAMENT REINFORCED THERMOSETS
T. Beiss , C. Dallner , E. Schmachtenberg, May 2010
At the Institute of Polymer Technology (LKT) a vibration joining technique was developed that offers short cycle times and represents a modification of hotmelt bonding using the machine technology from vibration welding. It is suitable to join thermoplastics with thermoset materials or thermosets using a thermoplastic interlayer by taking advantage of short cycle time and excellent lap-shear strength compared to bonding with reactive adhesives.
PROPYLENE BLOCK COPOLYMER AS A COMPATIBILIZER FOR POST CONSUMER HDPE/PP BLENDS
Nora Catalina Restrepo Zapata, Juan Manuel Vélez Restrepo, May 2010
Melt compounded polymer blends such as PP/HDPE blends from post consumer waste have often been reported to exhibit poor mechanical properties. This work reports on the potential improvement in performance of PP/HDPE blends using polypropylene copolymers as compatibilizers. The properties of the PP/HDPE blends in general progressively varied from that of 100% HDPE to 100% PP. Analysis showed some improvements in mechanical performance of the blends with the addition of PP copolymers, but DMTA results suggest no improvement in compatibility.
POLYMER FLOW ANALYSIS ON AN AUTOMOTIVE INSTRUMENT PANEL
Harsh Bhagat, May 2010
Mold filling simulations are sophisticated programs providing immense benefits for the plastics injection molding industry. The use of simulation techniques has improved the processability of large tools resulting in improved finished part quality.
POLYMER FLOW ANALYSIS ON AN AUTOMOTIVE INSTRUMENT PANEL
Harsh Bhagat, May 2010
Mold filling simulations are sophisticated programs, providing immense benefits for the plastics injection molding industry. The use of simulation techniques has improved the processability of large tools resulting in improved finished part quality.
LASER WELDING OF THERMOPLASTIC URETHANE FILMS
Ryan Marsico , William H. Cawley , Rolf Klein, May 2010
Laser welding is increasingly becoming a technology of choice in the plastics joining industry. The use of infrared absorbers to laser weld thermoplastic materials including thermoplastic elastomers is also of interest to the plastics industry. Therefore an investigation of the laser welding characteristics of four classes of thermoplastic urethanes using organic infrared absorbing materials was undertaken. In addition the use of thermoplastic urethanes as intermediate layers with dissimilar plastics has also been examined. This paper reviews the results of these welding studies.


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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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