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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE MECHANISMS IN POLYETHYLENE / CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Walter Michaeli, Micha Scharf, May 2010
Polyethylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites based on LDPE, HDPE and LLDPE of similar rheological properties were prepared and mechanically tested in tension mode. It was shown that nanocomposites based on LLDPE exhibit a very peculiar behavior, with a significant improvement in toughness (elongation at break). The microstructural features of the various nanocomposites were investigated through scanning and/or transmission electron microscopy. Based on those observations, an explanation for the deformation and fracture mechanisms in LLDPE/montmorillonite nanocomposites was proposed.
SILOXANE-POLYETHERIMIDE BLOCK COPOLYMERS
Yashpal J. Bhandari , Gurulingamurthy Haralur , Peter Catsman, May 2010
A New High Heat SILTEM?? polyetherimidesiloxane block copolymer with Tg of ~202 oC is developed. It is an amophous melt processable polymer along with low flexural modulus. These polymers form transparent miscible blends with existing polyetherimidesiloxane polymer across all compositions resulting in a wider range of properties a enabling use in a gamut of applications
POLYMER-GRAPHITE NANOCOMPOSITES VIA BATCH AND CONTINUOUS SOLID-STATE PULVERIZATION METHODS
Scott R. Sabreen, May 2010
Solid-state fabrication of polymer nanocomposites has advantages over conventional processing methods. Polypropylene-graphite nanocomposites were fabricated via two contrastive solid-state processes, batch-based cryogenic milling and continuous solid-state shear pulverization. The effects of filler loading and processing parameters such as pulverization time and harshness of pulverization were investigated. Composite morphology was characterized via XRD and SEM. The mechanical properties were measured via tensile and impact testing, while the thermal behavior was probed by DSC and TGA.
HOW NUCLEATED MMW HDPE RESINS INFLUENCE BARRIER FILM STRUCTURE DESIGN
Jonathan Jeffery Stanger, Nick Tucker, Nigel Larsen, Mark Staiger, Roger Reeves, May 2010
This paper describes a film structure study involving nucleated medium molecular weight high density polyethylene (MMW HDPE) materials that enhance film properties. Using these new nucleated MMW HDPEs, several film structures have been designed to improve moisture barrier, oxygen barrier, toughness and cost, as well as reduce the environmental footprint by downgauging existing film structures. The films in this study use a variety of polyethylene materials commonly used in the film converting industry.
A COMPARATIVE EXTERIOR WEATHERING STUDY ON HIGH HEAT POLYCARBONATES FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Greg Harmon, David Grewell, May 2010
Weathering performance of a new carbon black pigmented high heat polycarbonate copolymer has been investigated. Superior retention of optical properties (e.g. color and gloss) is observed with the copolymer after 750hrs of weathering exposure in comparison with other commercial alternatives. Various surface characterization techniques are used to understand the mechanism & quantify the photodegradation effect. Morphology imaging through atomic force microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope are used to explain the improved retention of gloss with the copolymer.
MORPHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND INTERFACIAL INTERACTIONS IN POLYCAPROLACTONE/THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BLENDS
Mariajosé Pineda Manzano, Joel Bohórquez, May 2010
The coalescence, continuity development, dynamic and static mechanical properties, as well as interfacial interactions, were studied for polycaprolactone/thermoplastic starch blends. These materials, prepared by a one-step extrusion process, demonstrate the features of a highly interacting system and the tensile mechanical properties demonstrate exceptional ductility at very high levels of thermoplastic starch without any added interfacial modifier.
PET/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY MELT COMPOUNDING
Ghasemi Hesam , Carreau Pierre J. , Kamal Musa R, May 2010
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocomposites were prepared via melt compounding of PET and different levels of organomodified silicate layers. Cloisite 30B and thermally stable phosphonium modified montmorillonite were mixed with PET, using an internal mixer or a twin screw extruder. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to evaluate the effects of composition and processing conditions on the quality of the nanocomposites.
EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND ROLL PRESSING ON THE PROPERTIES OF IPP SHEETS
David Kazmer, , Stephen Johnston, Darin VanDerwalker, May 2010
By using a processing of gas-cooling and roll pressing (GCRP), the temperature, strain and stress of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) sheets can be controlled and both ?ý-modification and ?ñ-modification can be found in the sheets. The tensile strength of sheet in longitudinal direction increased by 14.1% at most, tensile modulus 14.2%, flexural strength 50.3% and impact strength 22.2%. Therefore the strength and toughness of iPP can be increased simultaneously by GCRP.
A HISTORY OF COPOLYESTER DEVELOPMENT AT EASTMAN CHEMICAL COMPANY
Eric Moskala, May 2010
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) first appeared in beverage containers in the early 1970’s. It provided a combination of clarity toughness and barrier properties all at a reasonable cost. Over the last several decades Eastman Chemical Company has developed numerous commercially successful families of copolyesters derived from basic PET technology. This paper will present an overview of these developments starting with PET and culminating with the recent commercialization of Eastman Tritan™ Copolyesters.
A HISTORY OF COPOLYESTER DEVELOPMENT AT EASTMAN CHEMICAL COMPANY
Eric Moskala, May 2010
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) first appeared in beverage containers in the early 1970's. It provided a combination of clarity, toughness, and barrier properties, all at a reasonable cost. Over the last several decades, Eastman Chemical Company has developed numerous commercially successful families of copolyesters derived from basic PET technology. This paper will present an overview of these developments starting with PET and culminating with the recent commercialization of Eastman Tritan' Copolyesters.
IMPROVING THE FEEDING ZONE OF SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDERS AT HIGH ROTATION SPEED BY USING THE DISCRETE ELEMENT METHOD
Yashpal J. Bhandari, Robert R. Gallucci, Mark Sanner, Rajendra K. Singh, May 2010
Increasing screw speed is a possible approach to improve the performance of a single screw extruder but it challenges the processing technology and the material processed. Apart from difficult melting, the feeding of the screw with granules is complicated. This results in partially filled screw channels. In the following, the resin transfer depending on the screw speed is investigated and analyzed by means of the simulation program EDEM, which is based on the Discrete Element Method.
THE APPLICATIONS OF MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL METHODS IN INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS MONITORING
Anshuman Shrivastava, Jeffrey Weinzweig, Stephen McCarthy, May 2010
In recent years, a series of multivariate statistical methods have been developed for batch process modeling and online monitoring, which take important batch process characteristics into consideration, such as, multiphase, batch dynamics and so on. As a typical batch process, injection molding is a suitable object to employ these methods. In this paper, the potential applications of these methods in industry are shown by monitoring and fault diagnosis results of the injection molding process.
PROPERTIES AND THERMOFORMING OF EASTMAN TRITAN™ COPOLYESTER FOR SIGNS
Wayne Shih , Gary Boone , Doug McWilliams, May 2010
Tritan™ copolyester is a new high temperature polymer developed by Eastman Chemical Company. Tritan™ has many property attributes suitable for outdoor sign applications including excellent color and clarity a high heat distortion temperature and excellent toughness. In addition TritanTM exhibits advantageous thermoforming performance at low temperatures so that (1) sheet can be formed without blistering due to absorbed moisture eliminating the need to pre-dry the sheet and (2) sheet pre-decorated with vinyl film can be thermoformed without damaging the vinyl.
PROPERTIES AND THERMOFORMING OF EASTMAN TRITAN™ COPOLYESTER FOR SIGNS
Wayne Shih , Gary Boone , Doug McWilliams, May 2010
Tritan' copolyester is a new high temperature polymer developed by Eastman Chemical Company. Tritan' has many property attributes suitable for outdoor sign applications including excellent color and clarity, a high heat distortion temperature, and excellent toughness. In addition, TritanTM exhibits advantageous thermoforming performance at low temperatures so that (1) sheet can be formed without blistering due to absorbed moisture eliminating the need to pre-dry the sheet and (2) sheet pre-decorated with vinyl film can be thermoformed without damaging the vinyl.
MELT COMPOUNDING OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT ORGANOCLAYS
Heinz G. Gross, May 2010
PET-clay nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding using several organoclays. A new approach was used to overcome some of the problems associated with the thermal degradation of ammonium surfactants during melt processing at high temperature. The dispersion and performance characteristics of the new nanocomposite systems are compared to those obtained for systems employing ammonium or phosphonium surfactants.
ANALYSIS OF THERMOPLASTIC PROPERTIES AFTER CRYOGENIC TREATMENT AND NORMALIZATION
Dean Q. Lewis , Martin J. Dropik , David Tullai , Benjamin Dibble ,, May 2010
This study investigates tensile and impact property changes of polymers after cryogenic treatment and normalization to room temperature. Amorphous and crystalline specimens are subjected to multiple durations and cooling rates then reviewed for statistically significant shifts in properties. Statistical analysis of standard materials testing results show that the modulus of semi-crystalline materials tended to decrease after treatment and the ductility of HDPE and HIPS increased.
ANALYSIS OF THERMOPLASTIC PROPERTIES AFTER CRYOGENIC TREATMENT AND NORMALIZATION
Dean Q. Lewis , Martin J. Dropik , David Tullai , Benjamin Dibble, May 2010
This study investigates tensile and impact property changes of polymers after cryogenic treatment and normalization to room temperature. Amorphous and crystalline specimens are subjected to multiple durations and cooling rates, then reviewed for statistically significant shifts in properties. Statistical analysis of standard materials testing results show that the modulus of semi-crystalline materials tended to decrease after treatment and the ductility of HDPE and HIPS increased.
FAILURE OF HUMAN BIOPOLYMERS
Myer Ezrin, May 2010
This paper looks at similarities and differences in chemical composition and in failure of synthetic polymers and human biopolymers. The 2 types share susceptibility to damage from free radicals, oxygen, UV and xray radiation, heat and stress. Biopolymers undergo changes in composition and structure by reaction with free radicals and by reaction of sugars with proteins, adversely affecting normal functioning.
INNER MELT PEAK PACK TEMPERATURE END PRESSURE SENSOR
Huan-Chang Tseng, Jiann-Shing Wu, Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2010
A thermocouple profiling temperature and inner melt pressure flow from fill to peak pack is presented. The mold close processing cycle varies the melt cavity fill to peak pack volume. Mold close starts the gas venting indicates injection start. The heated melt front flow temperature and low pressure encloses the sensor as melt flow progresses to pack point. The static outer melt skin and final inner melt pack pressure occurs at gate seal. After inner melt packing stops the volume shrink cure starts. The shrink rate is dependant on final peak pack volume and melt temperature peak.
EFFECT OF FOUR STRESS CONCENTRATORS OVER THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INJECTED PLASTIC PARTS
M. V. Candal , J. Campero , H. Rojas, May 2010
The principal objective of this work was to study the influence of different stress concentrators (triangle rectangle medium circle and circle) over the mechanical properties of injected plastic parts. Simulations of the injection molding and the tensile test of plaques made of High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) were made using CAD/CAE tools. The curves of stress concentrator (Kt) factor in relationship with the stress concentrator type and the geometric parameter d/D were made. The Kt factor is dependent of the geometric parameters and the stress concentrator used.


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