SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
PREDICTION OF GAP BRIDGING IN LASER TRANSMISSION WELDING OF AMORPHOUS POLYMERS
M. Chen , G. Zak , P.J. Bates, May 2010
Gaps between joining partners can lead to defects in laser transmission welding of polymers. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of gap bridging during the laser transmission welding of polycarbonate. The model predicts the maximum allowable gap and maximum temperature as a function of carbon black level laser power and laser scan speed. The predictions agree with the experimental data. The model can help optimize material and process parameters for gap bridging in high speed contour welding of polymers.
DEMOLDING FORCES AND COEFFICIENTS OF FRICTION IN INJECTION MOLDING. A NEW PRACTICAL MEASUREMENT APPARATUS
G.R. Berger , W. Friesenbichler , G. Schöfer , G. Freudenschuß, May 2010
The new measurement apparatus is a friction tester in an injection mold. It enables the comparative analysis of the influence parameters mold material and surface, polymer, and processing conditions, by determining the static coefficient of friction ?¬0. A plate-shaped, horizontaloriented molded part is first injected. A defined vertical force is applied then and the horizontal (demolding) force, required to open the mold, is measured, where ?¬0 corresponds to the adhesion-dependant force peak at the beginning.
CHARACTERIZE POLYURATHANE ACRYLATE BY HYPERDSC
A. Ambekar, N. Pardhy, Y.S. Negi, May 2010
Polyurethane acrylate can be cured by UV. There are two glass transiton temperatures due to the phase separated structure. After crosslinking, the glass transition temperature will be changed depending on the curing degree. Traditionally DSC is used to study the glass transition temperature. However in this case, the Tg is very weak so that conventional DSC can not detect the Tg easily. Now with the advance of fast scan DSC technology, the Tg of polyurethane acrylate can be readily detected at 200 ??C/min. Thus fast scan DSC can be used as a quality control tool for curing.
THERMAL AGEING OF CROSSLINKED ETHYLENE-VINYL SILANE COPOLYMERS
Miroslav Pastorek , Roman ?ermák , Jana Navrátilová , Martin Obadal, May 2010
This paper investigates the behavior and property evolution of silane crosslinked polyethylene upon thermal ageing. The work is focused mainly on morphological mechanical property and chemical changes in crosslinked and subsequently aged material. The changes in polymer were followed by differential scanning calorimetry infrared spectroscopy and standard tensile testing.
THERMAL AGEING OF CROSSLINKED ETHYLENE-VINYL SILANE COPOLYMERS
Miroslav Pastorek , Roman ?ermák , Jana Navrátilová , Martin Obadal, May 2010
This paper investigates the behavior and property evolution of silane crosslinked polyethylene upon thermal ageing. The work is focused mainly on morphological, mechanical property and chemical changes in crosslinked and subsequently aged material.The changes in polymer were followed by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and standard tensile testing.
THE EFFECT OF LDPE CONTENT ON HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) FILMS FOR STRETCHED FILM TAPES
F. Lahuerta , P. Orr , M. Leathem , S. Robinson, May 2010
A range of blown films were prepared by extruding blends of a commercial HDPE with two separate LDPEs with different densities. Narrow tapes of the films were then stretched at draw ratios of between 1:6 and 1:8 at elevated temperatures. The mechanical morphological and tensile recovery characteristics before and after drawing were investigated in order to determine optimum blend composition and drawing conditions for a range of polyolefin stretched tape applications.
NANOMECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS IN ULTRATHIN POLYMER FILMS: RECTANGULAR BUBBLE" INFLATION MEASUREMENTS"
Shanhong Xu , Paul A. O’Connell , Gregory B. McKenna, May 2010
Confinement effects on the mechanical properties of ultrathin polymer films (<100 nm) were investigated by a novel bubble inflation technique developed in our lab.Circular bubbles of different diameter were used in prior studies of ultrathin films of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and polystyrene (PS). Here we show early results from using a rectangular bubble geometry for measurements performed with ultrathin PVAc films. Results are compared with those for the circular bubbles.
IMPROVEMENT OF INTRINSIC VISCOSITY OF RECYCLED PET BY RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING
Maxime Ricbourg, Jean-Pierre Habas, Pascal Pignolet, May 2010
The improvement of Intrinsic Viscosity of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)(R-PET) pellets by an industrial radio frequency(RF) heating is described. RPET pellets are made from post-consumer PET bottles, degraded by hydrolysis during distribution process. Hence, intrinsic viscosity(IV) or molecular weight of RPET exhibits significant lower compared to virgin PET, caused from cleavages of chains. This study indicates thermal recycling method of solid phase polymerization to improve the IV values, namely molecular weight of RPET pellets.
VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES AND ROTATIONAL MOLDABILITIES OF POLYOLEFINIC MATERIALS
Sergey Lapshin, Sarat K. Swain, Avraam. I. Isayev, May 2010
We set up a uniaxial roto-molding system with a glass vessel to be able to directly observe the rolling motion of sample particles during roto-molding process in which adherence behavior of EMMA and LLDPE powders is investigated in-situ during molding. The adherence of powders on the glass vessel started above the relaxation temperature of crystalline phases. It was found that materials with a various types of morphology can be prepared by controlling temperature profile of roto-molding process.
COMPLEX VISCOSITY OF LIQUID N-HEXADECANE UNDER OSCILLATORY SHEAR USING NON-EQUILIBRIUM MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS
Henry Pawlowski, May 2010
Rheological computer experiments, involving small amplitude oscillatory shear flows for liquid n-hexadecane, are performed using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics methodology. In particular, the so-called Cox-Merz rule, which suggests that the magnitude of the complex viscosity with respect to frequency is equal to that of the steady shear viscosity with respect to shear rate, is validated. At different frequencies, the complex viscosity, including both dynamic and out-of-phase parts, varies significantly with respect to temperature. ?ÿ
SULFONATED STYRENIC PENTABLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES FOR HIGH WATER TRANSPORT RATE APPLICATIONS
John Flood , Donn Dubois , Carl Willis , Robert Bening, May 2010
Recently Handlin 1 2. reported on a new type of sulfonated block copolymer. These new sulfonated block copolymer structures have been designed to have continuous ionic domains and retain strength when fully hydrated. This paper is a continuation of their work. A more detailed explanation of the polymer will be provided along with characterization of the polymer morphology mechanical performance and transport properties.
SULFONATED STYRENIC PENTABLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES FOR HIGH WATER TRANSPORT RATE APPLICATIONS
John Flood , Donn Dubois , Carl Willis , Robert Bening, May 2010
Recently Handlin reported on a new type of sulfonated block copolymer. These new sulfonated block copolymer structures have been designed to have continuous ionic domains and retain strength when fully hydrated. This paper is a continuation of their work. A more detailed explanation of the polymer will be provided along with characterization of the polymer morphology, mechanical performance, and transport properties.
REDUCING CYCLE TIMES & COSTS BY SIMPLIFYING MOLD DESIGNS USING COLLAPSIBLE CORE & EXPANDABLE CAVITY TECHNOLOGY
Alan Hickok, May 2010
Today there are cost-effective alternatives to traditional rack & gear systems for molding threaded parts. Molders can also benefit from cycle times reduced by as much as 15% – 20% percent. Through the use of side by side comparisons and case studies these benefits as well as design simplification and cleaner less complicated maintenance will be shown. More profitable avenues for molders can be realized by calculating the savings between old and new approaches to unscrewing applications.
REDUCING CYCLE TIMES & COSTS BY SIMPLIFYING MOLD DESIGNS USING COLLAPSIBLE CORE & EXPANDABLE CAVITY TECHNOLOGY
Alan Hickok, May 2010
Today there are cost-effective alternatives to traditional rack & gear systems for molding threaded parts.Molders can also benefit from cycle times reduced by as much as 15% ƒ?? 20% percent. Through the use of side by side comparisons and case studies, these benefits, as well as design simplification and cleaner, less complicated maintenance, will be shown. More profitable avenues for molders can be realized by calculating the savings between old and new approaches to unscrewing applications.
THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF INTERFACIAL INSTABILITIES IN COEXTRUSION FEED-BLOCK DIES
D.S. Langhe, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, May 2010
In this work, wave type of interfacial instabilities occurring during the coextrusion process have been investigated by using different feedblock geometries and polymers. It has been found that the onset of interfacial instabilities can be captured by the quantification of the stretching discontinuity occurring on the interface between different polymers.
PREDICTION ON THE WARPAGE OF INJECTION MOLDED GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERS WITH COMPOSITE MECHANICS
P. Gutmann, D.S. Bangarusampath, V. Altstädt, H. Schmalz, A.H.E. Müller, May 2010
Based on the microstructure characteristics of injection molded short fiber reinforced polymers, a model was developed to predict the warpage. Multiscale composite mechanics was used to describe the materials properties during the processing. A shin shell element composed improved Allman membrane element and discrete Kirchhoff bending element was put forward to calculate the warpage of injection molded products. The results of prediction were compared with experimental results.
INFLUENCE OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE ON THE FOAMING BEHAVIOR OF AN IMMISCIBLE BLEND
P. Gutmann , D.S. Bangarusampath , V. Altstädt , H. Ruckdäschel , H. Schmalz , A.H.E. Müller, May 2010
The foaming behavior of immiscible blends is affected by many factors as the morphology or the viscosity ratio. To investigate the influence of the microstructure on the foaming behavior of an immiscible blend the morphology of a blend was systematically changed by varying the phase content. The blends were foamed using a batch-foaming process and the achieved foam structures were correlated to the blend morphology and the properties of the blend phases.
POLYMER MELT FLOW ANALYSIS IN SPIRAL FLOW INJECTION MOLDING
N. O-Charoen , T. Hashimoto , Y. W. Leong , H. Hamada, May 2010
The internal structure of polycarbonate / acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) blend injection molding was investigated by using a spiral flow mold. The thickness of skin and core layers through thickness direction was evaluated from the size and shape of cavities (ABS rich region) in the cross sections of etched specimens.The microstructure development was analyzed from the computed solidification velocity of the polymer melt. As a result the maximum shear stress and solidification time of the resin was important in determining the final morphological properties.
APPLIED RHEOLOGY FOR HDPE DIE DROOL PHENOMENON
Siqiang Zhu, Rahul Rasal, Douglas Hirt, May 2010
In this work, two different HDPEs were investigated from rheological as well as die drool phenomenon point of view. It has been revealed that long-chain branching and low polymer melt elasticity significantly reduce die drool phenomena at the die exit region.
3D SIMULATION OF THE FLUTED MIXER ELEMENT BEHAVIOR
Pradip Paik, Kamal K Kar, May 2010
One of the most important, yet problematic, issues in the extrusion process is achieving good mixing. Considerable prior efforts have been made to understand different types of mixing elements for single-screw and twin-screw extrusion. However, there is still a lack of good process values or criteria that can be used for design purposes. The focus of this work is to better quantify the mixing behavior, using 3D FEM analysis, to develop some design criteria. This study will focus on the fluted mixer, comparing common design variations and the effect of material viscosity and process conditions.


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