SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON CRYSTALLINITY OF INJECTION MOLDED POLYPROPYLENE/ETHYLENE-OCTANE COPOLYMER BLEND:BE DIFFERENT ON CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS
Shengqu Zeng, Huamin Zhou, Fen Liu, Zhigao Huang, May 2011
In this experiment, a different effect of pressure on crystallinity and crystallization kinetics was found compared with anterior research. This experiment is concern with the effect of holding pressure on crystallinity of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in injection molded polypropylene (PP) /Ethylene Octane Copolymer (POE) blends with fixed weight ratio (75/25). Sliced samples cutting from the midway of the moldings were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Absolute crystallinity of PP of every sample with different depth can be calculated. Crystallinity was found to be decreased with increasing holding pressure although the crystallization kinetics was accelerated.
EXTRUSION OF POLYPROPYLENE AND HYDROCARBON RESIN BLENDS
Jay Keung, Yann Devorest, Marty Levine, C.Y. Cheng, May 2011
Hydrocarbon resins (HCR) can be extruded with polypropylene resin (PP) directly from the dry blend to save tolling cost from a masterbatching process.?ÿ Up to 20% of HCR has been successfully extruded using a single screw extruder. The screw design and processing temperatures are critical to avoid surging and to achieve a comparable output rate as PP.?ÿ Barrier screws with Maddock type mixing section were used to compare extrusion performance.?ÿ Internal pressures along the screw were monitored to determine the process bottleneck and to optimize the processing conditions. Extrusion performance is presented at different blend ratios and screw designs.
ESTIMATION OF TEMPERATURE INCREASE IN A PARTIALLY FILLED ZSK-90 COROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER USING MESH PARTITIONING TECHNIQUE
Mahesh Gupta, Vivek Rohatgi, Ralf Kuehn, May 2011
The velocity distribution predicted by an isothermal simulation of the flow in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder is used to estimate the heat generated due to viscous dissipation. If the conveying and mixing elements of the extruder are assumed to be fully filled, the predicted temperature increase is much larger than the corresponding experimental values. If the temperature increase is calculated based only upon heat generated in the portion which has positive value of pressure, that is, the portion which is fully filled, the predicted temperature increase matches closely with the corresponding experimental data.
PHYSICAL PROPERTY RETENTION OF EXTERIOR AUTOMOTIVE MOLD-IN-COLOR PLASTICS AFTER UV EXPOSURE
H. Banyay, May 2011
This paper explores the UV weathering performance of Mold-In-Color plastic technologies used for exterior trim applications. The focus is the retention of physical properties after exposure to lab UV radiation that simulates actual outdoor exposure. Various test specimens are exposed to Xenon Arc UV radiation then tested for mechanical properties vs. unexposed controls. Samples are also analyzed for change in color and gloss. Finally the parts are analyzed for surface chemistry changes via infrared spectroscopy and surface morphology. These analysis are correlated with physical property changes
RHEOLOGICAL MORPHOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP IN IMMISCIBLE AND REACTIVELY COMPATIBILIZED SAN/EPDM BLENDS
Mona Taheri, Jalil Morshedian, Hossein Ali Khonakdar, May 2011
In immiscible blend of SAN/EPDM a coarse morphology is formed. In reactive blends, formation of graft at the interface causes fine stable droplet morphology. Favis equation shows at 17 wt% of graft the size of EPDM would be minimum. The interfacial tension of the blends determined by Palierne and Choi-Schowalter models shows minimum value at 1 phr initiator. The droplet morphology is changed to composite in two step blending method. A higher apparent volume fraction of EPDM in the blend with composite morphology which has been also obtained by Kerner equation is an indication of the evolution of composite morphology.
CAUSE OF OCCASIONAL FAILURE OF CPVC PIPES AND FITTINGS IN HYDRONIC HEATING SYSTEMS
Duane Priddy | Brad Arnold | Kevin Battjes, April 2011
Chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC) pipes and fittings are commonly used in hydronic heating systems. However, there are occasional failures of CPVC pipes and fittings used in these systems due to chemical contamination by the lubricant oil used in the heat exchanger refrigerant. Although leaks in the heat exchanger are rare, when a leak does occur, it can lead to almost immediate failure of the CPVC piping system due to chemical attack by the polyol ester (POE) lubricant oil in the refrigerant. This paper discusses the results of our forensic failure analyses on CPVC hydronic piping. Also we present the results of our studies on the chemical compatibility of POE compared to polyvinylether (PVE) refrigerant lubricant oils.
Plastics/Composites in Automotive Applications—Defending the Product Performance in Insurance Claim and Litigation Situations
Jackie Rehkopf, September 2010
More and more automotive structural applications are being developed with plastics / composites. Is the industry prepared for claims from our litigious and insurance-fraud fraught society - false or not - that a vehicle or component may have performed better in a crash situation if it had not been made of plastic / composite materials?
Novel Isocyanate-Based Resin Systems with Tunable Reaction Times
Daniel Heberer, Michael Connolly, Nick Limerkens, Eric Huygens, Johan Derllyn, September 2010
Newly developed isocyanate-based resin systems offer a combination of high thermal stability and toughness in a resin system that is easy to process and cure. This novel chemistry can be adapted to achieve low initial viscosity long open times and snap-cure profiles at elevated temperatures. The benefits of these resins lead to applications in a number of composite manufacturing processes.
Technology Development for Automotive Composite Part Production - New Materials and Processes
Frank Henning, September 2010
The presentation will introduce a large network and cluster forming in Germany to provide a strong initiative that increases the use of composites in the automotive industry. Also discussed will be an overview of the technologies that have been selected by industry to be further developed to meet the requirements of the automotive industry.
Leveraging Government Money to Drive Innovation in Materials
Susan Ward, September 2010
With an uncertain economy creativity is necessary to uncover new stable RandD growth opportunities. One possibility may be to explore opportunities with the federal government. In 2009 the U.S. government increased the research and development spend 16% resulting in an unprecedented $171B budget. More than 60% of this funding is through contracts with business universities and non-profits. Whether the initiatives are with medical devices drug delivery alternative energy smart infrastructure applications improved transportation solutions or defense applications materials development is the backbone for maintaining the U.S. technical leadership position. By leveraging some of this funding a company can help mitigate risk in developing new technology products and markets.
Structural Performance Evaluation of Composite-to-Steel Weld Bonded Joint
Bhavesh Shah, September 2010
One of the critical challenges for the structural underbody program was finding a way to attach the composite part to the steel structure in a high-volume automotive manufacturing environment and meet the complex requirements for crash. Weld bonding a combination of adhesive bonding and spot welding was selected as the primary joining method. A novel concept of bonding doubler steel strips to the composite enabled spot welding to the steel structure ensuring the compatibility with the OEM assembly processes. The structural performance of the joint including durability was assessed via analytical and physical testing under various quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. This paper discusses the results of the experiments designed to generate key modeling parameters for finite-element analysis of the joint and presents the correlation between experimental and analytical results.
Methods of Making 3-Dimensional Shaped Composite Structures
Parvinder Walia, September 2010
Shaped composite structures (specifically sandwich panels) are made by the combination of cold forming of thermoplastic foam core and thermoset processing of skins. This combination is ideally suited since the thermoset processing conditions are in a range that keeps the foamed core intact while simultaneously allowing the cold forming to be achieved. This technology affords a unique avenue to create sandwich and other composite structures that have curvilinear shape and 3-dimensionality via a single processing step that uses existing processing technology. Various process embodiments are described in this paper. This work discusses shaped foam composites and methods for manufacturing such composites.
Nano Graphene Platelets (NGPs) and NGP Nanocomposites: A Review
Bor Zang, September 2010
The nanoscale graphene platelet (NGP) or graphene nano-sheet is an emerging class of nano materials and can be a low-cost alternative to CNTs and carbon nano-fibers (CNFs). Graphene’s applications as a nano filler in a composite material and as a functional ingredient in an energy system (supercapacitor battery and fuel cell) are imminent. However the availability of processable graphene sheets in large quantities is essential to the success in exploiting composite and other applications for graphene. This presentation begins by a review of the current processes for producing NGPs and their composites and is followed by a discussion on the new advances in materials processes and applications related to NGPs and their nanocomposites.
Graphene Nanoplatelet Additives for Multifunctional Composite Materials
Lawrence Drzal, September 2010
With the emphasis on alternative energy vehicles the need for materials that are not only structural but possess other desirable properties such as electrical conductivity thermal conductivity and barrier properties is increasingly important. Nanocomposites are opening up “windows of opportunity” to not only increase structural properties but also the non-structural surface electrical thermal and barrier properties. Graphite (graphene) nanoplatelets are a new cost-effective nanomaterial that can be used as an additive to polymers and composites to impart multifunctionality without the need for developing new or alternative processing and manufacturing methods. Examples in thermoset and thermoplastic systems -- with and without macro reinforcing fibers -- will be used to illustrate the potential of this nanomaterial.
Mesoporous Silicate Particles (MSP) for Improving Performance and Productivity in Various Composite and Polymer Formulations
Mike Brooks, September 2010
This presentation focuses on a new silicate mesoporous nanoparticle technology which will bring significant productivity and performance benefits to both thermoset and thermoplastic moldings by increasing mechanical properties of neat resins imparting greater flame retardance and reducing processing cycle times. The particles’ intrinsic porous structure allows polymer chains to link the particles into a 3D network improving both strength and modulus at very-low particle loadings (typically 5.0 to 7.5 wt %). The technology does not require organic surface modification to achieve dispersion in the polymer matrix nor does it require retrofitting of processing equipment or modification in processing methods.
CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRGIN-RPET COMPOSITES
Greg Curtzwiler , Keith L. Vorst , Wyatt Brown , J. Singh, May 2010
Thermoformed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) produce trays (clamshells) produced by a large retail supplier using virgin resin were compared to PET clamshells containing 30, 70, or 100% recycled-PET (RPET). Comparisons were made of functional groups, ultravioletvisible (UV-Vis) light absorption, and thermal properties. An increase in the crystallization temperature was observed as RPET increased when compared to virgin PET. This suggests that the crystallization temperature (Tc) may be used as a quantitative indicator for determining the amount of RPET in a plastic composite.
SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLA/PHBV FOAMS
Esther Richards , Reza Rizvi , Andrew Chow , Hani Naguib, May 2010
This paper examines the effect that blending two biodegradable polymers has on the thermal properties and morphology of the resultant foams blown with carbon dioxide (CO2). Polylactic acid (PLA) Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) and blends of both were foamed and characterized in terms of thermal characteristics relative density cell size and foam morphology. The results indicate that although PLA and PHBV are immiscible the presence of small quantities of PHBV could lead to low density foams with finer more uniform cells.
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PLUG ' ASSIST THERMOFORMING
Hossein Hosseini , Boris V. Berdyshev , Ekaterina M. Kromskaya, May 2010
Plug-assist thermoforming is a well known technique in polymer processing due to its interesting features. The dynamic value of driving-force for the stretching process is determined based on equilibrium equation. This amount of force is required for applying to a plug in order to stretch a sheet. It is used for calculation of the required theoretical work, and power of a plug-assist thermoforming process. By using a non-linear viscoelastic rheological model in the proposed mathematical model, its validity was examined by performing experimental tests on ABS sheets.
ADDITIVE PROCESSING ƒ??NEW MATERIALS FOR FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING
Bettina Wendel , Claus M. Dallner , Ernst Schmachtenberg, May 2010
Additive processes are increasingly used to generate functional components in almost any geometry layer by layer directly from CAD-files without using tools and molds. Within the scope of this paper it is shown how the limited variety of materials can be extended for fused deposition modelling to reach new areas of application and how these new materials are to be manufactured. First functional prototypes could successfully be produced and characterized.
ADDITIVE PROCESSING – NEW MATERIALS FOR FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING
Bettina Wendel , Claus M. Dallner , Ernst Schmachtenberg, May 2010
Additive processes are increasingly used to generate functional components in almost any geometry layer by layer directly from CAD-files without using tools and molds. Within the scope of this paper it is shown how the limited variety of materials can be extended for fused deposition modelling to reach new areas of application and how these new materials are to be manufactured. First functional prototypes could successfully be produced and characterized.


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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
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