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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
STYRENIC COPOLYMERS CONTAINING OLIGO(OXY ETHYLENE) SIDE CHAINS
S. C. Chen, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Lee, J. S. Huang, S. H. Wang, Y. H. Lin, May 2010
Novel styrenic copolymers containing oligo(oxyethylene) groups are designed, synthesized and characterized using different analytical techniques. While they are used as compatibilizers in engineering polymer blend systems they could potentially impart improved flow and surface properties e.g., antistatic, antidust properties.
A NEW FAMILY OF FLAME RETARDANT POLYMERS AND ADDITIVES
Erik Dunkerley, Daniel F. Schmidt, May 2010
Polyphosphonates are a new family of polymeric, flame-resistant oligomers and polymers that can be used in demanding applications both as FR additives and stand-alone plastics. Polyphosphonate plastics have the highest LOI of any of the thermoplastic-processable polymers. These materials are inherently flame retardant and can be used in a broad variety of polymer systems, including thermoplastic and thermosetting. Being both halogen-free and polymeric, polyphosphonates are unique in the area of flame retardants.
INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS AND POLYMER CHARACTERISTICS ON SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY OF SMALL BORE TUBES
Peng Xiang-fang, Peng Jun, Xie Xiao-li, Turng Lih-Sheng, May 2010
The topography of the inner surface of small bore extruded tubes used in fluid handling applications can affect flow rates, fluid turbulence and biofilm adherence. Quantitative surface roughness analysis of tubes manufactured from different polymers has shown that the inner surface topography is related to the polymer molecular variables, rheological properties and extrusion processing conditions. Surface energy analysis of these surfaces has also been shown to be related to polymer type as well as surface roughness.
A UNIFIED MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF IONOMERS
Brian P. Grady, May 2010
A comprehensive description will be provided for ionic aggregates in ionomers for those cations that are strongly segregated (e.g. ionomers neutralized with transition metals). The fundamental structure of aggregates is planar, and the various morphologies that have been seen in TEM and suggested from SAXS data are due to rolling of the planes (e.g. similar to nanotubes) to reduce the number of edge atoms.
THE EFFECTS OF MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE ON THE HIGH FREQUENCY DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS
Lecon Woo, William Anderson, May 2010
The Effects of Moisture and Temperature on the High Frequency Dielectric Properties of Engineering Thermoplastics
RESEARCHES ON MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE/POLYAMIDE-6/ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Hai-bin Zhao, Xiang-fang Peng, May 2010
The mechanical properties and morphology of polypropylene/ polyamide-6/organoclay nanocomposites were studied. It was shown that the addition of clay improved impact strength and flexural strength but made little effort on tensile strength. Organoclay had influence on crystalline property of PP and PA6 and improved the compatibility of PP/PA6 blends.
BENCHMARKING FRACTOGRAPHIC FEATURES USING HOUSEHOLD PRODUCT FAILURES
Niles G. Stenmark, May 2010
Several failures that occurred to plastic products used at the home of the author were selected for study of their fracture surfaces. The failed parts included a bicycle fender a rack for drying sweaters and a magnetic refrigerator clip. All of the failed parts were fabricated from styrenic-based polymers. This paper will focus on connecting the known service conditions of the failed parts to the unique patterns observed on the fracture surfaces.
ULTRASOUND ASSISTED MELT PROCESSING OF LCP/CNF NANOCOMPOSITES
Rishi Kumar , Avraam I. Isayev, May 2010
Ultrasound assisted twin screw extrusion process was developed to disperse carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in a polymer matrix. CNFs were separately added into the melt stage to reduce the breakage of CNFs and to avoid intense stresses in the feed zone. The effect of ultrasound and CNFs loading on die pressure, rheological, mechanical, electrical and morphological properties of liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) filled with 2-20 wt% CNFs was studied.Ultrasonic treatment caused a reduction in die pressure with decrease in electrical percolation threshold value of treated samples.
WEB-BASED NAVIGATING SYSTEM FOR MOLD- QUOTATION
Eldridge M. Mount III, May 2010
This work is to make the quotation of injection mold to be easy and transparent. This web-based mold-quotation system is integrated with conceptual design in CAD tool. It systemizes and customizes each step of mold quotation. After the user decide the number of cavities and choose the suitable moldbase, he can follow the navigating steps to design gates, slides, inserts, and lifters on the CAD model. After the manufacturing processes for each component is decided, the system can calculate the machining time and cost intuitively. Finally, a detailed material and machining quotation report can be generated automatically.
METALLIZER CONDITIONS IMPACT ON LAMINATION BOND STRENGTH OF METALLIZED OPP
Eldridge M. Mount III, May 2010
Metallized films are used extensively in flexible packaging to supply light moisture and oxygen barrier. Generally the film is laminated to a printed web to protect the metal and to add functionality and product identification information. It is desired that the lamination bond strength be high and uniform. This study shows that metallization conditions have an impact on extrusion lamination bond strengths and highlights the impact of lamination conditions on metal crazing.
METALLIZER CONDITIONS IMPACT ON LAMINATION BOND STRENGTH OF METALLIZED OPP
Eldridge M. Mount III, May 2010
Metallized films are used extensively in flexible packaging to supply light, moisture and oxygen barrier. Generally the film is laminated to a printed web to protect the metal and to add functionality and product identification information. It is desired that the lamination bond strength be high and uniform. This study shows that metallization conditions have an impact on extrusion lamination bond strengths and highlights the impact of lamination conditions on metal crazing.
EXPERIMENTS WITH DUAL-PRESSURE ULTRASONIC WELDING OF THERMOPLASTICS
Abbass Mokhtarzadeh, Avraham Benatar, May 2010
Ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics is a popular joining technique because it is fast, economical and easily automated. It has been observed that during welding, rapid squeeze out of the molten energy director occurs, resulting in lower weld strength. Therefore, single and dual-pressure ultrasonic welding were compared to see if weld strength could be improved. It was found that for dual-pressure ultrasonic welding it was better to have a higher second pressure than a lower second pressure. However, using dual-pressure ultrasonic welding resulted in no improvement in weld strength.
THERMAL-INDUCED TRANSFORMATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYBUTENE-1
Lubomír Benícek , Lenka Chvátalová , Roman Cermák , Vincent Verney, May 2010
The work directs attention towards the influence of annealing temperature on transformation of polymorphic composition and mechanical properties of isotactic polybutene-1 (PB-1). For these purposes three different commercial-available grades of PB-1 were chosen.Specimens prepared by injection molding were annealed at given temperature (-22 +6 +22 +40 and +60 ?øC) in the interval from 0 to 48 days. The changes in structure and properties were followed by tensile testing. A nonmonotonic evolution of tensile properties was observed.
ANALYZING EXTRUDER ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Kirk M. Cantor, May 2010
An experiment was conducted to measure the energy consumed during extruder runs with two different polymers (one crystalline and one amorphous), each utilizing three different screw designs. Energy contributions from the individual heating zones on the extruder were measured and analyzed. Also, the energy consumed by the motor was measured to provide comparison of the contributions from the heaters and the motor. Results show value both in analyzing material behavior and in evaluating screw performance from an economic and a productivity standpoint.
APPLICATIONS OF PHOTO DSC AND UV-DMA TO OPTICALLY CURED MATERIALS.
Kevin Menard , Andrew Salamon , Witold Brostow , Noah Menard , W. Chonkaew , Carmem Pffiefer , Sherman Newman, May 2010
The application of DSC and DMA to photo-initiated reactions specifically curing and degradations are discussed. The influence of the light source its duration and intensity are investigated in regards to the final properties of the material. The use of Hyper DSC techniques as well as simultaneous DMA-NIR in the study of optically cured materials is discussed.
APPLICATIONS OF PHOTO DSC AND UV-DMA TO OPTICALLY CURED MATERIALS.
Kevin Menard , Andrew Salamon , Witold Brostow , Noah Menard , W. Chonkaew , Carmem Pffiefer , Sherman Newman, May 2010
The application of DSC and DMA to photo-initiated reactions, specifically curing and degradations, are discussed. The influence of the light source, its duration and intensity are investigated in regards to the final properties of the material. The use of Hyper DSC techniques as well as simultaneous DMA-NIR in the study of optically cured materials is discussed.
A STUDY OF ELECTROSPUN POLYCAPROLACTONE (PCL) FIBERS FOR POSSIBLE BIO-ABSORBABLE MESH REPLACEMENT IN VAGINAL SURGERY
Sandeep Manandhar , Nandika D’Souza , Philippe Zimmern, May 2010
The importance of electrospun fibers as tissue scaffolds has been an area of significant growth. In this work, we will utilize electrospinning in conjunction with a biodegradable polymer, Polycaprolactone (PCL) to make thin fibers. These PCL fibers can be made into a mesh for tissue scaffolds. Electrospinning utilizes electrostatic force to draw fibers from solution.
CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENES
Ken Miyata, Yuuki Ichikawa, Keiji Katsuno, Akihiro Nishioka, Tomonori Koda, Go Murasawa, May 2010
Tyco Electronics has over fifty years of experience in the field of radiation crosslinked polymers. We have incorporated the use of rheological and solvent swelling techniques to characterize crosslinked networks. Insufficient beam dose or processing errors can result in materials that appear crosslinked upon initial testing, but are not fully crosslinked. We evaluated various characterization methods on three different morphologies of polyethylene (HDPE, LDPE and VLDPE). Each method had its own strengths and limitations.
PROPERTIES OF MELT STRENGTH ON BLENDS OF POLYPROPYLENE /POLYAMIDE-6/ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Huang Guo-wang , Peng Xiang-fang , Xia Hua-Xin , Xie Xiao-li, May 2010
The present study was devoted to the effect of nanoparticle on melt strength of blends. And the reinforcing mechanism of PP/PA6/organoclay nanocomposites had been investigated by DSC and SEM analysis. The results showed that the maximal melt strength existed and appeared as the weight ratio of organoclay was 2 wt%. In addition blends presented the best integrated properties at this ratio.
PROPERTIES OF MELT STRENGTH ON BLENDS OF POLYPROPYLENE/POLYAMIDE-6/ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Huang Guo-wang , Peng Xiang-fang , Xia Hua-Xin , Xie Xiao-li, May 2010
The present study was devoted to the effect of nanoparticle on melt strength of blends. And the reinforcing mechanism of PP/PA6/organoclay nanocomposites had been investigated by DSC and SEM analysis. The results showed that the maximal melt strength existed and appeared as the weight ratio of organoclay was 2 wt%. In addition, blends presented the best integrated properties at this ratio.


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